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Endogenous Matrix-Derived Inhibitors of Angiogenesis
Malin Sund,Pia Nyberg,Hans Petter Eikesdal
Pharmaceuticals , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ph3103021
Abstract: Endogenous inhibitors of angiogenesis are proteins or fragments of proteins that are formed in the body, which can inhibit the angiogenic process. These molecules can be found both in the circulation and sequestered in the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding cells. Many matrix-derived inhibitors of angiogenesis, such as endostatin, tumstatin, canstatin and arresten, are bioactive fragments of larger ECM molecules. These substances become released upon proteolysis of the ECM and the vascular basement membrane (VBM) by enzymes of the tumor microenvironment. Although the role of matrix-derived angiogenesis inhibitors is well studied in animal models of cancer, their role in human cancers is less established. In this review we discuss the current knowledge about these molecules and their potential use as cancer therapeutics and biomarkers.
Simplified Approximate Expressions for the Boundary Layer Flow in Cylindrical Sections in Plankton Nets and Trawls  [PDF]
Svein Helge Gj?sund
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2012.22009
Abstract: Trawls and plankton nets are basically made up of conical and cylindrical net sections. In conical sections the flow will pass through the inclined net wall with a noticeable angle of attack, and then the flow, filtration and drag can be suitably modelled e.g. by a pressure drop approach [1]. In cylindrical and other non-tapered net sections, such as foreparts and extension pieces in trawls and plankton nets, the flow is directed along the net wall and is best considered in terms of a boundary layer. Boundary layer theory and turbulence models can be used to describe such flow, but this requires extensive numerical modelling and computational effort. Simplified approximate formulas providing a qualitative description of the flow with some quantitative accuracy are therefore also useful. This work presents simplified parametric expressions for boundary layer flow in cylindrical net sections, including the boundary layer thickness and growth rate along the net, the filtration velocity out of the net wall, the decrease in mass flux through the net due to the growing boundary layer, and the effect of twine thickness, flow (towing) velocity and the dimensions of the net. These expressions may be useful for assessing the existence and extension of a boundary layer, for appropriate scaling of boundary layer effects in model tests, for proper placement of velocity measurement probes, for assessing the influence on filtration and clogging of plankton net sections, and more.
Elevated plasma levels of heparin-binding protein in intensive care unit patients with severe sepsis and septic shock
Adam Linder, Per ?kesson, Malin Inghammar, Carl-Johan Treutiger, Anna Linnér, Jonas Sundén-Cullberg
Critical Care , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/cc11353
Abstract: A prospective study was conducted of two patient cohorts treated in the ICU at Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge in Sweden. A total of 179 patients was included, of whom 151 had sepsis (126 with septic shock and 25 patients with severe sepsis) and 28 a non-septic critical condition. Blood samples were collected at five time points during six days after admission.HBP levels were significantly higher in the sepsis group as compared to the control group. At admission to the ICU, a plasma HBP concentration of ≥15 ng/mL and/or a HBP (ng/mL)/white blood cell count (109/L) ratio of >2 was found in 87.2% and 50.0% of critically ill patients with sepsis and non-septic illness, respectively. A lactate level of >2.5 mmol/L was detected in 64.9% and 56.0% of the same patient groups. Both in the sepsis group (n = 151) and in the whole group (n = 179), plasma HBP concentrations at admission and in the last measured sample within the 144 hour study period were significantly higher among 28-day non-survivors as compared to survivors and in the sepsis group, an elevated HBP-level at baseline was associated with an increased case-fatality rate at 28 days.Plasma HBP levels were significantly higher in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock compared to patients with a non-septic illness in the ICU. HBP was associated with severity of disease and an elevated HBP at admission was associated with an increased risk of death. HBP that rises over time may identify patients with a deteriorating prognosis. Thus, repeated HBP measurement in the ICU may help monitor treatment and predict outcome in patients with severe infections.Sepsis is defined as the systemic inflammatory response to infection. In its more severe forms it causes tissue hypoperfusion, hypoxia, lactic acidosis, and organ dysfunction [1,2]. Despite increasing awareness of the diagnosis, faster administration of antibiotics and intravenous fluids, better technological support of organ function and other recent advance
Modeling the volume-effectiveness relationship in the case of hip fracture treatment in Finland
Reijo Sund
BMC Health Services Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-238
