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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 298 matches for " Madhumathi Seshadri "
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Progeria: Too Old, Too Soon
Madhumathi Seshadri
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2007,
Abstract: Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare paediatric syndrome causing physical changes that resemble greatly accelerated aging in sufferers.Currently, there are less than 50 known cases of HGPS in the world and most progeria patients die at around 13 years of age. HGPS is caused by a mutation in the Lamin A gene (LMNA) that results in the synthesis of a mutant prelamin A (also called progerin). Progerin undergoes farnesylation but cannot be further processed to mature lamin A, a key structural component of the cell nucleus. In HGPS cells, progerin accumulates at the rim of the nucleus, causing misshapen nuclei.DescriptionDr. Jonathan Hutchinson in 1886 and Dr. Hastings Gilford in 1904 first described this syndrome. The word progeria is coined from the Greek word geras, which means old age. Progeria syndrome is also known as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, HGPS or Gilford syndrome.
Preeclapmpsia - A Silent Killer!
Image Lakshmi Sivasubramaniam,Madhumathi Seshadri
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2006,
Abstract: Preeclampsia is a disorder that occurs only during pregnancy and the postpartum period and affects both the mother and the unborn baby.Affecting at least 5-8% of all pregnancies, it is a rapidly progressive condition characterized by high blood pressure and the presence of protein in the urine. Any type of high blood pressure occuring during pregnancy is a type of "gestational hypertension". Preeclampsia is severe high blood pressure during pregnancy, and eclampsia is very severe pregnancy gestational hypertension leading to seizures.Preeclampsia is a condition that typically starts after the 20th week of pregnancy (in the late 2nd or 3rd trimesters or middle to late pregnancy), though it can occur earlier. Proper prenatal care is essential to diagnose and manage preeclampsia. Preeclampsia, Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) and toxemia are closely related conditions.
Bee Propolis And Its Medicinal Uses
Mrs. Lakshmi Sivasubramaniam,Madhumathi Seshadri
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2005,
Abstract: Propolis is a mixture of various amounts of beeswax and resins collected bythe honeybee from plants, particularly from flowers and leaf buds. Since itis difficult to observe bees on their foraging trips the exact sources of theresins are usually not known. Bees have been observed scraping the protectiveresins of flower and leaf buds with their mandibles and then carrying them tothe hive like pollen pellets on their hind legs. It can be assumed that in theprocess of collecting and modelling the resins, they are mixed with some salivaand other secretions of the bees as well as with wax.These resins are used by worker bees to line the inside of nest cavities and all brood combs, repair combs, seal small cracks in the hive, reduce the size of hive entrances (see Fig) seal off inside the hive any dead animals or insects which are too large to be carried out and perhaps most important of all, to mix small quantities of propolis with wax to seal brood cells.These uses are significant because they take advantage of the antibacterialand antifungal effects of propolis in protecting the colony against diseases.Propolis has been shown to kill the bee's most ardent bacterial foe, Bacilluslarvae - the cause of American Foul Brood. The use of propolis thus reducesthe chance of infection in the developing brood and the growth of decomposingbacteria in dead animal tissue.
Beeswax: Its Good, Bad And Ugly
Mrs. Lakshmi Sivasubramaniam,Madhumathi Seshadri
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2005,
Abstract: The word wax describes a large variety of substances of plant and animal origin,as well as man-made products, which are mostly petroleum derivatives. Naturalwaxes are not single substances, but a mixture of various long-chain fatty acidsand a variety of other constituents, depending on their origin. Wax from thehoneybee has an extremely wide spectrum of useful applications and occupiesa very special position among waxes.For centuries, beeswax was appreciated as the best material for making candles. The wrappings of Egyptian mummies contained beeswax and beeswax has long found use in medicinal practices and in creams and lotions. Of all the primary bee products it has been, and remains, the most versatile and most widely used material.
Asthma and Its Treatment
Mrs. Lakshmi Sivasubramaniam,Madhumathi Seshadri
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2005,
Abstract: It is a disease that causes the airways of the lungs to tighten. It is a chroniclung condition. It is characterized by difficulty in breathing.An asthma attack is when your lungs aren’t getting enough air to breathe. This narrowing or obstruction can cause one or a combination of the following symptoms: * Trouble breathing * Wheezing * Coughing * Chest pain * Chest tightness * Shortness of breath This narrowing or obstruction is caused by: * Airway inflammation (meaning that the airways in the lungs become red, swollen and narrow) * Broncho constriction (meaning that the muscles that encircle the airways tighten or go into spasm)
Pharmacogenomics: What Is It?
Mrs. Lakshmi Sivasubramaniam,Madhumathi Seshadri
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2006,
Abstract: Pharmacogenomics is the study of how an individual's genetic inheritance affects the body's response to drugs. The term comes from the words pharmacology and genomics and is thus the intersection of pharmaceuticals and genetics.It holds the promise that drugs might one day be tailor-made for individuals and adapted to each person's own genetic makeup. Environment, diet, age, lifestyle, and state of health all can influence a person's response to medicines, but understanding an individual's genetic makeup is thought to be the key to creating personalized drugs with greater efficacy and safety.This combines traditional pharmaceutical sciences such as biochemistry with annotated knowledge of genes, proteins, and single nucleotide polymorphisms.The way a person responds to a drug (this includes both positive and negative reactions) is a complex trait that is influenced by many different genes. Without knowing all of the genes involved in drug response, scientists have found it difficult to develop genetic tests that could predict a person's response to a particular drug. Once scientists discovered that people's genes show small variations (or changes) in their nucleotide (DNA base) content, all of that changed—genetic testing for predicting drug response is now possible. Pharmacogenomics is a science that examines the inherited variations in genes that dictate drug response and explores the ways these variations can be used to predict whether a patient will have a good response to a drug, a bad response to a drug, or no response at all.
