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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1981 matches for " Madhav Narayan Shrestha "
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Water Rights: A key to sustainable development in Nepal
Madhav Narayan Shrestha
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/jhm.v6i1.5486
Abstract: By addressing water, one will also address human development. People’s lack of access to safe and secure water is not due to the quantity of water available on the earth but rather because the institutions set up to manage the issues are not up to the challenge. In Nepal Muluki Ain (Laws of Land) did not regulate water much in detail because water was not considered an important resource and a source of major revenue. Water rights are based on practices legitimized by law and they are related to political, economic and social relationship and to other rights such as land rights Muluki Ain (1854, 1952 and 1963),which regulates priority in acquiring water from water sources, and allocation of water. Acts promulgated between 1961 and 1992 reflect the growing importance of water resources in Nepalese political economy and not only empower the state to regulate water use, they also vested ownership of all water resources with the state. Although various Acts gave water rights to every citizen of Nepal, there are gender bias in executing power and rights to use water sources. Water scarcity problem can perhaps be due to geographical reality, climate change or to the excessive use of water resource in one sector and a resulting loss of raw water available for other uses. Issues such as good water governance, negotiation and collaboration for water sharing, awareness on values of water, management of water induced disasters etc needs specific attention.
Foot Care Knowledge and Practice among Diabetic Patients Attending General Outpatient Clinic in Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital  [PDF]
Tirtha Man Shrestha, Ramesh P. Aacharya, Rabina Shrestha, Madhav KC
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases (OJEMD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2017.78015
Abstract: Background: Diabetes Mellitus results in several serious complications and among them foot problem is one of the commonly ignored complications. This study is an attempt to find out the level of patient’s awareness and practice in Nepalese context. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge and practice of foot care among patients with diabetes in Nepal. Methods: This is a six-month long cross-sectional study done in the General Practice Clinic of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Diabetic patients were given structure questionnaires on knowledge, foot care practices, and demographic information. Results: Illiteracy was found be significantly associated with poor knowledge and practice of foot care. Those who have no education are more likely to have poor knowledge and foot care practice. The odds of having poor knowledge is 6.414 (3.075, 13.379) in those who have no education/primary education compared to those who have education and the odds of poor foot care practice is 4.5180 (2.077, 8.411) in those who have no education/primary education compared to those who have education with significance of <0.001. Conclusion: This study has highlighted the need of appropriate education intervention for the patients with diabetes who have no education background to prevent from foot complications. Health education materials such as graphics, photos are needed to make them comprehensible for the illiterate patients.
Effects Of Type Sports On Pulmonary Function Tests: A Comparative Study In Nepalese Settings
Narayan Bahadur Mahotra,Lava Shrestha
Journal of Nobel Medical College , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/jonmc.v2i1.7667
Abstract: Introduction : Due to regular exercises, athletes tend to have an increase in pulmonary capacity when compared to non-exercising individuals. Intensity and severity of sports engaged in by the athletes probably determines the extent of strengthening of the inspiratory muscles with a resultant increase in the pulmonary functions.1, 2 So, this study has been carried out to establish a relationship between the type of sports and pulmonary functions in Nepalese athletes. Methods: This study has adopted a cross sectional observational comparative research design. Spirometry was conducted in 84 different national level athletes [25.71 (± 4.55) years]. The athletes were from five different sport groups. Out of them, there were 16 weight lifters, 41 footballers, 10 swimmers, 8 marathon runners and 9 sprinters. Among them weight lifters, marathoners and sprinters were selected from the National sports council, Tripureshower, Kathmandu and footballers and swimmers were from the Nepal army club, Kathmandu, Nepal. The spirometry was done in sitting position using MIR SPIROLAB II spirometer based on American Thoracic Society (ATS) recommendations. Pulmonary function was assessed based on Forced Expiratory Volume in first second (FEV1), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) expressed as percent predicted for the age, sex, height, weight and race. Results : When comparing the mean values of FVC, FEV1 and PEFR among the five different sport groups, as expected, athletes who have more strenuous respiratory muscles exercise had significantly superior pulmonary function parameters. For example weight lifters and swimmers had 111.84 and 109.56 percentage of predicted values on FVC (P=0.008) respectively. But marathoners, footballers and sprinters had 105.83, 99.25 and 98.34 percentage of predicted values respectively. Similarly, weight lifters, swimmers, marathoners, footballers and sprinters had 110.63, 110.15 and 110.28, 102.52 and 99.23 percentages of predicted values on FEV1 (p=0.090) respectively. Swimmers, marathoners, footballers, weight lifters and sprinters had 106.03 and 107.34, 104.37, 102.08 and 86.58 percentage of predicted values on PEFR (p=0.027) respectively. Conclusion : Athletes who have most strenuous respiratory muscle exercise like swimming and weight lifting have better pulmonary function tests (PFTs) compared to other athletes like sprinters who have less strenuous muscle exercise. Journal of Nobel Medical College Vol. 2, No.1 Issue 3 Nov.-April 2013 Page 18-21 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jonmc.v2i1.7667
