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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2125 matches for " Makoto Shinnishi "
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An Empirical Analysis of Communication on Trust Building in Virtual Teams  [PDF]
Makoto Shinnishi, Kunihiko Higa
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2018.112020
Abstract: This research aims to analyze the communication on trust building in virtual teams. Ten teams consisting of three workers (an editor, a designer, and a coder) were asked to create a sample web page in one week. All workers were in remote environment and a text-only communication tool was provided to all teams. In addition, five teams could use a non-text communication tool through which one can see other member’s situation with a web camera image and a short text message. All communication logs were collected and classified into three types: formal communication, informal communication, and awareness communication. All participated workers answered the questionnaire about trust before and after the task was completed. The analysis results based on the questionnaire and communication log data are discussed at the end. The result shows the use of non-text communication tool did not affect trust building; however, amount of awareness communication affected trust building. Log-in to the communication system at the same time also affected trust building. The findings of this study showed the tendency of awareness communication helping team building trust in the remote environment.
On Canard Homoclinic of a Liénard Perturbation System  [PDF]
Makoto Hayashi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.210170
Abstract: The classification on the orbits of some Liénard perturbation system with several parameters, which is relation to the example in [1] or [2], is discussed. The conditions for the parameters in order that the system has a unique limit cycle, homoclinic orbits, canards or the unique equilibrium point is globally asymptotic stable are given. The methods in our previous papers are used for the proofs.
Traffic Dynamics and Congested Phases Derived from an Extended Optimal-Velocity Model  [PDF]
Makoto Watanabe
Engineering (ENG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2014.68048

Dynamics is studied for one-dimensional single-lane traffic flow by means of an extended optimal-velocity model with continuously varied bottleneck strength for nonlinear roads. Two phases exist in this model such as free flow and wide moving jam states in the systems having relatively small values of the bottleneck strength parameter. In addition to the two phases, locally congested phaseappears as the strength becomes prominent. Jam formation occurs with the similar mechanism to the boomerang effect as well as the pinch one in it. Wide scattering of the flow-density relation in fundamental diagram is found in the congested phase.

Guiding of Waves between Absorbing Walls  [PDF]
Dmitrii Kouznetsov, Makoto Morinaga
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.37076
Abstract: Guiding of waves between parallel absorbing walls is considered. The principal mode is constructed; its absorption is estimated. The agreement with previous results about reflection of waves from absorbing walls is discussed. Roughly, the effective absorption of the principal mode is proportional the minus third power of the distance between walls, minus 1.5 d power of the wavenumber and minus 0.5 power of the local absorption of the wave in the wall. This estimate is suggested as hint for the design of the atomic waveguides, and also as tool for optimization of attenuation of the amplified spontaneous emission (and suppression of parasitic oscillations) in high power lasers.
Management of Village Common Forests in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh: Historical Background and Current Issues in Terms of Sustainability  [PDF]
Mohammed Jashimuddin, Makoto Inoue
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2012.23016
Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the historical management system of village common forests (VCF) in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh and observe the current issues related to their sustainability. The study on historical context was based on secondary information to establish the linkages of VCF development and management in the CHT. Field visits to four VCF in the Bandarban Hill Districts were also conducted to cross check the information collected from secondary sources to observe the current status and management pattern of these VCF through semi-structured interviews, group discussion, key-informant interviews and biodiversity assessment. VCF in the CHT undoubtedly play an important role in biodiversity conservation and as well as supporting daily necessities of the community people. We found that VCF still are the source of fuel wood, herbs, roots, bamboo shoots, wild fruits, vines or leaves for cooking or medicinal use necessary to sustain the lives of the indigenous communities in the CHT. Field visits to different VCF show that the VCF are necessarily small in size (57 ha) and around 108 families are dependent on these community managed village forests. A total of 163 plant species from 60 families were also recorded from these VCF including some rare plant and animal species which are not usually found in the reserve forests and the un-classed state forests due to continued deforestation and land degradation. However, population pressure combined with improved marketing facilities, ignorance, over exploitation, personal greed, tenure insecurity, faulty government policies regarding settlement of land and breakdown of the traditional systems exerting pressures on these VCF and the overall condition of these important biodiversity rich areas are degrading or shrinking in size and number gradually. Recognizing the traditional and customary resource rights of the indigenous communities in the CHT, acknowledging resource management system, providing tenure security, encouraging communities through legal and financial incentives in protecting these VCF or any other state owned forest areas solely for the conservation of biodiversity following an intensive management plan, resolving long lasting land related conflicts, and at the same time upholding the spirit of CHT Peace Accord 1997 could be important policy tools for the sustainability of these VCF in the CHT. Lessons learned from this study will be useful in formulating effective policies for community based forest management in Bangladesh and other developing countries.
