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Sanitary Survey in Gondar Town
Mengesha Admassu, Mamo Wubshet, Tesfaye Tilaye
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2003,
Abstract: Background: The health and well being of population is directly affected by extremely low coverage of water supply and sanitation. Objectives: This study aims to assess the environmental sanitation status of Gondar town. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on the basis of the administrative structure of the town. The town was stratified into high density and low-density areas from which households were selected randomly from each stratum. A structured questionnaire was used for the household survey. Results: There is a relatively high risk of exposure to poor environmental conditions in high population than low population density area. The association between educational status and income with availability of latrine was statistically significant, the literates and the economically better-off have a better sanitary facility. Excreta disposal facilities are generally inadequate and poorly maintained. The per capita water consumption was 12 liters/day, which is very low when compared to 30-40 liters per day for urban residents, as per the WHO standard. Conclusion and recommendation: This study found that the sanitary status of the town to be poor. Thus, the municipality should give priority attention to improve the sanitary conditions in the town. Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2003;(3):215-219
High Loss to Followup and Early Mortality Create Substantial Reduction in Patient Retention at Antiretroviral Treatment Program in North-West Ethiopia
Mamo Wubshet,Yemane Berhane,Alemayehu Worku,Yigzaw Kebede
ISRN AIDS , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/721720
Death and Seeking Alternative Therapy Largely Accounted for Lost to Follow-up of Patients on ART in Northwest Ethiopia: A Community Tracking Survey
Mamo Wubshet, Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku, Yigzaw Kebede
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059197
Abstract: Background Antiretroviral treatment programs in sub-Saharan African countries are highly affected by LTF. Tracking patients lost to follow-up and understanding their status is essential to maintain program quality and to develop targeted interventions to prevent LTF. We aimed to determine the outcome and factors associated with LTF. Method A lost to follow-up community tracking survey was conducted to determine the reasons, outcomes and factors associated with LTF at the University of Gondar Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. All patients were tracked at home to ascertain outcome status for lost to follow-up (death and non-death losses). Result Out of the 551 patients LTF, 486 (88.20%) were successfully tracked. Death was the most common reason accounted for 233 (47.94%) of the lost to follow-up. Reasons for non-deaths losses include: stopped antiretroviral treatment due to different reasons, 135(53.36%), and relocation to another antiretroviral treatment program by self- transfer, 118(46.64%). The rate of mortality in the first six months was 72.12 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 61.80–84.24) but this sharply decreased after 12 months to 7.92 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 4.44–14.41). Baseline clinical characteristics were strongly associated with mortality. Conclusion Death accounts for about half of the loss to follow up. Most deaths occur in the first six months of loss. Seeking alternative therapy is another major reason for loss to follow up. Early tracking mechanisms are necessary to prevent death.
High Loss to Followup and Early Mortality Create Substantial Reduction in Patient Retention at Antiretroviral Treatment Program in North-West Ethiopia
Mamo Wubshet,Yemane Berhane,Alemayehu Worku,Yigzaw Kebede,Ermias Diro
ISRN AIDS , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/721720
Abstract: Background. There has been a rapid scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Ethiopia since 2005. We aimed to evaluate mortality, loss to followup, and retention in care at HIV Clinic, University of Gondar Hospital, north-west Ethiopia. Method. A retrospective patient chart record analysis was performed on adult AIDS patients enrolled in the treatment program starting from 1 March 2005. We performed survival analysis to determine, mortality, loss to followup and retention in care. Results. A total of 3012 AIDS patients were enrolled in the ART Program between March 2005 and August 2010. At the end of the 66 months of the program initiation, 61.4% of the patients were retained on treatment, 10.4% died, and 31.4% were lost to followup. Fifty-six percent of the deaths and 46% of those lost to followup occurred in the first year of treatment. Male gender (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) was 3.26; 95% CI: 2.19–4.88); CD4 count ≤200 cells/μL (AHR 5.02; 95% CI: 2.03–12.39), tuberculosis (AHR 2.91; 95% CI: 2.11–4.02); bed-ridden functional status (AHR 12.88; 95% CI: 8.19–20.26) were predictors of mortality, whereas only CD4 count <200 cells/μL (HR = 1.33; 95% CI: (0.95, 1.88) and ambulatory functional status (HR = 1.65; 95% CI: (1.22, 2.23) were significantly associated with LTF. Conclusion. Loss to followup and mortality in the first year following enrollment remain a challenge for retention of patients in care. Strengthening patient monitoring can improve patient retention AIDS care. 1. Background Ethiopia is one of the few countries with the highest number of people living with HIV/AIDS globally. According to Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2011, Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) and HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Office (HAPCO) estimated that adult HIV prevalence was 1.5% of which 73,000 people require ART 2010 [1]. A fee-based ART program in 2003, and a free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program in early 2005 was started [2]. Subsequently, a number of initiatives have been undertaken to expand the availability of ART in Ethiopia. Task shifting and decentralization of the service to increasing numbers of both health centers and hospitals was done since August 2006 [3]. The provision of antiretroviral treatment has decreased morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV [3–7]. There have been several enabling factors for rapid scale-up of ART in resource-limited settings. Despite recent progress in improving access to ART, limited uptake, poor retention, and difficulties in accessing care remain a serious concern for ART programs [3, 4,
