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Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator and H+ Permeability in Regulation of Golgi pH
Machen TE,Chandy G,Wu M,Grabe M
JOP Journal of the Pancreas , 2001,
Abstract: This paper reviews experiments from this lab that have tested the hypothesis that pH of the Golgi (pH(G)) of cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelial cells is alkaline compared to normal, that this altered pH affects sialyltransferase and other Golgi enzymes controlling biochemical composition of the plasma membrane and that altered surface biochemistry increases bacterial binding. We generated a plasmid encoding a modified green fluorescence protein-sialyltransferase (GFP-ST) chimera protein that was pH-sensitive and localized to the Golgi when transfected into HeLa cells and also CF and normal or cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator- (CFTR)-corrected airway epithelial cells. Digital imaging microscopy of these Golgi-localized probes showed that there was no correlation between pH(G) (6.4-7.0) and the presence of CFTR, whether cells were in HCO(3)(-)/CO(2)-containing or in HCO(3)(-)/CO(2)-free solutions. Activation of CFTR by raising cell [cAMP] had no effect on pH(G). Thus, CFTR seemed not to be involved in controlling pH(G). Experiments on HeLa cells using an avidin-sialyltransferase chimera in combination with a pH-sensitive fluorescent biotin indicated that even in cells that do not express CFTR, Cl(-) and K(+) conductances of the Golgi and other organelle membranes were large and that pH(G) was controlled solely by the H(+) v-ATPase countered by a H(+) leak. A mathematical model was applied to these and other published data to calculate passive H(+) permeability (P(H+)) of the Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum, trans-Golgi network, recycling endosomes and secrety granules from a variety of cells. An organelle's acidity was inversely correlated to its calculated P(H+). We conclude that the CFTR plays a minor role in organelle pH regulation because other (Cl(-) and K(+)) channels are present in sufficient numbers to shunt voltages generated during H(+) pumping. Acidity of the Golgi (and perhaps other organelles) appears to be determined by the activity of H(+) pumps countered by H(+) leaks.
Standard Polynomial Equations over Division Algebras
Adam Chapman,Casey Machen
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Given a central division algebra $D$ of degree $d$ over a field $F$, we associate to any standard polynomial $\phi(z)=z^n+c_{n-1} z^{n-1}+\dots+c_0$ over $D$ a "companion polynomial" $\Phi(z)$ of degree $n d$ with coefficients in $F$ whose roots are exactly the conjugacy classes of the roots of $\phi(z)$. We explain how in case $D$ is a quaternion algebra, all the roots of $\phi(z)$ can be recovered from the roots of $\Phi(z)$. On the way, we also generalize certain theorems that were known for $\mathbb{H}$ to any division algebra, such as the connection between the right eigenvalues of a matrix and the roots of its characteristic polynomial, and the connection between the roots of a standard polynomial and left eigenvalues of the companion matrix.
О.В. Teбенко
Information Technologies and Learning Tools , 2011,
Abstract: Tools for sites building that offer users the ability to work together, an actual theme in information society and modern Web technologies. This article considers the SharePoint system, which enables to create sites of any complexity, including large portals with a complex structure of documents. Purpose of this article is to consider the main points of site creating and its setting with tools of SharePoint system, namely: a site template creating and configuring, web application environment to create and configure Web applications, change of existing and creation of new theme site, a web part setting. Засоби для створення сайт в, що надають користувачам можлив сть для зручного керування контентом сайту, актуальною темою в пер од розвитку нформац йного сусп льства. У статт розглянуто систему SharePoint, за допомогою яко можна створювати сайти будь-якого р вня складност , у тому числ велик портали з складною структурою документооб гу. Метою статт анал з основних процес в створення сайту та його налагодження за допомогою системи SharePoint, а саме, створення налаштування шаблону сайту, створення веб-застосувань, орган зац я середовища для створення та налаштування веб-застосувань, зм на снуючо та створення ново теми сайту, налаштування веб-частин.
