Abstract:
I explain the concept that light quarks diffuse in the QCD vacuum following the spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry. I exploit the striking analogy to disordered electrons in metals, identifying, among others, the universal regime described by random matrix theory, diffusive regime described by chiral perturbation theory and the crossover between these two domains.

Abstract:
In this paper we propose a new method for studying spectral properties of the non-hermitian random matrix ensembles. Alike complex Green's function encodes, via discontinuities, the real spectrum of the hermitian ensembles, the proposed here quaternion extension of the Green's function leads directly to complex spectrum in case of non-hermitian ensembles and encodes additionally some spectral properties of the eigenvectors. The standard two-by-two matrix representation of the quaternions leads to generalization of so-called matrix-valued resolvent, proposed recently in the context of diagrammatic methods [1-6]. We argue that quaternion Green's function obeys Free Variables Calculus [7,8]. In particular, the quaternion functional inverse of the matrix Green's function, called after [9] Blue's function obeys simple addition law, as observed some time ago [1,3]. Using this law we derive new, general, algorithmic and efficient method to find the non-holomorphic Green's function for all non-hermitian ensembles of the form H+iH', where ensembles H and H' are independent (free in the sense of Voiculescu [7]) hermitian ensembles from arbitrary measure. We demonstrate the power of the method by a straightforward rederivation of spectral properties for several examples of non-hermitian random matrix models.

Abstract:
We provide a compact exact representation for the distribution of the matrix elements of the Wishart-type random matrices $A^\dagger A$, for any finite number of rows and columns of $A$, without any large N approximations. In particular we treat the case when the Wishart-type random matrix contains redundant, non-random information, which is a new result. This representation is of interest for a procedure of reconstructing the redundant information hidden in Wishart matrices, with potential applications to numerous models based on biological, social and artificial intelligence networks.

Abstract:
We revisit the concept of chiral disorder in QCD in the presence of a QED magnetic field |eH|. Weak magnetism corresponds to |eH| < 1/rho^2 with rho\approx (1/3) fm the vacuum instanton size, while strong magnetism the reverse. Asymptotics (ultra-strong magnetism) is in the realm of perturbative QCD. We analyze weak magnetism using the concept of the quark return probability in the diffusive regime of chiral disorder. The result is in agreement with expectations from chiral perturbation theory. We analyze strong and ultra-strong magnetism in the ergodic regime using random matrix theory including the effects of finite temperature. The strong magnetism results are in agreement with the currently reported lattice data in the presence of a small shift of the Polyakov line. The ultra-strong magnetism results are consistent with expectations from perturbative QCD. We suggest a chiral random matrix effective action with matter and magnetism to analyze the QCD phase diagram near the critical points under the influence of magnetism.

Abstract:
We use a chiral random matrix model to investigate the effects of massive quarks on the distribution of eigenvalues of QCD inspired Dirac operators. Kalkreuter's lattice analysis of the spectrum of the massive (hermitean) Dirac operator for two colors and Wilson fermions is shown to follow from a cubic equation in the quenched approximation. The quenched spectrum shows a Mott-transition from a (delocalized) Goldstone phase softly broken by the current mass, to a (localized) heavy quark phase, with quarks localized over their Compton wavelength. Both phases are distinguishable by the quark density of states at zero virtuality, with a critical quark mass of the order of 100-200 MeV. At the critical point, the quark density of states is given by $\nu_Q (\lambda) \sim |\lambda|^{1/3}$. Using Grassmannian techniques, we derive an integral representation for the resolvent of the massive Dirac operator with one-flavor in the unquenched approximation, and show that near zero virtuality, the distribution of eigenvalues is quantitatively changed by a non-zero quark mass. The generalization of our construction to arbitrary flavors is also discussed. Some recommendations for lattice simulations are suggested.

Abstract:
We suggest that the transition that occurs at large $N_c$ in the eigenvalue distribution of a Wilson loop may have a turbulent origin. We arrived at this conclusion by studying the complex-valued inviscid Burgers-Hopf equation that corresponds to the Makeenko-Migdal loop equation, and we demonstrate the appearance of a shock in the spectral flow of the Wilson loop eigenvalues. This picture supplements that of the Durhuus-Olesen transition with a particular realization of disorder. The critical behavior at the formation of the shock allows us to infer exponents that have been measured recently in lattice simulations by Narayanan and Neuberger in $d=2$ and $d=3$. Our analysis leads us to speculate that the universal behavior observed in these lattice simulations might be a generic feature of confinement, also in $d=4$ Yang-Mills theory.

Abstract:
We point out that the very recent discoveries of BaBar (2317) and CLEO II (2460) are consistent with the general pattern of spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in hadrons built of heavy and light quarks, as originally suggested by us in 1992, and independently by Bardeen and Hill in 1993. The splitting between the chiral doublers follows from a mixing between the light constituent quark mass and the velocity of the heavy quark, and vanishes for a zero constituent quark mass. The general strictures of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking constrain the axial charges in the chiral multiplet, and yield a mass splitting between the chiral doublers of about 345 MeV when the pion coupling to the doublers is half its coupling to a free quark. The chiral corrections are small. This phenomenon is generic and extends to all heavy-light hadrons. We predict the mass splitting for the chiral doublers of the excited mesons (D1,D2). We suggest that the heavy-light doubling can be used to address issues of chiral symmetry restoration in dense and/or hot hadronic matter. In particular, the relative splitting between D and D* mesons and their chiral partners decreases in matter, with consequences on charmonium evolution at RHIC.

Abstract:
If QCD is to undergo a second order phase transition, the light quark return probability is universal for large times at the critical point. We show that this behavior is distinct from the one expected at the mobility edge of a metal-insulator transition or a percolation transition in d$\leq 4$. Our results are accessible to current lattice QCD simulations.

Abstract:
We investigate the effects of several Abelian Aharonov-Bohm fluxes $\phi$ on the Euclidean Dirac spectrum of light quarks in QCD with two colors. A quantitative change in the quark return probability is caused by the fluxes, resulting into a change of the spectral correlations. These changes are controlled by a universal function of $\sigma_L \phi^2$ where $\sigma_L$ is the pertinent Ohmic conductance. The quark return probability is sensitive to Abelian flux-disorder but not to $Z_2$ flux-disorder in the ergodic and diffusive regime, and may be used as a probe for the nature of the confining fields in the QCD vacuum.

Abstract:
We give a pedagogical introduction to the concept that light quarks diffuse in the QCD vacuum following the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. By analogy with disordered electrons in metals, we show that the diffusion constant for light quarks in QCD is $D=2F_{\pi}^2/|\la\bar{q}q\to|$ which is about 0.22 fm. We comment on the correspondence between the diffusive phase and the chiral phase as described by chiral perturbation theory, as well as the cross-over to the ergodic phase as described by random matrix theory. The cross-over is identified with the Thouless energy $E_c=D/\sqrt{V_4}$ which is the inverse diffusion time in an Euclidean four-volume $V_4$.