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Study of the Molecular Mechanism of Anti-inflammatory Activity of Bee venom in Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages
PD Lam, PK Mandal, SY Hak, S-G Hwang
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2010,
Abstract: Purpose: Bee venom (BV) is traditionally used in many inflammatory chronic conditions but its mechanism of action at molecular level is not fully understood. This study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of action of bee venom at the molecular level Methods: We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in Raw 264.7 macrophage (RM) cells and studied the effect of BV on cell proliferation, inflammation related protein expression by western blotting and RNA expression by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Bee venom was toxic to RM cells above10 μg/ml but reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) at 2–10 μg/ml in LPS stimulated RM cells by inhibiting the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxigenase (COX)-2 via nuclear factor (NF)-κB. However, bee venom also induced the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1β via p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) which is known to stimulate inflammatory activity. Conclusion: It seems that NFκB and p38 MAPK signal pathways are involved in triggering the functional activation of LPS-stimulated macrophage. We suggest that some components of bee venom can cause inflammation by inducing IL-1β via p38 MAPK while others act as anti-inflammatory by suppressing iNOS and COX2 via NFκB.
A Comparative Study on the Effects of Comprehensive Rehabilitation in Uncomplicated Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Patients from Rural and Urban India
Chakraborty K,Das KM,Iswarari S,Mandal PK
Indian Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation , 2007,
Abstract: Objectives: This study intended to compare the effect of comprehensive rehabilitation in uncomplicatedcoronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients from rural and urban India using a low-cost, home-basedrehabilitation programme. The outcome measures were MET Scores measured by Treadmill Test, 6-MinuteWalking Distances (6-MWD) and Quality of Life Indices measured by the WHOQoL-BREF Questionnaire.Methods : Patients fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled from amongst those scheduledto undergo CABG. A baseline evaluation, laboratory examination and pre-operative counselling were done.Following CABG, a graded rehabilitation programme consisting of drugs, prescribed exercise, diet,therapeutic lifestyle changes, and sexual rehabilitation was implemented and continued for 4 months afterdischarge, with periodic monitoring and follow-up.Results : 52 patients participated in the study, 43 of whom went on to complete it. There were significantimprovements in the MET Scores, 6-MWDs and all domains of quality of life in both the groups (p < 0.001),compared to baseline values, but no statistical difference between the groups.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that comprehensive rehabilitation following CABG using even a lowcost,home-based programme caused significant improvement in the work capacity and quality of life ofboth rural and urban Indian population.
Fatigue, Physical Function and Quality of Life in Relation to Disease Activity in Established Rheumatoid Arthritis
Barman A,Chatterjee A,Das KM,Mandal PK
Indian Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives: This study was intended to find out therelationship of fatigue, functional disability and Health-Related Quality Of Life (HRQOL) with disease activityin adult patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA)and to observe the effect of rehabilitation programme onthese parameters.Material and Methods: 106 patients participated and 96completed the study. Disease Activity Score-28 (DAS-28), visual analogue scale for pain and fatigue,Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue Scale (MAF),Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), AmericanCollege of Rheumatology revised criteria for functionalstatus classification, World Health Organization QualityOf Life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF) wereadministered. A comprehensive rehabilitation programmecomprising pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapywas continued for 6 months.Results: Mean VAS fatigue, DAS28 & HAQ scores were45.68, 5.14 and 1.16 respectively. Significant correlation(Pearson’s r =0.82, p<0.05; r=0.75, p<0.05; r=0.85,p=<0.05) between the disease activity and the value ofthe VAS Fatigue, Global Fatigue (MAF) and HAQ scorerespectively and inverse co-relation between quality oflife (QOL) domain scores and disease activity wereobserved. Similar results were also found in the final visit.Comprehensive rehabilitation reduced the disease activity,fatigue, functional disability and improved QOL.Conclusion: High fatigue level, disability, pain anddecreased QOL characterized RA disease activity.Reduction of DAS, Fatigue, HAQ scores with treatmentimproved QOL.
Short Term Rehabilitative Outcome and its Predictors in Guillain Barré Syndrome
Chatterjee A,Barman A,Das KM,Mandal PK
Indian Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation , 2009,
Abstract: Clinical and electrophysiological data of 34 patientssuffering from Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS) wereanalyzed. Functional disability and predictors of outcomewas determined using Hugh’s scale and MedicalResearch Council (MRC) scale at 0, 2 and at 4 weeks.Good outcome was defined as the ability to ambulatewithout assistance. 56% patients were males with meanage of 18.41 years (SD ±13.88). Preceding illness wasseen in 76.5%. Mean days to disease nadir was 4.6 days.Weakness (50%) was the predominant chief complaint.Mechanical ventilation was required in 41.2 % patientswith a mortality of 7.1%. Independent ambulation wasachieved by 61.8% and 17.6% with support at the end ofstudy period. Increasing age (p<0.01), days to nadir(p=0.00), duration of ventilation (p<0.001), severity ofmotor deficit at disease nadir (p<0.001) and high Hugh’sscore (p=0.00) affected outcome. Mechanicallyventilated patients had poorer outcome. Although therecovery from severe GBS was prolonged, most survivorsregained independent ambulation.
