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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2686 matches for " Magda Osman "
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Moral Judgment: Truth, Order and Consequence  [PDF]
Magda Osman
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.65061
Abstract: Often we make snap moral judgments based on limited information. For instance upon reading a newspaper headline we very quickly decide on whether the implied outcome is good or bad. However, in situations like this we are also likely to revise our judgments when we read the main story and the conclusion of the article. One question yet to be answered is whether we adjust our moral judgments in a systematic way as we gain more details about a moral scenario. Two experiments (lab-based, online) addressed this question along with the influence of other factors on moral judgments (the origin of the moral scenario, the severity of the consequence of the scenario). Across both experiments, moral judgments were: 1) generally adjusted downwards as more information was presented; 2) more severe for headlines than the main story or the conclusion; 3) more severe for scenarios that were fabricated than real life stories; 4) more severe when the conclusion involved a severe consequence than a non-severe consequence.
Dynamic Moral Judgments and Emotions  [PDF]
Magda Osman
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.68090
Abstract: We may experience strong moral outrage when we read a news headline that describes a prohibited action, but when we gain additional information by reading the main news story, do our emotional experiences change at all, and if they do in what way do they change? In a single online study with 80 participants the aim was to examine the extent to which emotional experiences (disgust, anger) and moral judgments track changes in information about a moral scenario. The evidence from the present study suggests that we systematically adjust our moral judgments and our emotional experiences as a result of exposure to further information about the morally dubious action referred to in a moral scenario. More specifically, the way in which we adjust our moral judgments and emotions appears to be based on information signalling whether a morally dubious act is permitted or prohibited.
Behavioral Economics: Where Is It Heading?  [PDF]
Magda Osman
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.69109
Abstract: The addition of “behavioral” to economics has given rise to a highly successful field of research. But, is it just a fashionable new trend or is it here to stay? More to the point, how does it differ from its close relative psychology? To answer these questions, the present article considers what behavioral economics is, and where it started, with the aim of trying to forecast what the status of it will be in the future. In forecasting where behavioral economics might be heading, the argument proposed here is that the best clues can be found in psychological research. If, as has been proposed here, behavioral economics partners research trends in psychology, then the futures of both will almost certainly be moving in the same direction. Both are beginning to, and will start to rely on online tools/mobile phone applications to collect richer data revealing dynamic tends over long time horizons, and as technology continues to facilitate ways of looking at group behaviour online, then larger scale studies examining interactions amongst multiple groups of people will become the norm rather than the exception. More specifically this article speculates on the future research focus of researchers in behavioral economics and the extent to which this will overlap with psychological research on judgment and decision-making.
The Role of Reward in Dynamic Decision Making
Magda Osman
Frontiers in Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2012.00035
Abstract: The present study investigates two aspects of decision making that have yet to be explored within a dynamic environment, (1) comparing the accuracy of cue-outcome knowledge under conditions in which knowledge acquisition is either through Prediction or Choice, and (2) examining the effects of reward on both Prediction and Choice. In the present study participants either learnt about the cue-outcome relations in the environment by choosing cue values in order to maintain an outcome to criterion (Choice-based decision making), or learnt to predict the outcome from seeing changes to the cue values (Prediction-based decision making). During training participants received outcome feedback and one of four types of reward manipulations: Positive Reward, Negative Reward, Both Positive + Negative Reward, No Reward. After training both groups of learners were tested on prediction and choice-based tasks. In the main, the findings revealed that cue-outcome knowledge was more accurate when knowledge acquisition was Choice-based rather than Prediction-based. During learning Negative Reward adversely affected Choice-based decision making while Positive Reward adversely affected predictive-based decision making. During the test phase only performance on tests of choice was adversely affected by having received Positive Reward or Negative Reward during training. This article proposes that the adverse effects of reward may reflect the additional demands placed on processing rewards which compete for cognitive resources required to perform the main goal of the task. This in turn implies that, rather than facilitate decision making, the presentation of rewards can interfere with Choice-based and Prediction-based decisions.
Reward and Feedback in the Control over Dynamic Events  [PDF]
Magda Osman, Brian D. Glass, Zuzana Hola, Susanne Stollewerk
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.87070
Abstract: On what basis do we learn to make effective decisions when faced with intermittent feedback from actions taken in a dynamic decision-making environment? In the present study we hypothesize that reward information (financial, social) may provide useful signals that can guide decision-making in these situations. To examine this, we present three experiments in which people make decisions directly towards controlling a dynamically uncertain output. We manipulate the framing of incentives (gains and losses) and the form of the incentives (financial, social), and measure their impact on decision-making performance (both in frequent and intermittent output feedback conditions). Overall, performance suffered under intermittent output feedback. Relative to social rewards, financial rewards generally improved control performance, and a gains framing (financial, social) leading to better performance than a losses framing (financial, social). To understand how rewards affect behavior in our tasks, we present a reinforcement learning model to capture the learning and performance profiles in each of our experiments. This study shows that information regarding incentives impacts the levels of exploration, the optimality of decisions-making, and the variability in the strategies people develop to control a dynamic output experienced frequently and intermittently.
