oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1991 matches for " MacDonald SM "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /1991
Display every page Item
Potential role of histamine releasing factor (HRF) as a therapeutic target for treating asthma and allergy
MacDonald SM
Journal of Asthma and Allergy , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JAA.S28868
Abstract: tential role of histamine releasing factor (HRF) as a therapeutic target for treating asthma and allergy Review (1907) Total Article Views Authors: MacDonald SM Published Date September 2012 Volume 2012:5 Pages 51 - 59 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JAA.S28868 Received: 28 June 2012 Accepted: 02 August 2012 Published: 17 September 2012 Susan M MacDonald The Johns Hopkins Asthma and Allergy Center, Baltimore MD, USA Abstract: Histamine releasing factor (HRF), also known as translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein that has both intracellular and extracellular functions. Here, we will highlight the history of the molecule, its clinical implications with a focus on its extracellular functioning, and its potential role as a therapeutic target in asthma and allergy. The cells and cytokines produced when stimulated or primed by HRF/TCTP are detailed as well as the downstream signaling pathway that HRF/TCTP elicits. While it was originally thought that HRF/TCTP interacted with IgE, the finding that cells not binding IgE also respond to HRF/TCTP called this interaction into question. HRF/TCTP, or at least its mouse counterpart, appears to interact with some, but not all IgE and IgG molecules. HRF/TCTP has been shown to activate multiple human cells including basophils, eosinophils, T cells, and B cells. Since many of the cells activated by HRF/TCTP participate in the allergic response, extracellular functions of HRF/TCTP may exacerbate the allergic, inflammatory cascade. Particularly exciting is that small molecule agonists of Src homology 2-containing inositol phosphatase-1 have been shown to modulate the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway and may control inflammatory disorders. This review discusses this possibility in light of HRF/TCTP.
Potential role of histamine releasing factor (HRF) as a therapeutic target for treating asthma and allergy
MacDonald SM
Journal of Asthma and Allergy , 2012,
Abstract: Susan M MacDonaldThe Johns Hopkins Asthma and Allergy Center, Baltimore MD, USAAbstract: Histamine releasing factor (HRF), also known as translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein that has both intracellular and extracellular functions. Here, we will highlight the history of the molecule, its clinical implications with a focus on its extracellular functioning, and its potential role as a therapeutic target in asthma and allergy. The cells and cytokines produced when stimulated or primed by HRF/TCTP are detailed as well as the downstream signaling pathway that HRF/TCTP elicits. While it was originally thought that HRF/TCTP interacted with IgE, the finding that cells not binding IgE also respond to HRF/TCTP called this interaction into question. HRF/TCTP, or at least its mouse counterpart, appears to interact with some, but not all IgE and IgG molecules. HRF/TCTP has been shown to activate multiple human cells including basophils, eosinophils, T cells, and B cells. Since many of the cells activated by HRF/TCTP participate in the allergic response, extracellular functions of HRF/TCTP may exacerbate the allergic, inflammatory cascade. Particularly exciting is that small molecule agonists of Src homology 2-containing inositol phosphatase-1 have been shown to modulate the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway and may control inflammatory disorders. This review discusses this possibility in light of HRF/TCTP.Keywords: human basophils, human eosinophils, inducible transgenic mouse, interleukin 4, interleukin 13, translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP)
Emergency Preparedness Nursing Education: Learner and Faculty Perspectives  [PDF]
Geraldine Jody Macdonald
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.511108
Abstract: Over the past decade, entry-to-practice emergency preparedness competencies have been identified as an essential component of nursing education. In this paper the author reports upon a small Canadian study which explores the perspective of undergraduate learners and faculty members who participated in and/or facilitated an Emergency Preparedness Simulation (EPS) module during a primary health care praxis course. The central purpose of this study was to explore the related experiences of learners and faculty who participated in or facilitated an Emergency Preparedness Simulation (EPS) module academic year and their perspectives on the effectiveness of the simulation in preparing learners to respond to emergencies in the future. The EPS module included a seminar followed by a mass-casualty simulation experience. The mass-casualty simulation experience included a “Teddy Bear” triage and an “Explosion” triage. The constructivist data analysis identified four related patterns for both the learner and faculty participants: Strengths (S), Objections (O), Suggestions (S), and Feelings (!) [SOS!]. Three themes were identified in each pattern: relevance, design, and engagement. In comparing the learner and faculty perspectives, there is a clear congruence between the strengths identified, the objections identified, and the power of feelings for both learners and faculty who participate in the emergency preparedness scenarios. Learners and faculty had different suggestions. Learners suggested more time on developing skills, particularly around first aid of individual clients, and recommended all students begin with the “Teddy Bear” triage. Faculty suggested a re-thinking of the “Explosion” triage simulation to emphasize community based emergency preparedness and responsiveness. Such re-focusing would support the integration of key primary health care principles and values including equity, social justice, and social determinants of health. Learners and faculty valued the EPS module and recommended it continue to be a learning component of the primary health care course.
The liberal battlefields of global business regulation
Kate Macdonald,Terry Macdonald
Ethics & Global Politics , 2010, DOI: 10.3402/egp.v3i4.5751
Abstract: The global justice movement has often been associated with opposition to the broad programme of ‘neoliberalism’ and associated patterns of ‘corporate globalisation’, creating a widespread impression that this movement is opposed to liberalism more broadly conceived. Our goal in this article is to challenge this widespread view. By engaging in critical interpretive analysis of the contemporary ‘corporate accountability’ movement, we argue that the corporate accountability agenda is not opposed to the core values of a liberal project. Rather, it is seeking to reconfigure the design of liberal institutions of individual rights-protection, adjusting these for new material conditions associated with economic globalisation, under which powerful corporations alongside states now pose direct and significant threats to individual rights. This activist agenda is, therefore, much less radical in its challenge to the prevailing liberal global order than it may initially appear, since it functions to buttress rather than corrode many core normative commitments underpinning the liberal political project.
