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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1452 matches for " Mandy Lange "
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Clustering by Fuzzy Neural Gas and Evaluation of Fuzzy Clusters
Tina Geweniger,Lydia Fischer,Marika Kaden,Mandy Lange,Thomas Villmann
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/165248
Abstract: We consider some modifications of the neural gas algorithm. First, fuzzy assignments as known from fuzzy c-means and neighborhood cooperativeness as known from self-organizing maps and neural gas are combined to obtain a basic Fuzzy Neural Gas. Further, a kernel variant and a simulated annealing approach are derived. Finally, we introduce a fuzzy extension of the ConnIndex to obtain an evaluation measure for clusterings based on fuzzy vector quantization. 1. Introduction Prototype based vector quantization (VQ) is an approved method to cluster and compress very large data sets. Prototype based implies that the data are represented by a much smaller number of prototypes. Famous methods are c-means [1], self-organizing maps (SOM) [2], and neural gas (NG) [3]. These methods have in common that each data point is uniquely assigned to its closest prototype. Therefore, they are also called crisp vector quantizers. Yet, in practical applications, data are often overlapping making it hard to separate clusters. For this kind of data fuzzy vector quantizing, algorithms have been developed, for example, fuzzy c-means (FCM) [4] and fuzzy SOM (FSOM) [5]. Now, each datapoint can be partially assigned to each prototype. The FSOM is an extension of the FCM taking the neighborhood cooperativeness into account. Yet, as common to SOM, this neighborhood is bound to an external topological structure like a grid. In this paper we combined FCM with NG, thus exploiting the advantages of each: fuzziness from FCM and dynamic neighborhood cooperativeness without structural restrictions from NG. Our new approach is called Fuzzy Neural Gas (FNG). Beside its basic functionality we also introduce some variations of FNG. First, we propose the kernel fuzzy neural gas (KFNG) where we consider differentiable kernels to adapt the metric. This allows the algorithm to operate in the same structural space as support vector machines (SVM) [6], which are known to deliver respectable results [7]. In [6], it has been shown that this modified optimization space is equivalent and isometric to a reproducing kernel Hilbert or Banach space, which proves to be beneficial for unsupervised VQ, that is also for FNG. For another variant of FNG we were inspired by simulated annealing (SA), a method which allows temporary deterioration of an optimization process to stabilize its long term behavior. To obtain an SA-like approach, we introduce negative learning and call the new method pulsing Neural Gas (PNG). The idea can also be transferred to FNG resulting in Pulsing Fuzzy Neural Gas (PFNG). Clustering in
A Complimentary Ministry? The Psychological Type of Clergy Women in the Church in Wales  [PDF]
Mandy Robbins
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.615192
Abstract: The debate around the admission of women to the ministry of the Anglican churches has focused on a number of issues, not least, the extent to which women bring “balance” to ministry (see for example Furlong, 1991). Balance, when used in this context is usually seen as bringing different gifts to ministry. The assumption often made is that these “different gifts” will be those traditionally associated with women such as work with children. This argument has been employed by both those for and against the entry of women into holy orders (Harris & Shaw, 2004; Baker, 2004). Benjamin Schneider’s attraction-selection-attrition theory suggests that the group of people within an organisation move toward homogeneity. Schneider’s theory would suggest that the argument that women bring balance to ministry would not be supported. The current study employs psychological type theory to explore whether clergywomen in the Church in Wales do bring “balance” to ministry or “homogeneity”. The psychological type profile of a sample of 75 Church in Wales clergywomen measured by the Francis Psychological Type Scales (FPTS) is compared with a sample of 266 Church in Wales clergymen (Francis, Payne, & Robbins, 2013). The findings present no significant differences between the clergymen and clergywomen with regard to their judging function, perceiving function, orientation to the outer world or attitude toward the outer world. This finding lends support to Schneider’s theory. The implications of these findings for ministry in the Church in Wales are discussed.