Unsteady Boundary Layer Flow and Heat Transfer Due to a Stretching Sheet by Quasilinearization Technique  [PDF]
Wubshet Ibrahim, Bandari Shanker
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2011.16036
Abstract: In this paper, the problem of unsteady laminar boundary-layer flow and heat transfer of a viscous income-pressible fluid over stretching sheet is studied numerically. The unsteadiness in the flow and temperature is caused by the time-dependent stretching velocity and surface temperature. A similarity transformation is used to reduce the governing boundary-layer equations to couple higher order non-linear ordinary differential equations. These equations are numerically solved using quasi-linearization technique. The effect of the governing parameters unsteadiness parameter and Prandtl number on velocity and temperature profile is discussed. Besides the numerical results for the local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are presented. The computed results are compared with previously reported work.
Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Prison Inmates and Tobacco Farm Workers in Shewa Robit, North-Central Ethiopia
Hassen Mamo
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099559
Abstract: Background Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) particularly soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and schistosomiasis are among neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) globally. Apart from being associated with anemia, malabsorption and retarded cognitive development these diseases are complicating the clinical picture of more serious infections like HIV, TB and malaria. Renewed and up-to-date information on the epidemiology of IPIs in more vulnerable groups such as irrigated-farm workers and prisoners would significantly contribute towards improving the health condition of such at-risk groups. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of IPIs among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa-Robit, north-central Ethiopia in November 2008. A total of 236 fecal samples were examined microscopically to detect helminths and/or protozoa using direct-smear and formol-ether concentration methods. Results Overall, 8 intestinal parasite species have been recovered singly or in combinations from 146 (61.8 %) samples. The prevalence in prison population (88/121 = 72.7%) was significantly higher than that in tobacco farm (58/115 = 50.4%). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of IPI by most socio-demographics. Except for hookworm there was no significant difference in parasite prevalence between different age-groups though the frequency of individual parasites slightly varied between the age-groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that inmates were more likely to acquire IPIs than tobacco-farm workers (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.52–4.5). In addition, participants who did not report past treatment for IPIs were more likely to acquire IPIs than participants who self-reported treatment for IPIs in the past twelve months (OR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.75–6.06). All other socio-demographics were not significantly associated with IPIs in univariate analysis. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was the most frequently encountered species in both study sites accounting for 48.8 and 51.7 percent of the positives in prison and tobacco farm population respectively. Other intestinal parasites detected, with slight variation in prevalence in the two study areas, were hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides stercolaris, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia sp. 35.5 and 33.0 percent of the total positive cases were mixed infections in Shewa Robit prison and tobacco farm, respectively. Conclusion The results show that IPIs are common health
Runoff and Sediment Modeling Using SWAT in Gumera Catchment, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Kaleab Habte Michael Mamo, Manoj K. Jain
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2013.34024
Abstract: This study was undertaken to examine the applicability of the SWAT model in Gumera river basin upstream of Lake Tana, Ethiopia for simulating stream runoff and sediment load. The area of river basin was discretized into 24 sub-catchments using ArcSWAT interface of the model. The semi automated Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SUFI2) and fully automated Parameter Solution (ParaSol) calibration process built in SWAT calibration and uncertainty program (SWAT-CUP) were used to calibrate the model parameters using time series of flow and sediment load data of 1994 to 2002 and validated with the observed data from years 2003 to 2006. The performance of the model was evaluated using statistical and graphical methods to assess the capability of the model in simulating the runoff and sediment yield for the study area. The coefficient of determination (R2) and NSE values for the daily runoff by using [ParaSol] optimization technique was obtained as 0.72 and 0.71 respectively for the calibration period and 0.79 and 0.78 respectively for the validation period, R2 and NSE values of monthly flow calibration using SUFI2 are 0.83 and 0.78 respectively for validation it was 0.93 and 0.93. For monthly sediment yield by using SUFI2 calibration technique the model evaluation coefficients R2 and NS for calibration was computed as 0.61 and 0.60 respectively, for validation it was 0.84 and 0.83 respectively. The sensitivity analysis on 13 runoff producing parameters was also carried out and discussed.
