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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1359 matches for " Madhukar Rai "
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2-(5-Bromopyridin-3-yl)-5-[3-(4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine-5-ylsulfonyl)thiophen-2-yl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole
Hoong-Kun Fun,Madhukar Hemamalini,Sankappa Rai,A. M. Isloor
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2011, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536811038529
Abstract: In the title compound, C18H13BrN4O3S3, the tetrahydropyridine ring adopts a half-chair conformation with the central methylene-C atom of the NCH2CH2 unit at the flap. The dihedral angles between the tetrahydropyridine ring and the pyridine and two thiophene rings are 69.34 (13) 5.66 (13) and 68.63 (13)°, respectively, while the dihedral angle between the 1,3,4-oxadiazole and tetrahydropyridine rings is 54.76 (13)°. The molecule is stabilized by an intramolecular C—H...N interaction. In the crystal, adjacent molecules are connected via bifurcated C—H...(N,O) hydrogen bonds, forming a chain along the b axis.
2-(Biphenyl-4-yl)-5-[3-(4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine-5-ylsulfonyl)thiophen-2-yl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole
Hoong-Kun Fun,Madhukar Hemamalini,Sankappa Rai,A. M. Isloor
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2011, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536811038621
Abstract: In the title molecule, C25H19N3O3S3, the tetrahydropyridine ring adopts a half-chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the least-squares plane through the tetrahydropyridine ring and two thiophene and two benzene rings are 6.25 (9), 89.49 (9), 76.43 (9) and 84.93 (8)°, respectively, while the dihedral angle between the 1,3,4-oxadiazole and tetrahydropyridine rings is 81.14 (9)°. In the crystal, adjacent molecules are connected via weak C—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming a chain along the b axis.
Seasonal Variation in the Prevalence of Sand Flies Infected with Leishmania donovani
Puja Tiwary, Dinesh Kumar, Mukesh Mishra, Rudra Pratap Singh, Madhukar Rai, Shyam Sundar
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061370
Abstract: Background Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a life threatening neglected infectious disease in the Indian subcontinent, transmitted by the bite of female sand flies. Estimation of the infectivity in the vector population, collected in different seasons, may be useful to better understanding the transmission dynamics of VL as well as to plan vector control measures. Methodology We collected sand flies from highly endemic regions of Bihar state, India for one year over three seasons. The species of the sand flies were confirmed by species-specific PCR-RFLP. Leishmania donovani infection was investigated in 1397 female Phlebotomus argentipes using PCR, targeting the Leishmania specific minicircle of the kDNA region. Further, the parasitic load in the infected sand flies was measured using quantitative PCR. Conclusion Though sand flies were most abundant in the rainy season, the highest rate of infection was detected in the winter season with 2.84% sand flies infected followed by the summer and rainy seasons respectively. This study can help in vector elimination programmes and to reduce disease transmission.
Efficacy and Safety of Paromomycin in Treatment of Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis
Shyam Sundar,Anup Singh,Anurag Tiwari,Saurabh Shukla,Jaya Chakravarty,Madhukar Rai
ISRN Parasitology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/548010
Abstract: Background. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) plays an important role in maintaining endemicity of visceral leishmaniasis and its transmission. Treatment regimens for PKDL are toxic and require 3-4 months of hospitalization. These long and arduous regimens result in extensive noncompliance. There is an urgent need to develop a safe, effective, and acceptable regimen for the treatment of PKDL. Paromomycin (PM) has been recently approved in India for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL); hence we tested its efficacy in patients with PKDL. Methods. In this exploratory study, 31 patients with PKDL aged 10 years and above were administered PM 11?mg/kg daily intramuscularly for 45??days and followed up for one year. Results. Out of 31 patients, 7 patients were lost to followup at 1??year and 9 (37.5%) got cured with complete disappearance of lesion, while 15 (62.5%) showed no improvement by per protocol analysis. Conclusion. Cure rate with 45 intramuscular injections of PM was unacceptably low though there was no serious side effect of the drug. Whether paromomycin can be used in multidrug therapy to shorten the duration of treatment should be the next logical step for investigation. 