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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1441 matches for " Mala Umar Mustapha Bakura "
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An Improved Region Division Allocation (IRDA) of Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor Code in the Forward Link of WCDMA Network
Mala Umar Mustapha Bakura,Jing XiaoJun,Sun SongLin,Huang Hai
Advances in Mathematical and Computational Methods , 2012, DOI: 10.5729
Abstract: Unrestricted access to the Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) network depends on availability of and unrestricted access to OVSF codes. The limitation of existing OVSF code allocation schemes caused the degradation on overall throughput of the WCDMA network. This paper proposes an improved Region Division Allocation (IRDA) of OVSF codes. According to this IRDA algorithm, User’s would be able to borrow from other code regions and return to their home code regions. The simulation results indicates that optimum and fair usage of the available code is possible
Simulation Using Sensitivity Analysis of a Product Production Rate Optimization Model of a Plastic Industry  [PDF]
Mala Abba-Aji, Vincent Ogwagwu, Bukar Umar Musa
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2013.23018

This study analyzes the sensitivity analysis using shadow price of plastic products. This is based on a research carried out to study optimization problem of BOPLAS, a plastic industry in Maiduguri, North eastern Nigeria. Simplex method of Linear programming is employed to formulate the equations which were solved by using costenbol software. Sensitivity analysis using shadow price reveals that the price of wash hand bowls is critical to the net benefit (profit) of the company.

The Role of Speculation in the Determination of Energy Prices
Umar M. Mustapha
International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy , 2012,
Abstract: This paper seeks to evaluate the role of speculation in the determination of global energy prices. Designed as a case study, five major oil producing countries are the focus of this positivistic study: Nigeria, Mexico, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Russia. Data is collected through secondary sources. One-tailed and two-tailed tests carried out on the relationship between speculation and oil prices for each of the five countries yield critical values lower than the alpha. Thus, the null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternate hypothesis that ‘there is a significant and positive correlation between commodity derivatives (oil futures) and oil prices’. The study found that while there is a positive relationship between speculation in the commodity derivatives market and oil prices, such a relationship is at best weak and attributes the high prices to several factors, including political instability, high and rising demand from overheating economies such as China, and falling production levels, among others. The paper emphasized the need to enhance the physical and financial transparency of the energy market, as well as the operation of the supply and demand fundamentals, including regulating against insider trading and market manipulation practices, strengthening the reporting requirements of the dealers in the market, and strengthening capital adequacy and margin requirements.
Effects of Brown Rice and White Rice on Expression of Xenobiotic Metabolism Genes in Type 2 Diabetic Rats
Mustapha Umar Imam,Maznah Ismail
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijms13078597
Abstract: Xenobiotics constantly influence biological systems through several means of interaction. These interactions are disturbed in type 2 diabetes, with implications for disease outcome. We aimed to study the implications of such disturbances on type 2 diabetes and rice consumption, the results of which could affect management of the disease in developing countries. In a type 2 diabetic rat model induced through a combination of high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin injection, up-regulation of xenobiotic metabolism genes in the diabetic untreated group was observed. Xenobiotic metabolism genes were upregulated more in the white rice (WR) group than the diabetic untreated group while the brown rice (BR) group showed significantly lower expression values, though not as effective as metformin, which gave values closer to the normal non-diabetic group. The fold changes in expression in the WR group compared to the BR group for Cyp2D4, Cyp3A1, Cyp4A1, Cyp2B1, Cyp2E1, Cyp2C11, UGT2B1, ALDH1A1 and Cyp2C6 were 2.6, 2, 1.5, 4, 2.8, 1.5, 1.8, 3 and 5, respectively. Our results suggest that WR may upregulate these genes in type 2 diabetes more than BR, potentially causing faster drug metabolism, less drug efficacy and more toxicity. These results may have profound implications for rice eating populations, constituting half the world’s population.
Gully Development along River Ngaddabul Floodplain of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
Mustapha Mala,Jacob K. Nyanganji,Alhaji Mukhtar
Journal of Environmental Issues and Agriculture in Developing Countries , 2012,
Abstract: This study focused on gully development along River Ngaddabul floodplain in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. The objectives were to examine the factors and processes influencing gully development. The data used were obtained through measurements of the parameters such as gully length, width and depth at four locations. Also examine were slope angles, relief and vegetation of the topography and mapping of the gully patterns. The data were subjected to laboratory and statistical analysis. The findings revealed that factors that influence gullying (process) along the floodplain are rainfall amount, runoff taking advantage of footpaths, wheeled-tracks and soil texture. It was also revealed that human activities such as sand mining contribute to gullying processes by influencing mass wasting processes like slumping through undermining of channel banks leading to caving as well as collapse of channels. The construction of new houses along the road due to population pressure accelerated the gullying processes. The River Ngaddabul annual floods also contribute towards gullying (processes) by deepening the channels, leading to the initiation of new gullies on the slopes. In view of these, the study recommended that drainage channel should be constructed in the gully affected areas to check the volume of runoff influencing gullying. Sand quarrying should be restricted to specific locations along the road in order to prevent further disfiguring of the Ngaddabul channel through undermining processes along the channel.
