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Oblique Corpectomy to Manage Cervical Myeloradiculopathy
Chibbaro Salvatore,Makiese Orphee,Bresson Damien,Reiss Alisha,Poczos Pavel,George Bernard
Neurology Research International , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/734232
Abstract: Background. The authors describe a lateral approach to the cervical spine for the management of spondylotic myeloradiculopathy. The rationale for this approach and surgical technique are discussed, as well as the advantages, disadvantages, complications, and pitfalls based on the author's experience over the last two decades. Methods. Spondylotic myelo-radiculopathy may be treated via a lateral approach to the cervical spine when there is predominant anterior compression associated with either spine straightening or kyphosis, but without vertebral instability. Results. By using a lateral approach, the lateral aspect of the cervical spine and the vertebral artery are easily reached and visualized. Furthermore, the lateral part of the affected intervertebral disc(s), uncovertebral joint(s), vertebral body(ies), and posterior longitudinal ligament can be removed as needed to decompress nerve root(s) and/or the spinal cord. Conclusion. Multilevel cervical oblique corpectomy and/or lateral foraminotomy allow wide decompression of nervous structures, while maintaining optimal stability and physiological motion of the cervical spine. 1. Introduction Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) are classically approached by anterior single or multiple disc space decompression [1, 2], multilevel corpectomy [3], laminectomy [4–10], or laminoplasty [11–18]. More recently, techniques using lateral multiple oblique corpectomy (MOC) and/or foraminotomy [19–28] have been used with increasing frequency. In general, when three or more levels are affected, the preferred techniques remain either an anterior multilevel corpectomy or a posterior route such as laminectomy, open door laminoplasty, and posterior foraminotomy. However, the best management of such pathology (especially if 3 or more levels are involved) remains controversial. The authors consider the cervical spine lateral approach a valid and safe option to treat such pathologies as it provides very good clinical results and maintains long-term spinal stability. The goal of this paper is to further and critically present the idea and rationale of the cervical spine lateral approach with its advantages, disadvantages, complications, and pitfalls in a critical review of their last 2 decades experience. 2. Technique Indication Predominant anterior compression associated with either straightening or kyphosis of the cervical spine in the absence of instability is the general indication for the proposed technique. In cases of both anterior and posterior compression, the posterior
Characterisation and modelling of mercury speciation in urban air affected by gold mining - assessment of bioavailability
Cukrowska E. M.,Lusilao-Makiese J.,Yalala B.,Tutu H.
E3S Web of Conferences , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/20130120004
Abstract: The growing global concern over the release of mercury to the environment has prompted specific inventories that quantify mercury emissions from various sources. Investigations of atmospheric mercury have been mostly done on gaseous species. Although, to assess human expose to mercury, especially in urban areas, the inhalable dust should be included in a study. The Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa is one of the most important gold mining regions in the world. Mercury (Hg), which occurs in gold-bearing ores, was also used for gold recoveries in previous centuries (19th and early 20th century) and presently in illegal artisanal mining. The consequences of these mining activities were the release of Hg to the environment, mainly due to AMD from tailings dumps which are presently reprocessed. The city of Johannesburg is a multimillion population exposed strongly to industrial pollution. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of mercury pollution in this urban area and assess its bioavailability. The gaseous samples were collected by trapping mercury on various gold traps. Dust samples were collected from a ground and on inhalation levels (1–2 m above a ground). They were later separated into different fractions by micro sieving. Bioavailability of mercury in inhalable dust (25 μm) was tested by leaching collected samples with artificial lung fluid (ALF, pH 4.5), Gray’s solution (pH 7.4) and water. The leaching conditions were selected to mimic lungs environment (incubator at 30°C, time 24 hrs, rotation of samples 150 rpm). Total concentrations of mercury in dust fractions were also determined after microwave digestion. The results showed extremely high concentration levels of mercury in air and dust in industrial areas. Especially high levels were found around presently reprocessed old gold tailings dumps, up to 900 000 μgl–1. The levels dropped significantly in CBD area but still showing elevated concentrations up to 10 μgl 1. They depend strongly on prevailing wind directions, dry and wet seasons, and day time. Leaching experiments showed that the Gray’s solution extracts more mercury from the dust followed by ALF and much lower by water. This suggests that most of the mercury inhaled with dust will be extracted in the deep interstitial parts of the lungs. In the upper region of lungs extraction will occur to a lesser extent.
Thermo-reversible permanent magnets in the quasi-binary GdCo5-xCux system
Rostislav M. Grechishkin,Mikhail S. Kustov,Orphee Cugat,Jerome Delamare,Guylaine Poulin,Diana Mavrudieva,Nora M. Dempsey
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1063/1.2347282
Abstract: Ferrimagnetic GdCo5-xCux alloys exhibiting the effect of Gd- and 3d-sublattice magnetization compensation at defined temperatures were studied with respect to their use as thermo-reversible permanent magnets (PM). Coercive fields ?0Hc in the range 0.3 to 1.6 T were measured for annealed single crystals with x = 1 - 2.2 having compensation points in the vicinity of room temperature. Two applications of such a thermo-reversible PM, namely a thermally controlled actuator and a contactless temperature sensor, are demonstrated.
Contenido de metales pesados en abonos orgánicos, sustratos y plantas cultivadas en organopónicos
Rodríguez Alfaro,Mirelys; Mu?iz Ugarte,Olegario; Calero Martín,Bernardo; Martínez Rodríguez,Francisco; Montero álvarez,Alfredo; Limeres Jiménez,Teudis; Orphee Montoya,Mercedes; de Aguilar Accioly,Adriana M;
Cultivos Tropicales , 2012,
Abstract: the use of organic manures of different sources, like composts obtained from urban solids residuals (usr), in urban agriculture organoponics, is an alternative for low input food production. in order to use these materials, it is required the systematic evaluation of heavy metals (hm) content, because they can accumulate in soils and substrates altering their biological balance and affecting crop yields and animal health, including human health. it was evaluated the analytical methodology with highest accuracy and recovery for the determination of cadmium (cd), lead (pb) and nickel (ni) and it was used in the determination hm content in organic manures and substrates as well as their effect in the vegetables produced in organoponics at la habana and guantánamo. it was found that the compost produced from usr from rubbish dump not previously classified and the substrates elaborated with them, present hm content, specially pb and cd, over the maximum permissible limits (mpl), and must not be employed for food production, because these metals are traslocated to the edible organs of the cultivated vegetables.
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