1. Introduction Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a dermal manifestation of Leishmania donovani infection and often follows resolution of clinical visceral leishmaniasis (VL). However, it may also manifest without prior history of VL in a small minority of patients [1]. PKDL is characterized by macular, papular, or nodular lesions or a mixture of them. It is quite common in Sudan (occurring in >50% of patients with VL), where it may occur concurrently or follows immediately after an episode of VL and heals spontaneously in majority of patients [2], whereas in the Indian subcontinent it occurs in 2–20% of patients, 6 months to several years after an episode of VL [3]. In a recent trial the prevalence of confirmed PKDL cases was 4.4 per 10 000 individuals and 7.8 if probable cases were also considered [4]. Several treatment regimens have been recommended for the treatment of PKDL in India, for example, 120 days of parenteral sodium stibogluconate (20?mg/kg body weight) [1] or three courses of 20 daily infusions of amphotericin B with an interval of 20 days in between the courses [5]. These inordinately long parenteral regimens invariably lead to either nonacceptance or poor compliance. In the last decade two new antileishmanial compounds, miltefosine and paromomycin, have been approved for the treatment of VL in India. There is a report about the efficacy
A new hyphomycetous species from India
AN. RAI*
Indian Phytopathology , 2012,
Abstract:
Population Preference of Net Texture prior to Bed Net Trial in Kala-Azar–Endemic Areas
Murari L. Das,Shri P. Singh,Veerle Vanlerberghe ,Suman Rijal,Madhukar Rai,Prahlad Karki,Shyam Sundar,Marleen Boelaert
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000100
Abstract: Prior to a community-based efficacy trial of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in the prevention of visceral leishmaniasis (VL; also called kala-azar), a pilot study on preference of tools was held in endemic areas of India and Nepal in September 2005. LLINs made of polyester and polyethylene were distributed to 60 participants, who used the nets sequentially for 7 d. Acceptability and preference were evaluated via indirect indicators through questionnaires at three defined time points before and after use of the LLINs and through focus group discussions (FGDs). In the latter, preferences for color and size were also assessed. Untreated bed nets were owned by 87% of the households prior to the study. All users liked textures of both LLIN types after 7 d of use, but had a slight preference for those made of polyester if they were to recommend a LLIN to relatives or friends (p<0.05), mainly because of their relatively greater softness in comparison to polyethylene LLINs. Users reported that both net types reduced mosquito bites and number of insects, including sand fly (bhusana; genus Phlebotomus), inside the house. Side effects were minor and disappeared quickly. The large-scale intervention trial considered the preferences of the study population to decide on the best tool of intervention—light-blue, rectangular, polyester LLINs of different sizes.
Genetic and functional evaluation of the role of CXCR1 and CXCR2 in susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis in north-east India
Sanjana Mehrotra, Michaela Fakiola, Joyce Oommen, Sarra E Jamieson, Anshuman Mishra, Medhavi Sudarshan, Puja Tiwary, Deepa Rani, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Madhukar Rai, Shyam Sundar, Jenefer M Blackwell
BMC Medical Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-12-162
Abstract: Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs4674259, rs2234671, rs3138060) that tag linkage disequilibrium blocks across CXCR1/CXCR2 were genotyped in primary family-based (313 cases; 176 nuclear families; 836 individuals) and replication (941 cases; 992 controls) samples. Family- and population-based analyses were performed to look for association between CXCR1/CXCR2 variants and VL. Quantitative RT/PCR was used to compare CXCR1/CXCR2 expression in mRNA from paired splenic aspirates taken before and after treatment from 19 VL patients.Family-based analysis using FBAT showed association between VL and SNPs CXCR1_rs2234671 (Z-score = 2.935, P = 0.003) and CXCR1_rs3138060 (Z-score = 2.22, P = 0.026), but not with CXCR2_rs4674259. Logistic regression analysis of the case-control data under an additive model of inheritance showed association between VL and SNPs CXCR2_rs4674259 (OR = 1.15, 95%CI = 1.01-1.31, P = 0.027) and CXCR1_rs3138060 (OR = 1.25, 95%CI = 1.02-1.53, P = 0.028), but not with CXCR1_rs2234671. The 3-locus haplotype T_G_C across these SNPs was shown to be the risk haplotype in both family- (TRANSMIT; P = 0.014) and population- (OR = 1.16, P = 0.028) samples (combined P = 0.002). CXCR2, but not CXCR1, expression was down regulated in pre-treatment compared to post-treatment splenic aspirates (P = 0.021).This well-powered primary and replication genetic study, together with functional analysis of gene expression, implicate CXCR2 in determining outcome of VL in India.Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as Kala-azar, is a life-threatening disease caused by protozoans belonging to Leishmania donovani complex. Population based epidemiological surveys suggest that 80-90% of individuals infected with L. donovani show no clinical symptoms [1-3]. Familial clustering, and the range of clinical outcomes from asymptomatic to fatal disease within and between ethnic groups sharing similar risk factors, support a contribution of host genotype to susceptibility [4