Abstract: Data consisting of 22,857 hip fracture patients from 52 hospitals in Finland in 1998-2001 were extracted from the administrative registers. The relationship between hospital and rehabilitation unit volumes and effectiveness was examined using a statistical model that allowed risk adjustments and hierarchical modeling of volume trends, developed for the purposes of this study. Four-month mortality and the alternative register-based measure of maintainability were used as effectiveness indicators.No clear relationship was found between hospital volume and the effectiveness of hip fracture treatment, but a novel result showing an association between the rehabilitation unit volume and effectiveness was detected. The face validity of the maintainability indicator seemed to be acceptable.The methodological ideas presented allow for improved examination of the volume-effectiveness relationship. There are no indications that patients with hip fractures should only be treated in high-volume hospitals, though it may be beneficial to centralize the rehabilitation of hip fracture patients to specialized units.A common argument in the recent health policy debate is that treatment is more effective among care providers with large volumes. A wealth of empirical evidence also demonstrates improved effectiveness with selected procedures at high-volume hospitals and by high-volume surgeons [1-4]. It has been suggested that experience or routine (individual and organizational learning), patient selection (better outcomes lead to higher volumes), and the availability of supplementary services (more structure-related resources) may play a part in the relationship between volume and effectiveness, and many of these aspects probably hold true across several health system implementations [5-8]. It has been claimed, however, that the health care provider volume is a nonspecific, indirect, and unreliable measure of provider performance, and a causal relationship between volume and effectiven
Utilization of routinely collected administrative data in monitoring the incidence of aging dependent hip fracture
Sund Reijo
Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1742-5573-4-2
Abstract: Societies are facing challenges as the public health burden increases in tandem with population aging. Local information systems are needed that would allow a continuous monitoring of the incidence and effectiveness of treatments. This study investigates the possibilities of routinely collected administrative data as a data source for hip fracture incidence monitoring in Finland. The study demonstrates that a straightforward use of register data results in biased estimates for the numbers of hip fractures. An interpretation of hip fractures from the population aging point of view offers an alternative perspective for hip fracture incidence calculation. This enables development of a generalizable method for probabilistic detection of starting points of hip fracture care episodes. Several risk factor and risk population extraction techniques required in register-based data analyses are also demonstrated. Finally, it is shown that empirical evidence suggests that hip fracture incidence is proportional to population level disability prevalence. In conclusion, Finnish administrative data makes it possible to derive data for rather detailed population level risk factor stratification. Certain limitations of register-based data can be partly avoided by synthesizing data-sensitive methodological solutions during the analysis process.
Do Sex Differences in the Association between Work Exposure and Health in the Manufacturing Industry Depend on Work Context? Results from the WOLF-Study  [PDF]
Maria Nordin, Malin Bolin
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.58101

The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between work exposure such as psychosocial work factors and work posture, and health in men and women with the same type of occupation in the manufacturing industry. Two follow-ups with a follow-up rate of 67% from the WOrk, Lipids and Fibrinogen (WOLF) cohort from the Northern Sweden were used. The database included 1589 men and 286 women, which is representative of the proportions between men and women in the Swedish manufacturing industry. To be able to understand the importance of work context, the participants were categorized according to work tasks (working with things or symbols). Logistic regression was used for interaction analyses between sex and psychosocial work factors (such as demand, control, social support, role conflict, and work-family conflict) as well as physical work factors (such as work posture), and health outcomes (work overcommitment, fatigue, and neck and back pain). The results showed contextually different patterns of sex different associations between psychosocial work factors and health outcomes. For instance, women were at larger risk of ill-health (in the form of work overcommitment) when working with things, whereas men were at larger risk of both work overcommitment and fatigue when working with symbols. Women working with symbols had a larger risk of neck and back pain due to work-family conflict. The health outcome that was most sensitive to the sex different associations was work overcommitment. In conclusion, the work context matters for sex differences in the association between psychosocial work factors and health and since work overcommitment is a predictor of disease, it should be of interest for the Occupational Health Services and personnel departments to survey.