Prevalence of Mange Infestation in Canines of Kathmandu Valley
Yugal Raj Bindari, Sulochana Shrestha and Mukti Narayan Shrestha
International Journal of Veterinary Science , 2012,
Abstract: A study on prevalence of mange infestation was conducted in canines of Kathmandu Valley. A total of 120 samples of suspected positive cases were taken from the dogs for study. Out of total the samples collected, 60 were from owned dogs (CVH- 30, Mount Everest Kennel Club- 22 and Veterinary Clinic- 8) and 60 from stray dogs (KAT- 30 and Animal Nepal-30). The result showed that 56% and 67% sample were positive for mites in owned and stray dogs respectively. Out of total positive samples, 68% were Demodex and 32% were Sarcoptes in case of owned dogs. Likewise, 70% were Demodex species and 30% were Sarcoptes species from the positive samples examined from stray dogs. Study on different breeds in case of owned dogs, Mongrel represents highest prevalence of mites 64%. Sex-wise prevalence showed the highest prevalence of mites in male representing 57%. Among different age groups, 3-6 yrs age were found to be more affected with 65 % followed by 9-12 years with 6 0%, 6-9 years with 57% and lastly 0-3years with 45%. Similarly, the study was also carried out among street dogs irrespective of age and breed. Sex-wise prevalence of mites showed the highest prevalence among females, representing 73%.
Clinical Profile and Outcome of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome in Dhulikhel Hospital of Nepal
Srijana Dongol,Shreema Shrestha,Narayan Shrestha,J Adhikari
Journal of Nepal Paediatric Society , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/jnps.v32i3.6683
Abstract: Introduction: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a constellation of clinical signs and or symptoms i.e. acute fever with acute change in mental status. AES may be present as encephalitis, meningoencephalitis or meningitis. It can be associated with severe complication, including impaired consciousness, seizure, limb paresis or death. Materials and Methods: Study consisted of retrospective analysis of hospital records of children up to 16 years of age admitted with diagnosis of AES in the department of Paediatrics Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Teaching Hospital, Dhulikhel Kavre from January 2010 to December 2011. Results: During the two years (January 2010 to December 2011), 47 patients of AES were admitted. Among the admitted cases there were 34 male and 13 female patients. Meningitis cases were 29, encephalitis cases were 14 and 4 meningoencephalitis cases. Among the meningitis cases, viral meningitis accounted for 12, bacterial meningitis accounted for 15 and 1 tubercular meningitis.One was eosinopilic meningitis in which the causative organism was found to be fasciolosis by ELISA. Viral encephalitis was found to be the most common cause of encephalitis. Sensorineural hearing loss was seen in 3 cases, subdural effusion in 1 and hydrocephalus in 1. One patient had intracranial hemorrhage with hemiparesis as a complication of eosinophilic meningitis. Conclusion: Acute encephalitis syndrome is one of the most common causes of PICU admission in Dhulikhel hospital. Bacterial meningitis was common among the acute encephalitis syndrome followed by viral meningitis. One case of eosinophilic meningitis with intracranical hemorrhage and hemiparesis was found. Sensorineural hearing loss was found to be commonest complication. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jnps.v32i3.6683 J. Nepal Paediatr. SocVol.32(3) 2012 201-205
Enteric fever in Children at Dhulikhel Hospital
Srijana Dongol Singh,Shreema Shrestha,Narayan Shrestha,Sanjay Manandhar
Journal of Nepal Paediatric Society , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/jnps.v32i3.6682
Abstract: Introduction: Typhoid fever is one of the most common public health problems in Nepal. It occurs in all parts of the world where water supplies and sanitation are sub-standard. In Dhulikhel hospital, this is one of the top acute febrile illnesses in inpatient department. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the clinical and laboratory parameters including culture and sensitivity, the response to therapy, and complications of enteric fever among child cases at Dhulikhel Hospital. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Teaching Hospital from January 2009 to June 2011. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS. Results: There were total of 138 cases of enteric fever admitted. There were 73 (53%) male and 65 (47%) female. Eighty-one percent were above five years of age. The most common clinical presentation was fever (100%) followed by headache and G I symptoms. Hepatomegaly was the most common sign seen among the cases and was seen in 110cases (79.71%). Most of the patients had normal WBC count 100 (72.46%) Widal test was positive in 70 (50.72%) cases and blood culture was positive in 52(37.68%) cases. Nalidixic acid was found to be resistant in 26 (50%) cases. Complications were seen in only 7 (5%) enteric fever cases. Conclusion: Typhoid fever is predominant in school going children in Nepal with slight male predominance. Fever lasting over 3 days followed by headache and GI symptoms are the major presenting symptoms. In making the diagnosis, the isolation of bacteria from blood is the “gold standard”. Nalidixic acid resistant Salmonella typhi is on the increasing trend. Pneumonia was found to be the most common complication among all other complications seen in enteric cases. In Dhulikhel Hospital this is one of the top acute febrile illnesses in inpatient department. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jnps.v32i3.6682 J. Nepal Paediatr. SocVol.32(3) 2012 216-220
