Abstract:
An understanding of the functional mechanisms of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is very important for GPCR-related drug design. We have developed an integrated GPCR database (SEVENS http://sevens.cbrc.jp/) that includes 64,090 reliable GPCR genes comprehensively identified from 56 eukaryote genome sequences, and overviewed the sequences and structure spaces of the GPCRs. In vertebrates, the number of receptors for biological amines, peptides, etc. is conserved in most species, whereas the number of chemosensory receptors for odorant, pheromone, etc. significantly differs among species. The latter receptors tend to be single exon type or a few exon type and show a high ratio in the numbers of GPCRs, whereas some families, such as Class B and Class C receptors, have long lengths due to the presence of many exons. Statistical analyses of amino acid residues reveal that most of the conserved residues in Class A GPCRs are found in the cytoplasmic half regions of transmembrane (TM) helices, while residues characteristic to each subfamily found on the extracellular half regions. The 69 of Protein Data Bank (PDB) entries of complete or fragmentary structures could be mapped on the TM/loop regions of Class A GPCRs covering 14 subfamilies.

Abstract:
This study investigates the best timing for technological change affecting environmental quality in economic development. We develop a model that addresses the transition of environmental technology from an old system to a new one. Findings obtained are innovative in that they depict when as well as how transition to new environmental technology occurs. It demonstrates that the timing is endogenous and characterized by the properties of the economy: in particular, the optimal technology transition timing depends upon whether the economy is developing or developed.

Abstract:
The gravitational collapse, bounce, the explosion of an iron core of an 11.2 $M_{\odot}$ star is simulated by two-dimensional neutrino-radiation hydrodynamic code. The explosion is driven by the neutrino heating aided by multi-dimensional hydrodynamic effects such as the convection. Following the explosion phase, we continue the simulation focusing on the thermal evolution of the protoneutron star up to $\sim$70 s when the crust of the neutron star is formed using one-dimensional simulation. We find that the crust forms at high-density region ($\rho\sim10^{14}$ g cm$^{-3}$) and it would proceed from inside to outside. This is the first self-consistent simulation that successfully follows from the collapse phase to the protoneutron star cooling phase based on the multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation.

Abstract:
The neutrino annihilation is one of the most promising candidates for the jet production process of gamma-ray bursts. Although neutrino interaction rates depend strongly on the neutrino spectrum, the estimations of annihilation rate have been done with an assumption of the neutrino thermal spectrum based on the presence of the neutrinospheres, in which neutrinos and matter couple strongly. We consider the spectral change of neutrinos caused by the scattering by infalling materials and amplification of the annihilation rate. We solve the kinetic equation of neutrinos in spherically symmetric background flow and find that neutrinos are successfully accelerated and partly form nonthermal spectrum. We find that the accelerated neutrinos can significantly enhance the annihilation rate by a factor of $\sim 10$, depending on the injection optical depth.

Abstract:
We extend
our previous analysis and consider the interacting holographic Ricci dark
energy (IRDE) model in non-flat universe. We study astrophysical constraints on
this model using the recent observations including the type Ia supernovae
(SNIa), the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO), the cosmic microwave background
(CMB) anisotropy, and the Hubble parameter. It is shown that the allowed
parameter range for the fractional energy density of the curvature is ？in the presence of the interactions between
dark energy and matter. Without the interaction, the flat universe is
observationally disfavored in this model.

Abstract:
In the industrial fields, many high temperature structures that require a non-destructive inspection exist. However, there are currently few sensors that can carry out non-destructive testing in a high temperature environment. In particular, the ultrasonic sensor is normally not used at over 50 degrees Celsius. Also, a special sensor for high temperature is currently available, but there are various constraints; it has not yet reached a level that is useful in industry. Therefore, we have been developing a new sensor system using a long waveguide which can transmit an ultrasonic wave from a long distance. Especially, this study focuses on applying the developed technique to a pipe which is used in a nuclear power plant. Therefore, the best rectangular-shaped waveguide was studied and attempted to be wound around a pipe to be driven by an acoustic source of a guide wave. Finally, the L (0, 2) and T (0, 1)-mode guide waves were successfully detected by optimizing the shape of the opposite edge of the rectangular-shaped waveguide that could detect the reflected signal from an artificial defect machined into a test pipe.

Abstract:
A model of multicellular systems with several types of cells is developed from the phase field model. The model is presented as a set of partial differential equations of the field variables, each of which expresses the shape of one cell. The dynamics of each cell is based on the criteria for minimizing the surface area and retaining a certain volume. The effects of cell adhesion and excluded volume are also taken into account. The proposed model can be used to find the position of the membrane and/or the cortex of each cell without the need to adopt extra variables. This model is suitable for numerical simulations of a system having a large number of cells. The two-dimensional results of cell division, cell adhesion, rearrangement of a cell cluster, chemotaxis, and cell sorting as well as the three-dimensional results of cell clusters on the substrate are presented.

Abstract:
We consider two-species exclusion processes on the d-dimensional discrete torus taking the effects of exchange, creation and annihilation into account. The model is, in general, of nongradient type. We prove that the (charged) particle density converges to the solution of a certain nonlinear diffusion equation under the diffusive rescaling in space and time. We also prove a lower bound on the spectral gap for the generator of the process confined in a finite volume.

Abstract:
We give a lower bound on the spectral gap for a class of binary collision processes. In 2008, Caputo showed that, for a class of binary collision processes given by simple averages on the complete graph, the analysis of the spectral gap of an $N$-component system is reduced to that of the same system for N=3 In this paper, we give a comparison technique to reduce the analysis of the spectral gap of binary collision processes given by simple averages on $d$-dimensional lattice to that on the complete graph. We also give a comparison technique to reduce the analysis of the spectral gap of binary collision processes which are not given by simple averages to that given by simple averages. Combining them with Caputo's result, we give a new and elementary method to obtain spectral gap estimates. The method applies to a number of binary collision processes on the complete graph and also on d-dimensional lattice, including a class of energy exchange models which was recently introduced in by Grigo et al., and zero-range processes.

Abstract:
We consider the hydrodynamic behavior of some conservative particle systems with degenerate jump rates without exclusive constraints. More precisely, we study the particle systems without restrictions on the total number of particles per site with nearest neighbor exchange rates which vanish for certain configurations. Due to the degeneracy of the rates, there exists blocked configurations which do not evolve under the dynamics and all of the hyperplanes of configurations with a fixed number particles can be decomposed into different irreducible sets. We show that, for initial profiles smooth enough and bounded away from zero, the macroscopic density profile evolves under the diffusive time scaling according to a nonlinear diffusion equation (which we call the modified porous medium equation). The proof is based on the Relative Entropy method but it cannot be straightforwardly applied because of the degeneracy.