Quorum Sensing- Communication Between Bacteria
Mrs. Lakshmi Sivasubramaniam,Madhumathi Seshadri
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2005,
Abstract: The latest discoveries in the field of microbiology have proved that bacteriacommunicate between each other. It is common knowledge that bacterial diseasessuch as cholera, anthrax, meningitis, and many others are among the deadliestin the world. It may be the case, however, that bacteria cannot cause an illnessin small quantities. Only when there are a sufficient number of them can theyact. Some, Vibrio Fischeri or Vibrio Harveyi, can glow in the dark. Others,like Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, form biofilms on the surface of human organs, andattack virulently those organs multiplying with tremendous speed, making itpractically impossible for antibiotics to interfere.What is quorum sensing? Bacteria produce and release chemical signals - autoinducers- in search of similar cells in their close surroundings. This is also called"cell-cell communication." Other bacteria release the same autoinducers in response.One-cell organisms in effect become multi-cellular organisms and can act together.People or animals may have bacteria that cause some serious infectious diseasesand yet not be infected unless the number of bacteria is large enough; thatis to say, unless the quorum has been reached. Even though this phenomenon hasbeen known to scientists since the 1960s, only now they are able to study itin detail. This new branch of microbiology, quorum sensing, discovered by BonnyBassler, professor of microbiology from Princeton, is dedicated to studyingthis phenomenon.
Medicinal Properties Of Liquid Gold: Honey
Mrs. Lakshmi Sivasubramaniam,Madhumathi Seshadri
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2005,
Abstract: Honey is the natural sweet substance produced by honeybees from the nectar of blossoms or from the secretion of living parts of plants or excretions of plant sucking insects on the living parts of plants, which honeybees collect, transform and combine with specific substances of their own, store and leave in the honey comb to ripen and mature.Physical characteristics of honeyViscosity15Its viscosity depends on a large variety of substances and therefore varies with its composition and particularly with its water content (Table 1 & 2). Viscosity is an important technical parameter during honey processing, because it reduces honey flow during extraction, pumping, settling, filtration, mixing and bottling. Raising the temperature of honey lowers its viscosity (Table 3) a phenomenon widely exploited during industrial honey processing. Some honeys, however, show different characteristics in regard to viscosity: Heather (Calluna vulgaris) Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) and Carvia callosa are described as thixotrophic which means they are gel-like (extremely viscous) when standing still and turn liquid when agitated or stirred. By contrast a number of Eucalyptus honeys show the opposite characteristics. Their viscosity increases with agitation.
Budd Chiari Syndrome
Mrs. Lakshmi Sivasubramaniam,Madhumathi Seshadri
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2007,
Abstract: Synonyms 2· Budd's Syndrome· Chiari's Disease· Chiari-Budd Syndrome· Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease· Rokitansky's DiseaseBackground 12,13,14,15,16Budd-Chiari syndrome is an uncommon condition induced by thrombotic or nonthrombotic obstruction to hepatic venous outflow. Budd described it in 1845, and Chiari added the first pathologic description of a liver with "obliterating endophlebitis of the hepatic veins" in 1899. Hepatomegaly, ascites, and abdominal pain characterize Budd-Chiari syndromeWith an average through-flow of 1.7litres per minute, the liver normally receives 70%-80% of its blood from the portal vein and the remainder from the hepatic artery. The blood mixes together and is collected in small venules within the liver lobes from where it is circulated to progressively larger veins, which ultimately become the major hepatic veins.Most individuals have two groups of hepatic veins:
Nicotine Addiction: Is It Due To Genes?
Lakshmi Sivasubramaniam,Madhumathi Seshadri,Neha Shah
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2005,
Abstract: All cigarettes can damage the human body. Any amount of smoke is dangerous.Cigarettes are perhaps the only legal product whose advertised and intendeduse--smoking-- is harmful to the body and causes cancer.The nicotine in cigarette smoke causes an addiction to smoking. Nicotine is an addictive drug--just like heroin and cocaine--for 3 main reasons.· When taken in small amounts, nicotine creates pleasant feelings thatmake the smoker want to smoke more.· Smokers usually become dependent on nicotine and suffer withdrawalsymptoms when they stop smoking. These symptoms include nervousness, headaches,irritability, and difficulty in sleeping.· Because nicotine affects the chemistry of the brain and central nervoussystem, it can affect the mood and nature of the smoker.Although some people try to make their smoking habit safer by smoking fewer cigarettes, most smokers find that hard to do. Some people think that switching from high tar and nicotine cigarettes to those with low tar and nicotine content makes smoking safer, but this is not always true. When people switch to lower tar and nicotine brands, they often smoke more cigarettes or more of each cigarette to get the same nicotine dose as before.
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