The purpose of closure of small dry tympanic membrane
perforations is to restore the continuity of the tympanic membrane in order to
improve hearing and decrease the incidence of middle ear infections. Small and
cost effective procedures like Chemical Cauterization and Fat Plug
Myringoplasty have been found to be effective in healing small central
perforations with significant hearing improvement. A study was carried out in 69
patients with central perforations in the Department of ENT, Gauhati Medical
College & Hospital for the duration of 1 year from August 11 to
July 12. Out of 69 patients, 36 underwent Chemical Cauterization and 33 Fat
Plug Myringoplasty. Pre-and post-operative hearing assessments of each
patient were done and statistically analyzed. The success rate was found to be
83.33% and 90.9% respectively. In both groups, there was
statistically significant hearing improvement with a P value 0.01. From our study, it was found
that the two procedures are simple, reliable and also lessened the morbidity of
the patient. Thus we recommend the use of these two official procedures for the
treatment of central perforations of tympanic membrane less than 5 mm.
Score-StoveTM a clean-burning cooking stove
that also generates electricity was tested using a pressurized kerosene burner.
The Score-Stove works on the principle of thermo-acoustics to gen- erate
small-scale electricity. The device having hot-end, cold-end and regenerator
acts in a way similar to a stirling cycle generating acoustic power, which is
then converted to electricity using a linear actuator. It can supply small
power for applications such as LED lighting, mobile phone charging and radios
particularly in rural areas without grid electricity as well as improving house-
hold air pollution. After assessing the needs of the rural communities through
a survey, tea-stalls and small restaurants owners were identified as clients
with the most potential of using the stove in Bangladesh. Bangladesh University
of Engineering and Technology ((BUET) modified a Score- Stove to use both wood
and a pressurized kerosene burner of a design that is widely used for cooking
in rural areas of Bangladesh. The design was adapted to meet performance needs
such as: heating rate, cooking efficiency, energy distribution, electric power
generation, exhaust emissions and time taken to boil water using standardized water
boiling tests. Performance was also compared with conventional
(non-electrically generating) stoves that use a pressurized kerosene burn- er.
The Score-Stove performance was then evaluated while increasing the pressure of
the sealed working fluid (air in this case) from atmospheric to about 1.4 bar.
The pressurization was found to almost double the power generation. An
arrangement for utilizing cooling water waste heat was also devised in order to
improve the thermal performance of the stove by 18%. Technical deficiencies are
documented and recommendations for improvements and future research in order to
obtain wider end-user acceptance are made.