The multikinase inhibitor Sorafenib displays significant antiproliferative effects and induces apoptosis via caspase 3, 7 and PARP in B- and T-lymphoblastic cells
Catrin Schult, Meike Dahlhaus, Sabine Ruck, Mandy Sawitzky, Francesca Amoroso, Sandra Lange, Daniela Etro, Aenne Glass, Georg Fuellen, Sonja Boldt, Olaf Wolkenhauer, Luca Neri, Mathias Freund, Christian Junghanss
BMC Cancer , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-10-560
Abstract: ALL cell lines (SEM, RS4;11 and Jurkat) were treated with Sorafenib alone or in combination with cytarabine, doxorubicin or RAD001. Cell count, apoptosis and necrosis rates, cell cycle distribution, protein phosphorylation and metabolic activity were determined.Sorafenib inhibited the proliferation of ALL cells by cell cycle arrest accompanied by down-regulation of CyclinD3 and CDK4. Furthermore, Sorafenib initiated apoptosis by cleavage of caspases 3, 7 and PARP. Apoptosis and necrosis rates increased significantly with most pronounced effects after 96 h. Antiproliferative effects of Sorafenib were associated with a decreased phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473 and Thr308), FoxO3A (Thr32) and 4EBP-1 (Ser65 and Thr70) as early as 0.5 h after treatment. Synergistic effects were seen when Sorafenib was combined with other cytotoxic drugs or a mTOR inhibitor emphasizing the Sorafenib effect.Sorafenib displays significant antileukemic activity in vitro by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, it influences PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in ALL cells.Acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL) can occur during childhood and more rarely during adulthood. Especially adult patients still have a grave prognosis following conventional chemotherapies despite progress in the treatment during recent years. Therefore, risk adapted therapy approaches have been developed including allogenic stem cell transplantation as well as targeted therapies. In particular, CD20 antibody treatment has been successfully introduced in B-ALL [1]. In addition, signal transduction inhibitors such as the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Imatinib have been used in BCR-ABL positive ALL patients leading to improved response rates [2,3]. Investigation of further targeted therapy approaches e.g. inhibition of signaling pathways is aiming at inhibiting other dysregulated tyrosine kinases or transcription factors.Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor targeting Raf serine/threonine kinases as well as different receptor
Replacement of a Cuticular Apophysisin Larval Sarcopha Bullata(Diptera, Insecta) During Moulting
Mandy Kotzman
Psyche , 1989, DOI: 10.1155/1989/59798
Abstract:
Quality Education and the Marketplace: An Exploration of Neoliberalism and its Impact on Higher Education
Mandy Frake
Brock Education : a Journal of Educational Research and Practice , 2010,
Abstract: This paper is an in attempt to open discussion about the impact of globalization and theories of neoliberalism on higher education. More specifically, viewing higher education institutions as a market place, where the more a product costs, the greater supply and quality of the product should be received; the quality of education received by university students should also reflect this. Considering the conflict between teaching and research in higher education, quality of education becomes questionable. This paper explores issues of neoliberalism resulting in a greater demand for the completion of research in higher education institutions. Furthermore, the imperialism of higher education leading towards the demand for more research, the teaching versus research nexus within universities, and discussion of how these theories impact international students will be examined throughout this paper
Quantitative Convergence for Cerebral Processing of Information within the Geomagnetic Environment  [PDF]
Mandy A. Scott, Michael A. Persinger
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2013.43036
Abstract:

Human cerebral systems are immersed in the earth’s magnetic field. To be consistent with the results of several correlational studies, we found that the most accurate detection of information at 50 m occurred when the geomagnetic activity was ~5 nT. The corresponding magnetic energy within the cerebral volume is equivalent to approximately 3 million bits of Landauer Limit quantum which is equivalent to low resolution photographs. Non-linear analyses indicated that the induced electric fields from the typical time variation of geomagnetic intensity converged with the Adey voltages for the threshold for background entropy. The relevance of signal/noise ratios and the recent evidence indicate that imagery and cognition may actually reflect fields of biophotons within a fixed volume, which indicates that a natural processing system may be occurring under very specific conditions that involves detection of recondite information at a distance.