Endalkachew Admassie*, Birhan Begashaw and Wubshet Hailu
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2013,
Abstract: Background: Rational drug use is a tool through which safe, effective and economic medication is provided. Rational prescribing ensures adherence to treatment and protects drug consumers from unnecessary adverse drug reactions. Rational dispensing on the other hand, promotes the safe, effective and economic use of drugs.Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess drug use practices and completeness of information on prescriptions in Gondar University Hospital.Methodology: A combination of retrospective and cross sectional study was conducted in outpatient pharmacy in the facility. Of the total of 30,000, some 1145 prescriptions containing drugs prescribed during the month of May 1, 2010 to April 30, 2011 were reviewed for retrospective and 31 patients coming with their prescriptions to outpatient pharmacy were interviewed in the middle of the week on the day of January 25, 2012.Results: The mean number of drugs per prescriptions was 1.76, percentage of prescriptions containing < 2 drugs per prescription was 80.87%. The generic name of the medication was used in 99.16 % of the prescriptions. Antibiotics were prescribed in 29.14 % of prescriptions and injections were prescribed in 28.50% of prescriptions. The drugs prescribed in 98.89% of prescriptions were part of the hospital essential drug list indicating the acceptance of this list by health care professionals. Patients age, sex and card number were written 86.64%, 67.93% and 73.54% respectively. Address of the patient and diagnosis were omitted 97.29% and 99.99% respectively. The correct name and strength of the drug were clearly stated in 80% of the prescriptions whereas dose, frequency and durations were clearly indicated in 81.38%, 76.07% and 82.01% of the prescriptions respectively. 33.42%, 96.69%, 72.56% and 16.09% of the prescriptions contain the name, signature, date and qualification of the prescribers. 80% of patients interviewed had adequate knowledge of how to take the medication prescribed. 61.29%, 29.03% and 19.35% of patients knew the precaution, strength and name of the drugs. From all drugs received by the patients only 8.47% (only the drugs in the tablet bag) were adequately labeled which was low from the literature.Conclusion: From the results of the study, it can be concluded that not all prescriptions were complete as few of them lack the necessary information. So there is a need for managerial and educational intervention to improve prescribing and dispensing practices.
Vacit ?MAMO?LU,?a?r? ?MAMO?LU
Middle East Technical University Journal of the Faculty of Architecture , 2009,
Smoking Health Professional Student: An Attitudinal Challenge for Health Promotion?
Daniel Cauchi,Julian Mamo
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9072550
Abstract: Tobacco is a major preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality. Health professionals are uniquely positioned to provide targeted interventions and should be empowered to provide cessation counselling that influence patient smoking. A cross-sectional national survey was administered to all third year students in four disciplines at the University of Malta. The Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) questionnaire was distributed to collect standardised demographic, smoking prevalence, behavioural, and attitudinal data. 81.9% completed the questionnaire (n = 173/211). A positive significant association between tobacco smoke exposure at home and current smoking status was identified. Non-smokers regarded anti-tobacco policies more favourably than smokers, being more likely to agree with banning of tobacco sales to adolescents (OR 3.6; 95% CI: 2.5–5.3; p ≤ 0.001); and with a smoking ban in all public places (OR 8.9; 95% CI: 6.1–13.1; p ≤ 0.001). Non-smokers favoured a role for health professionals in promoting smoking cessation (OR 5.1; 95% CI: 3.1–8.5; p ≤ 0.001). Knowledge of antidepressants as tools for smoking cessation was also associated with a perceived role for skilled health professionals in cessation counselling (OR 4.9; 95% CI: 1.8–13.3; p = 0.002). Smoking negatively influences beliefs and attitudes of students toward tobacco control. There is a need to adopt a standard undergraduate curriculum containing comprehensive tobacco prevention and cessation training to improve their effectiveness as role models.
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