Metals Assessments in the Water Bodies of Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone, Nepal  [PDF]
Narayan Prasad Ghimire, Bharat Babu Shrestha, Pramod Kumar Jha, Gianumberto Caravello
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.62011

Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park (SNP) of Nepal is a popular international eco-touristic destination. In the last few years, tourist flow has increased tremendously generating anthropogenic pressure on natural environment. Generation of huge solid waste, open defecation and poor septic tank condition of toilets have been considered as the major sources of pollution to water bodies in the area. Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Their presence in the atmosphere, soil and water, even in traces can cause serious problems to all organisms, and heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain especially can be highly dangerous to human health. Heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Mn, Fe and Zn) and metals (Na, Mg) were analyzed. Thirty nine (13 samples in each year) water samples were collected from river and springs to assess the water quality in the SNP and its buffer zone. Water quality in the SNP has been found degraded in terms of heavy metals; particularly Na and Mg contents were found higher when compared with the earlier report. Iron content in 46% samples was found more than WHO and Nepalese standard for drinking water. The river water quality in general still stands good in terms of standard for drinking water (WHO, Nepal standard) however degradation process has accelerated.

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitosis Among School Children in Baglung District of Western Nepal
A Shrestha,KC Narayan,R Sharma
Kathmandu University Medical Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/kumj.v10i1.6904
Abstract: Background This study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites among school-going children of the Baglung municipality from December 2010 to January 2011. Objective To find out prevalence of parasitosis among school aged children and to make necessary recommendations for preventive measures. Method A total of 260 stool samples were collected. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on predisposing factors. Nails were observed without prior information to the subjects so as to find their hygienic practice. The stool samples were examined by direct wet mount and formal ether concentration technique. Results The total prevalence of the intestinal parasitosis was found to be 21.05%. The prevalence for individual parasites was as follows: Entamoeba histolytica (9.23%), Giardia lamblia (5.76%), Trichuris trichuria (5%), Ancylostoma duodenale (2.65%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (2.3%). Nail hygiene and level of education were significantly associated with intestinal parasitosis. The gender and age of the children, sanitary habits including toilet use, hand washing practice, and the use of the antihelminthic drug (albendazole) were not significantly associated with intestinal parasitosis. Higher prevalence was seen in boys, children belonging to age group 10-14 years, lower secondary students, among those who reported gastrointestinal problems within last six months, children from agriculture-based families and children with untrimmed nail. Conclusion Major contributors for the prevalence of parasites were found to be poor personal hygiene and educational level of the children. Health education and mass treatment are recommended as a preventive measures. KATHMANDU UNIVERSITY MEDICAL JOURNAL ?VOL.10 | NO. 1 | ISSUE 37 | JAN - MAR 2012 | 3-6 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/kumj.v10i1.6904
Development of GIS Interface Tool for GAMES Model and Its Application to an Agricultural Watershed in Southern Ontario  [PDF]
Kishor Panjabi, Nabil Allataifeh, Chen Dai, Ramesh Rudra, Pradeep Goel, Narayan Shrestha, Rituraj Shukla
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2018.83024
Abstract: Soil erosion is an important economic and environmental concern throughout the world. In order to assess soil erosion risk and conserve soil and water resources, soil erosion modeling at the watershed scale is imperative. The Guelph model for evaluating effects of Agricultural Management System on Erosion and Sedimentation (GAMES) is tailor-made for such applications; it, however, requires a significant amount of spatial information which needs to be pre-processed using a Geographic Information System (GIS). The GAMES model currently lacks any such automated tools. As such, the GAMES was loosely coupled to a GIS interface to manage the large spatial input data and to produce efficient cartographic representations of model output results. The developed interface tool was tested to simulate the Kettle Creek paired watershed in Southern Ontario, Canada. Result demonstrated that the GIS-assisted procedure increased the ability of the GAMES model in simulating such a spatially varied watershed and made the process more efficient and user-friendly. Furthermore, the quality of reporting and displaying resultant spatial output was also significantly improved. The developed GAMES interface could be applied to any watershed, and the enhancement could be used to assess soil erosion risk and conserve soil and water resources in an effective way.
Mastermind ophthalmology
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2007,
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