Photogrammetric methods applied to Svalbard glaciers: accuracies and challenges
Trond Eiken,Monica Sund
Polar Research , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/polar.v31i0.18671
Abstract: Use of digital images is expanding as a tool for glacier monitoring, and small-format time-lapse cameras are increasingly being used for glacier monitoring of fast-flowing glaciers. Stereoscopic imagery is preferable since it yields direct displacement results but stereo photogrammetry has more requirements regarding geometry in set-up and control points, as well as the additional cost of another complete camera system. We investigate a combination of methods to achieve satisfactory control of accuracy with resulting significant day-to-day velocity variations ranging from 1.5–4 m day 1 made at a distance of 2 km. Validation of results was made by comparing different methods, partly using the same image material, but also in combination with aerial and satellite images. Monoscopic results can also be used to gain continuity in a stereo data set when geometry or visibility is poor. We also explore the use of ordinary photographs taken from airliners for compilation of orthoimages as a potential low cost method for detection of sudden changes. The method, showing some tens of metres accuracy, was verified for monitoring velocities and front positions during a glacier surge and was also used to validate monoscopic time-lapse images.
Cosmopolitan perspectives on education and sustainable development
Louise Sund,Johan ?hman
Utbildning & Demokrati : Tidsskrift f?r Didaktik och Utbildningspolitik , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper we draw attention to the possibilities of the philosophical perspectives of cosmopolitanism in the development of ESD. We argue that one challenge facing the development and implementation of ESD is the finding of balanced ways to deal with the normativity dilemma that take both the search for consensus and universal claims and particular contexts and dissensionseriously. The paper begins with a brief sketch of environmental andsustainability education in transition and a problematisation of the universal characteristics of ESD. Drawing on the recent works of Martha C. Nussbaum, Peter Kemp, Kwame Anthony Appiah and Sharon Todd, we then explore how scholars with different cosmopolitanism approaches balance between the cultivation of universal values and individuals’ autonomous thinking and relate these approaches to ESD. Our overall claim is that ESD is in need of a critical discussion and exploration of ESD as a political project with dissonant voices that takes the particular human encounter into consideration.
Developing an analytical tool for evaluating EMS system design changes and their impact on cardiac arrest outcomes: combining geographic information systems with register data on survival rates
Sund Bj?rn
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1757-7241-21-8
Abstract: Background Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a frequent and acute medical condition that requires immediate care. We estimate survival rates from OHCA in the area of Stockholm, through developing an analytical tool for evaluating Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system design changes. The study also is an attempt to validate the proposed model used to generate the outcome measures for the study. Methods and results This was done by combining a geographic information systems (GIS) simulation of driving times with register data on survival rates. The emergency resources comprised ambulance alone and ambulance plus fire services. The simulation model predicted a baseline survival rate of 3.9 per cent, and reducing the ambulance response time by one minute increased survival to 4.6 per cent. Adding the fire services as first responders (dual dispatch) increased survival to 6.2 per cent from the baseline level. The model predictions were validated using empirical data. Conclusion We have presented an analytical tool that easily can be generalized to other regions or countries. The model can be used to predict outcomes of cardiac arrest prior to investment in EMS design changes that affect the alarm process, e.g. (1) static changes such as trimming the emergency call handling time or (2) dynamic changes such as location of emergency resources or which resources should carry a defibrillator.
Differing Roles for Clostridium acetobutylicum’s Galactose Utilization Pathways  [PDF]
C. J. Sund, M. D. Servinsky, E. S. Gerlach
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2013.36065
Abstract: There has been a surge of interest in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentations of Clostridium acetobutylicum due to its capacity to ferment many carbohydrates found in biomass. This metabolic diversity makes it a promising candidate for conversion of inexpensive, heterogeneous carbohydrate feedstocks to biofuels. Galactose is present in many such feedstocks due to its incorporation in plant cell walls. C. acetobutylicum encodes two galactose utilization pathways, the Leloir (LP) and the tagatose-6-P (T6P), and a previous study indicated genes for these pathways was differentially regulated during growth on galactose and lactose. In the current study we utilized quantitative PCR to further investigate gene expression levels and to show both pathways which were subject to carbon catabolite repression. During growth on galactose, mRNA for galactose-6-P isomerase from the T6P was induced to a greater extent than mRNA for glactokinase, the first enzyme in the LP. The galactose-6-P isomerase mRNAs were also more abundant than galactokinase mRNAs during growth on galactose. Analysis of theoretical ATP requirements to generate essential precursor metabolites indicated: 1) the LP is more efficient at generating upper glycolytic intermediates, 2) the T6P is more efficient at forming ATP, lower glycolytic intermediates and TCA cycle intermediates, 3) a combination of the two pathways is most efficient for forming precursor metabolites found in the pentose phosphate pathway. From this it can be suggested that the two pathways have different roles in the organism with the T6P generating most ATP and precursor metabolites and the LP providing upper glycolytic metabolites.
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