Evaluation of the Environmental Impacts Assessment (EIA) System in Lao PDR  [PDF]
Sengdeuane Wayakone, Inoue Makoto
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.312182

This study explores and seeks to explain the EIA procedures practice gap in Lao PDR. It reviews the literature and studies EIA legislation, administrative procedures, guidelines, and relevant documents by using a model proposed by Leu et al. (1996) and applying criteria proposed by Wood (1995) to evaluate the performance of EIA systems. Key EIA legislation in Lao PDR has many strengths, but also major weaknesses: Inadequate planning procedures, no secondary regulations, few trained and skilled personnel, inadequate public consultation, lack of environmental data, weak follow-up and monitoring, and no enforcement machinery. Additionally, the EIA approval procedure is very bureaucratic and easily derailed by political and economic pressures. In addition, coordination among EIA proponents, consultants, concerned ministries, local authorities, planners, and decision-makers is generally weak. This delays decision-making and hinders implementation of environmental regulations. Thus, procedures and evaluation are not always performed well. EIAs are more a project justification tool than a project planning tool for sustainable development. We conclude with recommendations to strengthen the system, such as improving capacity building, implementing an EIA consultants’ accreditation system, ensuring effective public participation and access to EIA reports, applying systematic EIAs, reviewing criteria, and promoting environmental awareness.

Climate Change Impacts, Agroforestry Adaptation and Policy Environment in Sri Lanka  [PDF]
Mangala De Zoysa, Makoto Inoue
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2014.45049
Abstract: Despite its low emissions of greenhouse gasses (GHGs), Sri Lanka is considered as a vulnerable small island nation under climate change. Agroforestry, which uniquely integrates trees into land use systems, has historically contributed to climate change adaptation in Sri Lanka. Hence, the promotion of agroforestry practices is vitally important to enhance the resiliency of the country to future climate change. This paper reviews the literature and discusses the adverse impacts of climate change on agriculture and forestry, the effects of adapting agroforestry on climate changes, and important policies for promoting agroforestry adaptation in Sri Lanka. The adverse impacts of climate change on agriculture and forestry are identified as follows: endangerment of natural assets; prevalence of pests, diseases and invasive species; agriculture and forest damage; and high levels of food insecurity. The adaptation of agroforestry impacts climate change by increasing the tree cover outside forests, enhancing forest carbon stocks, conserving biodiversity, reducing risks and damage intensity, maintaining health and vitality, and scaling up multiple benefits. Changing regulations and legislation, developing awareness and capacity, planning for climate-smart agroforest landscapes, offering no-regret options and implementing climate change adjustment programs are discussed as important policy measures. It is concluded that agroforestry, along with favourable policy, has an important role in climate change adaptation by enhancing resilience to climate impacts on farming systems.