Same Day Identification and Full Panel Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Bacteria from Positive Blood Culture Bottles Made Possible by a Combined Lysis-Filtration Method with MALDI-TOF VITEK Mass Spectrometry and the VITEK2 System
Alexandra Machen, Tim Drake, Yun F. (Wayne) Wang
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087870
Abstract: Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms causing bloodstream infections or sepsis have the potential to improve patient care. This proof-of-principle study evaluates the Lysis-Filtration Method for identification as well as antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria directly from positive blood culture bottles in a clinical setting. A total of 100 non-duplicated positive blood cultures were tested and 1012 microorganism-antimicrobial combinations were assessed. An aliquot of non-charcoal blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer briefly before being filtered and washed. Microorganisms recovered from the filter membrane were first identified by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight VITEK? Mass Spectrometry (VITEK MS). After quick identification from VITEK MS, filtered microorganisms were inoculated to VITEK?2 system for full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing analysis. Of 100 bottles tested, the VITEK MS resulted in 94.0% correct organism identification to the species level. Compared to the conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing from VITEK?2 resulted in 93.5% (946/1012) category agreement of antimicrobials tested, with 3.6% (36/1012) minor error, 1.7% (7/1012) major error, and 1.3% (13/1012) very major error of antimicrobials. The average time to identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was 11.4 hours by using the Lysis-Filtration method for both VITEK MS and VITEK?2 compared to 56.3 hours by using conventional methods (p<0.00001). Thus, the same-day results of microorganism identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing directly from positive blood culture can be achieved and can be used for appropriate antibiotic therapy and antibiotic stewardship.
A Conservative Finite Difference Scheme for Poisson-Nernst-Planck Equations
Allen Flavell,Michael Machen,Bob Eisenberg,Chun Liu,Xiaofan Li
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: A macroscopic model to describe the dynamics of ion transport in ion channels is the Poisson-Nernst-Planck(PNP) equations. In this paper, we develop a finite-difference method for solving PNP equations, which is second-order accurate in both space and time. We use the physical parameters specifically suited toward the modelling of ion channels. We present a simple iterative scheme to solve the system of nonlinear equations resulting from discretizing the equations implicitly in time, which is demonstrated to converge in a few iterations. We place emphasis on ensuring numerical methods to have the same physical properties that the PNP equations themselves also possess, namely conservation of total ions and correct rates of energy dissipation. We describe in detail an approach to derive a finite-difference method that preserves the total concentration of ions exactly in time. Further, we illustrate that, using realistic values of the physical parameters, the conservation property is critical in obtaining correct numerical solutions over long time scales.
Ethiopia’s WTO Accession and Financial Services Liberalization: Striking the Balance between Trade Liberalization and Domestic Policy Space
TE Kassahun
Mizan Law Review , 2012,
Abstract: This article examines some of the main provisions of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the Annex on Financial Services to evaluate its impact on domestic financial regulation and macroeconomic policy. In particular, it analyzes whether Ethiopia can – upon accession and within the WTO’s GATS framework – achieve the objective of liberalizing international trade in financial services while maintaining adequate domestic regulatory institutions and the normative framework needed in this regard. The article investigates whether GATS provides a flexible framework for Ethiopia to negotiate liberalization commitments while at the same time preserving a sufficient level of domestic regulatory space to achieve financial and economic stability.