No evidence for association between SLC11A1 and visceral leishmaniasis in India
Sanjana Mehrotra, Joyce Oommen, Anshuman Mishra, Medhavi Sudharshan, Puja Tiwary, Sarra E Jamieson, Michaela Fakiola, Deepa Rani, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Madhukar Rai, Shyam Sundar, Jenefer M Blackwell
BMC Medical Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-12-71
Abstract: Nine polymorphisms (rs34448891, rs7573065, rs2276631, rs3731865, rs17221959, rs2279015, rs17235409, rs17235416, rs17229009) that tag linkage disequilibrium blocks across SLC11A1 were genotyped in primary family-based (313 cases; 176 families) and replication (941 cases; 992 controls) samples. Family- and population-based analyses were performed to look for association between SLC11A1 variants and VL. Quantitative RT/PCR was used to compare SLC11A1 expression in mRNA from paired splenic aspirates taken before and after treatment from 24 VL patients carrying different genotypes at the functional promoter GTn polymorphism (rs34448891).No associations were observed between VL and polymorphisms at SLC11A1 that were either robust to correction for multiple testing or replicated across primary and replication samples. No differences in expression of SLC11A1 were observed when comparing pre- and post-treatment samples, or between individuals carrying different genotypes at the GTn repeat.This is the first well-powered study of SLC11A1 as a candidate for VL, which we conclude does not have a major role in regulating VL susceptibility in India.Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a debilitating vector borne disease caused by parasites of the Leishmania donovani complex. Prevalence is high in Bihar State in India, indicating a need to understand more about disease pathogenesis to facilitate disease control. Population based epidemiological surveys suggest that 80-90% of individuals infected with L. donovani show no clinical symptoms [1,2]. Familial clustering, and the range of clinical outcomes from asymptomatic to fatal disease within and between ethnic groups sharing similar risk factors in Brazil [3,4] and Sudan [5,6], support a contribution of host genotype to susceptibility. Candidate gene and genome-wide linkage studies have highlighted a number of genes/gene regions contributing to disease susceptibility (reviewed [7]). However, replication between study sites has not been ob
Leishmania Specific CD4 T Cells Release IFNγ That Limits Parasite Replication in Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis
Rajiv Kumar,Neetu Singh,Shalini Gautam,Om Prakash Singh,Kamlesh Gidwani,Madhukar Rai,David Sacks,Shyam Sundar equal contributor ,Susanne Nylén equal contributor
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003198
Abstract: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is associated with increased circulating levels of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-12, IFNγ, and TNFα, and elevated expression of IFNγ mRNA in lesional tissue such as the spleen and bone marrow. However, an immunological feature of VL patients is that their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) typically fail to respond to stimulation with leishmanial antigen. Unexpectedly, it was recently shown that Leishmania specific IFNγ, can readily be detected when a whole blood stimulation assay (WBA) is used. We sought to define the conditions that permit whole blood cells to respond to antigen stimulation, and clarify the biological role of the IFNγ found to be released by cells from VL patients. CD4+ T cells were found to be crucial for and the main source of the IFNγ production in Leishmania stimulated whole blood (WB) cultures. Complement, antibodies and red blood cells present in whole blood do not play a significant role in the IFNγ response. The IFNγ production was reduced by blockade of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, indicating that the response to leishmanial antigens observed in WB of active VL patients is a classical HLA- T cell receptor (TCR) driven reaction. Most importantly, blockade of IFNγ in ex-vivo splenic aspirate cultures demonstrated that despite the progressive nature of their disease, the endogenous IFNγ produced in patients with active VL serves to limit parasite growth.
Complications of cataract surgery
Reddy Madhukar
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1995,
Abstract:
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