Deterministic Annealing Approach to Fuzzy C-Means Clustering Based on Entropy Maximization
Makoto Yasuda
Advances in Fuzzy Systems , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/960635
Abstract: This paper is dealing with the fuzzy clustering method which combines the deterministic annealing (DA) approach with an entropy, especially the Shannon entropy and the Tsallis entropy. By maximizing the Shannon entropy, the fuzzy entropy, or the Tsallis entropy within the framework of the fuzzy c-means (FCM) method, membership functions similar to the statistical mechanical distribution functions are obtained. We examine characteristics of these entropy-based membership functions from the statistical mechanical point of view. After that, both the Shannon- and Tsallis-entropy-based FCMs are formulated as DA clustering using the very fast annealing (VFA) method as a cooling schedule. Experimental results indicate that the Tsallis-entropy-based FCM is stable with very fast deterministic annealing and suitable for this annealing process. 1. Introduction Statistical mechanics investigates the macroscopic properties of a physical system consisting of several elements. Recently, research activities that attempt to apply statistical mechanical models or tools to information science have become popular. The deterministic annealing (DA) method [1] is a deterministic variant of the simulated annealing (SA) method [2]. DA characterizes the minimization problem of the cost function as the minimization of the free energy, which depends on temperature and tracks its minimum while decreasing the temperature, and thus it can deterministically optimize the cost function at each temperature. Hence, DA is more efficient than SA, but does not guarantee a global optimal solution. There exists a strong relationship between the membership functions of the fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering [3] with the maximum entropy or entropy regularization methods [4, 5] and the statistical mechanical distribution function. That is, FCM regularized with the Shannon entropy gives a membership function similar to the Boltzmann (or Gibbs) distribution function [1, 4], and FCM regularized with the fuzzy entropy [6] gives a membership function similar to the Fermi-Dirac distribution function [7]. These membership functions are suitable for the annealing methods because they contain a parameter corresponding to the system temperature. Tsallis [8] achieved nonextensive extension of the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. Tsallis postulated a generalization form of entropy with a generalization parameter , which, in a limit of , reaches the Shannon entropy. Later on, Ménard et al. [9] derived a membership function by regularizing FCM with the Tsallis entropy. In this study, the membership function which takes
A Toy Model for Torsorial Nature of Representations
Makoto Yoshitake
Information , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/info3040546
Abstract: This paper presents a toy model for the representation related phenomena. It is the representation that is always referred to. The represented thing in itself is indeterminate existence at a fundamental level of understanding. In order to capture such property of representation, this paper provides a toy model using an algebraic structure: torsor. The toy model captures this baselessness of representation naturally, and can be used to describe various phenomena of representations. Adopting the torsor and focusing on the two-sidedness and the closure property of representation enables the toy model to express some consistency of representations.
The septins
Makoto Kinoshita
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2003-4-11-236
Abstract: The septin genes were originally discovered through genetic screening for budding yeast mutants defective in the cell-cycle progression [1]. Mutants of any one of the genetic loci CDC3, CDC10, CDC11 or CDC12 commonly form multinucleated cellular clusters [2-4]. These mutants cannot organize the 'bud neck filaments' that normally encircle and demarcate the cell cortex between a mother cell and the bud (daughter) [5]. From these and other data, the septins have been regarded as the major constituents of the bud-neck filaments, which have essential roles in cytokinesis [2-4]. Molecular genetic studies revealed that the four CDC genes encode similar polypeptides, each with some of the set of conserved motifs found in GTPases. The four encoded proteins, termed septins, thus founded a protein family within the GTPase superfamily [2-4]. The septins that were later found in other fungi, nematodes, flies, and mammals have also been shown to have roles in cytokinesis and other cellular processes.Septins have been found in diverse eukaryotes, including animals and fungi but not protozoa and plants. Most septin genes generate one or more polypeptides by alternative splicing and/or multiple translation start sites; the number of variants is not yet established for many of the genes. The septin genes in five organisms, and the largest product of each gene known from the current databases, are shown in Table 1, and a phylogenetic tree illustrating their structural relationships and molecular evolution is shown in Figure 1. It is noteworthy that considerable diversity has been generated within each species; for example, the human septins are 39-63% identical to human Sept2 at the amino-acid level. It may be possible to classify the septins in each species into two to four groups by sequence homology. Orthologs can be found within the fungi (such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC3, Schizosaccharomyces pombe Spn1 and their Candida albicans orthologs, not shown) and within metazoa (such
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