How long does it take to become a competent mammographer?
SM Naylor
Breast Cancer Research , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/bcr214
Abstract: The mean number of mammograms taken was 322 (range 250-770); the mean number of weeks was 34 (16-54); the number of weeks for those with no experience was 35 (16-54), for those with limited experience was 35 (19-49) and for an experienced individual was 34 (16-44). The number of mammograms for those with no experience was 385 (253-770), for those with limited experience was 308 (250-551) and for an experienced individual was 292 (251-350). The number of weeks for a trainee participating in breast screening was 32 (16-54) and for those performing symptomatic mammograms only 35.5 (26-49). The number of mammograms for screening was 352 (250-770) and for symptomatic alone was 281 (251-350).The average time taken to reach the required standard to gain the Certificate of Competence in Mammography is not dependent on the previous experience in mammography. However, the number of mammograms taken before the standard is reached may be less the greater the previous experience. The type of work undertaken during the training bears little relevance to the number of weeks taken to accreditation. The number of mammograms taken during the period of training was greater for the individuals working in a screening unit.
Individual growth of Heleobia piscium in natural populations (Gastropoda: Cochliopidae) from the multiple use natural Reserve Isla Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Martin, SM.;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842008000300020
Abstract: the present work analyses the individual growth of heleobia piscium in natural conditions in coastal drainage channels of the multiple use natural reserve isla martín garcía, buenos aires, argentina. isla martín garcía is located in the upper río de la plata, to the south of the mouth of the uruguay river (34° 11' 25" s and 58° 15' 38" w). monthly collections were made from july 2005 to july 2006 in the eastern part of the island (arena beach). the population of h. piscium showed a complex and dynamic structure of sizes during a long period of the annual cycle. two cohorts could be detected. the bertalanffy growth equation was: lt = 6 (1-e -1.85 (t+0.38)) and lt = 3.9 (1-e -0.19 (t+4.84)) for cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. the pattern of population growth displayed a staggered model, where the greatest growth is observed during the summer. the reproductive period occurred during six months, from the beginning of summer to middle of fall. based on only one reproductive effort, this pattern is not similar to that of other cogeneric species already studied.
Reforms and Industrial Development and Trade in East Africa: The Case of Tanzania
SM Kapunda
African Journal of International Affairs , 2004,
Abstract: The objective of this discussion is to critically examine the performance of the industrial and trade sectors in the context of the East African Community (EAC). It has been shown that the industrial performance has some direct impact on trade and that Tanzania’s trade shares to EAC are still low. Furthermore, despite the recent impressive performance of the industrial sector, there are traditional and competitive challenges to the sector. The paper therefore concludes by providing policy recommendations.
Simulation par ordinateur de la ligne Haute Tension en régime permanent dans les conditions aléatoires
SM Debbal
Afrique Science: Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie , 2005,
Abstract: Computing simulation of the high voltage line operation during permanent state in random conditions The aim of this work consists of the simulation by computer for the operation of the High Voltage (HV) line and also of the network distribution. This will be done by the establishment of a model which can take account of the energy distribution between the various elements of the HV network under normal and random operation conditions. The results we obtain make it possible to understand and act upon the network operation.This allows an improvement and an optimisation of the energy distribution.
Gender-specific constraints affecting technology use and household food security in western province of Kenya.
SM Mikalitsa
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2010,
Abstract: The factors that hinder farm intensification process among smallholders in Kenya are many and varied. These factors are not gender neutral; they affect the ability of both men and women to achieve greater productivity in agriculture. Lack of farm intensification contributes to stagnation of agriculture, increases poverty and limits rural development. The problems that face women farmers are more distinct due to socio-cultural constraints that affect their access to and control over essential assets necessary for improving their livelihoods and those of their households. Lack of access to and ownership of productive assets is an effect as well as a cause of poverty. The objective of the study was to assess gender specific constraints that affect the impact of farm technologies on household food security among smallholders in Western Province of Kenya. A multi-stage stratified random sampling technique was used to select 499 households. Using a semi-structured questionnaire administered to household heads together with six focus group discussions, the study examined how gender affects the intensity of use of farm technologies such as hybrid seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, animal draught power and storage technologies and impact on household food security. In addition, the study analyzed the effect of the level of education of household head and contact with extension service on maize yield. The results show that lack of access to land, extension services, credit, income and low education level are the most important constraints facing women farmers. While women accessed credit from informal sources such as rotating credit and savings, men accessed credit from banks and cooperatives. Women who accessed credit spent more on farm inputs and consequently they realized higher maize output. The results further showed that access to extension services was a problem to both genders; 21 % of women and 20 % of men had access to extension services - demonstrating the inability of the current extension system to disseminate existing and new technologies to smallholders. Access to formal school-based education and extension service had a large and significant effect on maize yield. Women were further constrained by limited time to perform their roles as well as limited access to technologies. Wives (59%) were more affected by labour changes associated with technology use than husbands (21%). The findings provide useful information to policy makers on how to address the complex issues related to gender, agricultural development and rural poverty.
Beyond the Impasse of African Industrial Development: The Case of Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia
SM Kapunda
Africa Development , 2007,
Abstract: The thrust of this article is to examine critically the importance, performance and under-weighting of the industrial sector in Africa focusing on three countries, Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia, in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. The article shows that both theoretical and empirical evidence indicates somewhat unsatisfactory industrial performance. The article attempts to explain the way forward (beyond the impasse), by providing alternative approaches, opportunities and recommendations.
Page 1 /1991
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.