Looking to Score: The Dissociation of Goal Influence on Eye Movement and Meta-Attentional Allocation in a Complex Dynamic Natural Scene
Shuichiro Taya, David Windridge, Magda Osman
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039060
Abstract: Several studies have reported that task instructions influence eye-movement behavior during static image observation. In contrast, during dynamic scene observation we show that while the specificity of the goal of a task influences observers’ beliefs about where they look, the goal does not in turn influence eye-movement patterns. In our study observers watched short video clips of a single tennis match and were asked to make subjective judgments about the allocation of visual attention to the items presented in the clip (e.g., ball, players, court lines, and umpire). However, before attending to the clips, observers were either told to simply watch clips (non-specific goal), or they were told to watch the clips with a view to judging which of the two tennis players was awarded the point (specific goal). The results of subjective reports suggest that observers believed that they allocated their attention more to goal-related items (e.g. court lines) if they performed the goal-specific task. However, we did not find the effect of goal specificity on major eye-movement parameters (i.e., saccadic amplitudes, inter-saccadic intervals, and gaze coherence). We conclude that the specificity of a task goal can alter observer’s beliefs about their attention allocation strategy, but such task-driven meta-attentional modulation does not necessarily correlate with eye-movement behavior.
Biased but in Doubt: Conflict and Decision Confidence
Wim De Neys,Sofie Cromheeke,Magda Osman
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015954
Abstract: Human reasoning is often biased by intuitive heuristics. A central question is whether the bias results from a failure to detect that the intuitions conflict with traditional normative considerations or from a failure to discard the tempting intuitions. The present study addressed this unresolved debate by using people's decision confidence as a nonverbal index of conflict detection. Participants were asked to indicate how confident they were after solving classic base-rate (Experiment 1) and conjunction fallacy (Experiment 2) problems in which a cued intuitive response could be inconsistent or consistent with the traditional correct response. Results indicated that reasoners showed a clear confidence decrease when they gave an intuitive response that conflicted with the normative response. Contrary to popular belief, this establishes that people seem to acknowledge that their intuitive answers are not fully warranted. Experiment 3 established that younger reasoners did not yet show the confidence decrease, which points to the role of improved bias awareness in our reasoning development. Implications for the long standing debate on human rationality are discussed.
Trained Eyes: Experience Promotes Adaptive Gaze Control in Dynamic and Uncertain Visual Environments
Shuichiro Taya, David Windridge, Magda Osman
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071371
Abstract: Current eye-tracking research suggests that our eyes make anticipatory movements to a location that is relevant for a forthcoming task. Moreover, there is evidence to suggest that with more practice anticipatory gaze control can improve. However, these findings are largely limited to situations where participants are actively engaged in a task. We ask: does experience modulate anticipative gaze control while passively observing a visual scene? To tackle this we tested people with varying degrees of experience of tennis, in order to uncover potential associations between experience and eye movement behaviour while they watched tennis videos. The number, size, and accuracy of saccades (rapid eye-movements) made around ‘events,’ which is critical for the scene context (i.e. hit and bounce) were analysed. Overall, we found that experience improved anticipatory eye-movements while watching tennis clips. In general, those with extensive experience showed greater accuracy of saccades to upcoming event locations; this was particularly prevalent for events in the scene that carried high uncertainty (i.e. ball bounces). The results indicate that, even when passively observing, our gaze control system utilizes prior relevant knowledge in order to anticipate upcoming uncertain event locations.
Nursing Students’ Experience with Information Literacy Skill  [PDF]
Hawa Osman
Yangtze Medicine (YM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ym.2017.13016
Abstract: This study examined the searching skills and extent of usage of electronic databases by Nursing, Midwifery and Public Health Nursing students in the University of Health and Allied Science (UHAS). The focus was on forty (40) level 300 students drawn from a universe of two hundred and forty six (246) of the School of Public Health (SPH). The study used quantitative method approach and the survey instruments were questionnaire, interview and observation. The data collected were analyzed and classified into the following themes: usefulness, extent of use, determinants of use of e-databases, searching skills, and main drawbacks of learning information literacy skills (ILS). Although all the respondents strongly agreed that e-databases are indispensable for academic and professional practice, findings revealed that majority of them have low quality of searching skills and that accounts for the sparse use of the e-databases. This positive association is proven by Pearson’s chi square test (0.000). The study also established that students’ attitude, academic loads and methodology of teaching were the challenges hindering the acquisition of ILS of students. As a consequence, the study recommends that Academic librarians should intensify their education on e-databases, the development of research guides and encourages stronger collaboration with faculty members in the teaching of ILS so that student nurses would be more adept in searching for information to enhanced scholarship and professional practice.
Subjective Burden on Family Carers of Hemodialysis Patients  [PDF]
Magda M. Bayoumi
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2014.42011

Background: Hemodialysis (HD) is an important objective burden (task) on patient with end stage renal disease (ESRD) and the caregiver has a subjective burden which contributes to lifestyle changes, which result in depression, anxiety declining physical health, social isolation and financial strain. Aim: To evaluate the subjective burden on family caregiver who cares patient on maintenance hemodialysis therapy. Methods: Fifty main family caregivers for each patient on HD and the instrument were used by Caregiver Burden Interview (CBI) completed by caregiver as a major of subjective response to care giving. Results: The present study findings demonstrated that main age of caregiver was 40 (11.0) years, two thirds of females, and they were mostly married (78.0%) with children. The total family caregiver burden reported was 43.3 (21.7), role strain 50.0 (25.4) and the personal strain 39.5 (19.7). The total caregivers’ burden significantly positively correlated with the patients’ age (r = 0.461) and negatively correlated with patients’ level of education (r = ?0.290). Moreover the role strain, personal strain and total caregiver burden scores were statistically and significantly negatively correlated with their age (r = ?0.444) and level of education (r = ?0.416) and the total burden scores were ranked as moderately to severely burdened all family caregivers. Conclusion: Caregivers’ appraisal, coping strategies, interpersonal relationship issues, and social support would need to be considered for caregivers of patients maintained on HD.

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