Walking and Aerobic Capacity in Old Adults after Concentric and Eccentric Endurance Exercise at Self-Selected Intensities  [PDF]
Mandy L. Gault, Mark E. T. Willems
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.68085
Abstract: Self-selected exercise intensity can be a useful exercise prescription tool for older adults; however, it is not known if it can elicit improvements in walking and aerobic capacity. In older adults, effects of concentric or eccentric endurance exercise at self-selected walking speed were examined on 1-mile indoor walk performance, predicted maximum oxygen uptake and physiological parameters. Twenty-four older adults (67 ± 4 years) completed 3 × 30 min treadmill walks per week for 12-weeks on level (LTW, n = 11, 0%) or downhill (DTW, n = 13, ﹣10%) treadmill gradient at a self- selected speed, which progressed every 4 weeks. Maximal oxygen uptake was predicted using a 1-mile walk at 4-week intervals with physiological responses recorded using a portable metabolic system. One-mile walking speed increased from baseline following 8- and 12-weeks (12 weeks: LTW: 13% ± 6%, DTW: 14% ± 9%, P < 0.01). Both groups increased predicted maximal oxygen uptake following 8-weeks of walking (LTW: 15% ± 15%; DTW: 23% ± 30%, P < 0.01). At 12-weeks, the 1-mile walk was performed with higher heart rates and minute ventilation (P < 0.01). It is concluded that an exercise programme of concentric or eccentric endurance exercise, at self-selected exercise intensity, is sufficient to elicit similar improvements in maximum oxygen uptake.
Responses of Macroinvertebrate Community Metrics to a Wastewater Discharge in the Upper Blue River of Kansas and Missouri, USA  [PDF]
Barry C. Poulton, Jennifer L. Graham, Teresa J. Rasmussen, Mandy L. Stone, Mandy L. Stone
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.715098
Abstract: The Blue River Main wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) discharges into the upper Blue River (725 km2), and is recently upgraded to implement biological nutrient removal. We measured biotic condition upstream and downstream of the discharge utilizing the macroinvertebrate protocol developed for Kansas streams. We examined responses of 34 metrics to determine the best indicators for discriminating site differences and for predicting biological condition. Significant differences between sites upstream and downstream of the discharge were identified for 15 metrics in April and 12 metrics in August. Upstream biotic condition scores were significantly greater than scores at both downstream sites in April (p = 0.02), and in August the most downstream site was classified as non-biologically supporting. Thirteen EPT taxa (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera) considered intolerant of degraded stream quality were absent at one or both downstream sites. Increases in tolerance metrics and filtering macroinvertebrates, and a decline in ratio of scrapers to filterers all indicated effects of increased nutrient enrichment. Stepwise regressions identified several significant models containing a suite of metrics with low redundancy (R2 = 0.90 - 0.99). Based on the rapid decline in biological condition downstream of the discharge, the level of nutrient removal resulting from the facility upgrade (10% - 20%) was not enough to mitigate negative effects on macroinvertebrate communities.
Cancer Immunothearapy More than Vaccines “Psychoneuro-Immunooncology: Cancer, the Host, and the Surgeon”  [PDF]
Robert Lange Elliott
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.23055
Abstract: Cancer immunology is extremely complex with numerous interactions between the tumor and the host. It is time for those that treat cancer, especially surgeons, to learn more about these complex interactions. We need to know more about host immunity and immunosuppressive mechanisms which are not directly related to the disease, but caused by stress and therapy of the disease. The diagnosis of cancer initiates stress that can be very detrimental to the host immune system. Most cancer physicians (surgical, medical, and radiation oncologist) do not appreciate the impact on host cell mediated immunity (CMI) caused by cancer therapy, and definitely do not know how devastating, psychic stress is on host immunity. This communication is an attempt to bring awareness to this problem.
Support for obesity policy: The effect of perceptions of causes for obesity and national identity in Canada  [PDF]
Ryan Lange, Guy Faulkner
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.24067
Abstract: Interventions in Canada to address obesity have largely been limited to individual-level change through education rather than a population-level public policy approach. Little is known about obesity policy support in Canada, and substantial national variation in obesity policy support prevents direct transferability of these policies among nations. Our study recruited 521 young adults for an online survey through leaflets and flyers. We investigated how respondents’ demographics, health characteristics, political attitudes, beliefs regarding causes of obesity, and national identity affected their support for obesity policy. Results showed that there is high support for many obesity policies among Canadian young adults. Including Canadian national identity in regression models was significant in explaining obesity policy support beyond the combined effect of other predictors. Further exploration of national identity, in Canada and elsewhere, has implications for understanding obesity policy support that might assist policy makers in making more informed decisions in addressing obesity.
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