Assessing cold chain status in a metro city of India: an intervention study
S Mallik, PK Mandal, C Chatterjee, P Ghosh, N Manna, D Chakrabarty, SN Bagchi, S Dasgupta
African Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Cold chain maintenance is an essential activity to maintain the potency of vaccines and to prevent adverse events following immunization. One baseline study highlighted the unsatisfactory cold chain status in city of Kolkata in India. Objectives: To assess the changes which occurred in the cold chain status after the intervention undertaken to improve the status and also to assess the awareness of the cold chain handlers regarding cold chain maintenance. Methods: Intervention consisted of reorganization of cold chain points and training of health manpower in Kolkata Municipal area regarding immunization and cold chain following the guidelines as laid by Govt of India. Reevaluation of cold chain status was done at 20 institutions selected by stratified systematic random sampling after the intervention. The results were compared with baseline survey. Results: Significant improvement had been observed in correct placing of cold chain equipment, maintenance of stock security, orderly placing of ice packs, diluents and vaccines inside the equipment, temperature recording and maintenance. But awareness and skill of cold chain handlers regarding basics of cold chain maintenance was not satisfactory. Conclusions: The success of intervention included significant improvement of cold chain status including creation of a designated cold chain handler. The gaps lay in non-availability of non-electrical cold chain equipment and separate cold chain room, policy makers should stress. Cold chain handlers need reorientation training regarding heat & cold sensitive vaccines, preventive maintenance and correct contingency plan.
Functional disability and associated chronic conditions among geriatric populations in a rural community of India
D Chakrabarty, PK Mandal, N Manna, S Mallik, P Ghosh, C Chatterjee, JC Sardar, M Sau, AKS Roy
Ghana Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Geriatric population and chronic diseases are increasing throughout the world especially in developing countries like India. Because of social change and urbanization, disability is also a problem in India. As the major reasons for geriatric disabilities are chronic diseases, a study was undertaken. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of different chronic diseases and disability among the geriatric population in a rural community of India and to determine the association between chronic diseases and disability of the geriatric population. Method: A cross-sectional, observational community based study was conducted in a rural area of West Bengal, India through house to house visit for Clinical examination, observation and interview with a pre-designed pre-tested proforma Results: Out of 495 study population, 80 (16.16%) were found to be functionally disabled as per ADL scale and more than half (56.2%) of them had 3 or more chronic conditions. 92.5% of study populations had one or more chronic conditions Conclusion: Association between different risk factors and disability was found with age, sex, anaemia, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases(C.O.P.D), scabies, hypertrophy of prostate, ischaemic heart disease, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and acid peptic disorder were the risk factors of disability. These data suggest the significant chronic conditions and risk factors associated with disability. Measures to reduce such chronic conditions and impairment would be the useful approach for the prevention of disability.
An Intervention Study in Malnutrition Among Infants in a Tribal Community of West Bengal
Mandal ON
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 2005,
Revisiting Laws of Black Hole Mechanics and Violation of Null Energy Condition  [PDF]
Susobhan Mandal
Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jhepgc.2019.51004
Abstract: Most of the important and powerful theorems in General Relativity such as singularity theorems and the theorems applied for null horizons depend strongly on the energy conditions. However, the energy conditions on which these theorems are based on, are beginning to look at less secure if one takes into accounts quantum effects which can violate these energy conditions. Even there are classical systems that can violate these energy conditions which would be problematic in validation of those theorems. In this article, we revisit to a class of such important theorems, the laws of black hole mechanics which are meant to be developed on null like killing horizons using null energy condition. Then we show some classical and quantum mechanical systems which violate null energy condition based on which the above theorem stands.
Broken Charges Associated with Classical Spacetime Symmetries under Canonical Transformation in Real Scalar Field Theory  [PDF]
Susobhan Mandal
Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jhepgc.2019.51009
Abstract: We know from Noether’s theorem that there is a conserved charge for every continuous symmetry. In General Relativity, Killing vectors describe the spacetime symmetries and to each such Killing vector field, we can associate conserved charge through stress-energy tensor of matter which is mentioned in the article. In this article, I show that under simple set of canonical transformation of most general class of Bogoliubov transformation between creation, annihilation operators, those charges associated with spacetime symmetries are broken. To do that, I look at stress-energy tensor of real scalar field theory (as an example) in curved spacetime and show how it changes under simple canonical transformation which is enough to justify our claim. Since doing Bogoliubov transformation is equivalent to coordinate transformation which according to Einstein’s equivalence principle is equivalent to turn on effect of gravity, therefore, we can say that under the effect of gravity those charges are broken.
Project Finance for Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria
PK Adigwe
African Research Review , 2012,
Abstract: Project financing is one of the best methods of seeking to acquire capitals Funds and other tools to finance a planned business activity which will yields profit in order to liquidate the procured fund. Financing project for SMES is carried out by Federal, States and some development Institutions. In Nigeria, project financing can be secured in Central bank of Nigeria, state governments, money deposits, and micro finance institutions. Provisions of basic infrastructure and increased funding of institutions meant to assist SMES will improve their conditions.
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