Characteristic Properties of Lipase from Crude Extract of Caesalpinia bonducella L. Seeds
Vajanti Mala Pahoja,M.Umar Dahot,Mumtaz Ali Sethar
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: Lipase activity was assayed in mature Caesalpinia bonducella L. seeds using olive oil emulsion stabilized with 10% gum acacia as a substrate. The maximum lipase activity at pH 7.0 and at 30 EC and the pH stability was found in between 6-7.5. Lipase activity was fairly stable up to 60 EC and retaining 90% activity. Whereas lipase activity was completely lost at 90 EC within 10 minutes. C. bonducella L. seeds was found most specific towards coconut oil and lipase activity was slightly increased in the presence of calcium but enzyme activity was decreased by the addition of sodium deoxycholate, Tween 80 and Triton X-100.
Study on the Potential Toxicity of a Thymoquinone-Rich Fraction Nanoemulsion in Sprague Dawley Rats
Zaki Tubesha,Mustapha Umar Imam,Rozi Mahmud,Maznah Ismail
Molecules , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/molecules18077460
Abstract: Toxicological studies constitute an essential part of the effort in developing an herbal medicine into a drug product. A newly developed thymoquinone-rich fraction nanoemulsion (TQRFNE) has been prepared using a high pressure homogenizer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential acute toxicity of this nanoemulsion in Sprague Dawley rats. The acute toxicity studies were conducted as per the OECD guidelines 425, allowing for the use of test dose limit of 20 mL TQRFNE (containing 44.5 mg TQ)/kg. TQRFNE and distilled water (DW) as a control were administered orally to both sexes of rats on Day 0 and observed for 14 days. All the animals appeared normal, and healthy throughout the study. There was no observed mortality or any signs of toxicity during the experimental period. The effects of the TQRFNE and DW groups on general behavior, body weight, food and water consumption, relative organ weight, hematology, histopathology, and clinical biochemistry were measured. All the parameters measured were unaffected as compared to the control (DW) group. The administration of 20 mL TQRFNE /kg was not toxic after an acute exposure.
Antioxidant Property Enhancement of Sweet Potato Flour under Simulated Gastrointestinal pH
Kim Wei Chan,Nicholas M. H. Khong,Shahid Iqbal,Imam Mustapha Umar,Maznah Ismail
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijms13078987
Abstract: Sweet potato is known to be rich in healthful antioxidants, but the stability of its antioxidant properties under gastrointestinal pH is very much unknown. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the changes in antioxidant properties (total contents of phenolics and flavonoids as well as antioxidant activity) of sweet potato flour (SPF) under simulated gastrointestinal pH conditions. It was found that the yield of SPF crude phenolic extract increased from 0.29 to 3.22 g/100 g SPF upon subjection to gastrointestinal pH conditions ( p < 0.05). Also elevated significantly were the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity of SPF ( p < 0.05). In summary, the antioxidant properties of SPF were enhanced under gastrointestinal pH conditions, suggesting that SPF might possess a considerable amount of bound phenolic and other antioxidative compounds. The antioxidant properties of SPF are largely influenced by pH and thus might be enhanced during the in vivo digestive process.
Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats
Mustapha Umar Imam,Siti Nor Asma Musa,Nur Hanisah Azmi,Maznah Ismail
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijms131012952
Abstract: Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR). Though brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations instead of the commonly consumed WR that is known to promote oxidative stress. This will then provide further reasons why less consumption of WR should be encouraged. We studied the effects of GBR on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats, induced using a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection, and also evaluated the effects of WR, BR and GBR on catalase and superoxide dismutase genes. As dietary components, BR and GBR improved glycemia and kidney hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, and prevented the deterioration of total antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats. Similarly, GBR preserved liver enzymes, as well as serum creatinine. There seem to be evidence that upregulation of superoxide dismutase gene may likely be an underlying mechanism for antioxidant effects of BR and GBR. Our results provide insight into the effects of different rice types on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetes. The results also suggest that WR consumption, contrary to BR and GBR, may worsen antioxidant status that may lead to more damage by free radicals. From the data so far, the antioxidant effects of BR and GBR are worth studying further especially on a long term to determine their effects on development of oxidative stress-related problems, which WR consumption predisposes to.
Effects of Germinated Brown Rice and Its Bioactive Compounds on the Expression of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Gene
Mustapha Umar Imam,Maznah Ismail,Hairuszah Ithnin,Zaki Tubesha,Abdul Rahman Omar
Nutrients , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/nu5020468
Abstract: Dysregulated metabolism is implicated in obesity and other disease conditions like type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, which are linked to abnormalities of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ( PPARγ). PPARγ has been the focus of much research aimed at managing these diseases. Also, germinated brown rice (GBR) is known to possess antidiabetic, antiobesity and hypocholesterolemic effects. We hypothesized that GBR bioactive compounds may mediate some of the improvements in metabolic indices through PPARγ modulation. Cultured HEP-G2 cells were treated with 50 ppm and 100 ppm of extracts from GBR (GABA, ASG and oryzanol) after determination of cell viabilities using MTT assays. Results showed that all extracts upregulated the expression of the PPARγ. However, combination of all three extracts showed downregulation of the gene, suggesting that, in combination, the effects of these bioactives differ from their individual effects likely mediated through competitive inhibition of the gene. Upregulation of the gene may have therapeutic potential in diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, while its downregulation likely contributes to GBR’s antiobesity effects. These potentials are worth studying further.
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