High TNF-alpha plasma levels and macrophages iNOS and TNF-alpha expression as risk factors for painful diabetic neuropathy
Purwata TE
Journal of Pain Research , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S21751
Abstract: h TNF-alpha plasma levels and macrophages iNOS and TNF-alpha expression as risk factors for painful diabetic neuropathy Original Research (4000) Total Article Views Authors: Purwata TE Published Date June 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 169 - 175 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S21751 Thomas Eko Purwata Neurology Department, Udayana University/Sanglah General Hospital, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia Abstract: Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus. Recently it has become clear that nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of PDN. We investigated whether the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and NO play a role in PDN pathogenesis by performing a cross-sectional and a case–control study in 110 type 2 diabetic patients. Of 110 subjects, 59 patients suffered from PDN (cases) and the remaining were painless DN (controls). Cross-sectionally, plasma TNF-α levels and immunoreactivity for inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and TNF-α were higher in patients with more severe pain on the visual analog scale. There were statistically significant differences between mild and severe pain for TNF-α levels, iNOS immunoreactivity, and TNF-α immunoreactivity. There were statistically significant differences between mild and severe pain for TNF-α levels (mean 15.24 pg/mL ± 5.42 vs 20.44 ± 10.34), iNOS immunoreactivity (9.76% ± 8.60% vs 15.48% ± 11.56%), and TNF-α immunoreactivity (13.0% ± 9.48% vs 20.44% ± 11.75%). The case–control study showed that TNF-α had an odds ratio of 5.053 (P < 0.001), TNF-α immunoreactivity of 4.125 (P < 0.001), and iNOS immunoreactivity of 3.546 (P = 0.002). DN patients with high TNF-α levels, and high iNOS and TNF-α expression in macrophages are at risk of suffering from pain. The higher the TNF-α level, and iNOS and TNF-α immunoreactivity, the more severe the pain. These findings could form the basis of further research into better management of PDN.
Content analysis of Hydrometeorological Network in the Lower Benue River Basin, Nigeria
TE Ologunorisa
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2009,
Abstract: This study deals with content analysis of hydrometerological networks in the Lower Benue River Basin, Nigeria. This is with the overall aim of determining the effectiveness of the network in terms of providing useful data for agricultural planning. The study examines the type of stations in the river basin, the type of equipment available in each station, the frequency of observation, and the range of weather elements measured as well as the utilitarian value of the networks for agricultural research and environmental panning and management. To realize this, a total of 30 out of 48 hydrometerological stations in the river basin were analyzed. The results of the analysis show among other things that, complete data were very hard to come by, and so much interpolation had to be done. Thus important hydrometerological information relevant to agricultural planning are missing. Also that the existing spatial distribution of the networks has been found to be highly inadequate in some parts of the river basin. Finally, only the synoptic stations have little relevance of agricultural production. The study concludes by recommending a wide range of measures to improve the quality of the networks to ensure sustainable agricultural production and planning in the region.
Strategies for Mitigation of Flood Risk in the Niger Delta, Nigeria
TE Olugunorisa
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2009,
Abstract: The study has the major objective of evaluating flood risk mitigation strategies in the Niger Delta, a coastal region of Nigeria that suffers from perennial flooding. The Raper argues that the structural methods of flood control tends to give a false sense of security to flood plain dwellers and thereby encouraging investments in flood prone areas. The non-structural methods on the other hand are basically behavioural adjustments to flood control. The study observes that for flood risk mitigation strategies to be effective in the Niger Delta, there is need for establishment of coastal management zone authority, land-use zoning, legislation, building codes, flood forecasting and warning systems, flood insurance and engineering control of the major river systems
Dilemma of Study on Chinese National Traditional Sports Culture and the Selection of Paths
Te Bu
Asian Social Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v7n1p115
Abstract: Any academic research is a kind of scientific exploration activities under direction of a certain methodology, with no exception in the case of modern sports science research, which refers to exploration on the general meaning and value system within the field of sports under direction of certain methodology and thought so as to promote sports activities developing towards a direction that is more favorable for human being. Sports science method is the bridge of transfer from sports theory to sports practice, which not only determines the level of sports scientific research achievements, but also affects development of sports practice and which will necessarily be improved and developed with progress of the society and with development of sports practice. To study and reflect on research methods of Chinese national traditional sports culture has profound significance to promote development of national traditional sports culture and to protect and inherit excellent sports culture heritage.
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