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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 130 matches for " Maartje Luijten "
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The Clinical Relevance of Neurocognitive Measures in Addiction
Reshmi Marhe,Ingmar H. Franken,Maartje Luijten
Frontiers in Psychiatry , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00185
Abstract: One of the major challenges in addiction treatment is relapse prevention, as rates of relapse following treatment remain very high across the main classes of drugs of abuse. Relapse prevention could be improved by a better understanding of the factors that influence treatment outcomes, including better predictors of risk of relapse following treatment. Recent developments in cognitive neuroscience point to neurocognitive measures (i.e., brain-imaging measures during cognitive task performance) as potential predictors of relapse. These might even be better predictors than self-report measures, such as craving. We first give an overview of the current state of the field, and then discuss the outstanding challenges and future directions in this area of research.
Deficits in Inhibitory Control in Smokers During a Go/NoGo Task: An Investigation Using Event-Related Brain Potentials
Maartje Luijten,Marianne Littel,Ingmar H. A. Franken
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018898
Abstract: The role of inhibitory control in addictive behaviors is highlighted in several models of addictive behaviors. Although reduced inhibitory control has been observed in addictive behaviors, it is inconclusive whether this is evident in smokers. Furthermore, it has been proposed that drug abuse individuals with poor response inhibition may experience greater difficulties not consuming substances in the presence of drug cues. The major aim of the current study was to provide electrophysiological evidence for reduced inhibitory control in smokers and to investigate whether this is more pronounced during smoking cue exposure.
Critical properties of the three-dimensional equivalent-neighbor model and crossover scaling in finite systems
Erik Luijten
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.59.4997
Abstract: Accurate numerical results are presented for the three-dimensional equivalent-neighbor model on a cubic lattice, for twelve different interaction ranges (coordination number between 18 and 250). These results allow the determination of the range dependences of the critical temperature and various critical amplitudes, which are compared to renormalization-group predictions. In addition, the analysis yields an estimate for the interaction range at which the leading corrections to scaling vanish for the spin-1/2 model and confirms earlier conclusions that the leading Wegner correction must be negative for the three-dimensional (nearest-neighbor) Ising model. By complementing these results with Monte Carlo data for systems with coordination numbers as large as 52514, the full finite-size crossover curves between classical and Ising-like behavior are obtained as a function of a generalized Ginzburg parameter. Also the crossover function for the effective magnetic exponent is determined.
Monte Carlo simulation of spin models with long-range interactions
Erik Luijten
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: An efficient Monte Carlo algorithm for the simulation of spin models with long-range interactions is discussed. Its central feature is that the number of operations required to flip a spin is independent of the number of interactions between this spin and the other spins in the system. In addition, critical slowing down is strongly suppressed. In order to illustrate the range of applicability of the algorithm, two specific examples are presented. First, some aspects of the Kosterlitz--Thouless transition in the one-dimensional Ising chain with inverse-square interactions are calculated. Secondly, the crossover from Ising-like to classical critical behavior in two-dimensional systems is studied for several different interaction profiles.
Test of renormalization predictions for universal finite-size scaling functions
Erik Luijten
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.60.7558
Abstract: We calculate universal finite-size scaling functions for systems with an n-component order parameter and algebraically decaying interactions. Just as previously has been found for short-range interactions, this leads to a singular epsilon-expansion, where epsilon is the distance to the upper critical dimension. Subsequently, we check the results by numerical simulations of spin models in the same universality class. Our systems offer the essential advantage that epsilon can be varied continuously, allowing an accurate examination of the region where epsilon is small. The numerical calculations turn out to be in striking disagreement with the predicted singularity.
The Dynamics of the Treatment-enhancement Distinction: ADHD as a Case Study
Maartje Schermer
Philosophica , 2007,
Abstract: A central issue in the ethical debate on psychopharmacological enhancers concerns the distinction between therapy and enhancement. Although from a theoretical point of view it is difficult to make a clear-cut distinction between treatment (of disease) on the one hand, and enhancement (of normal functioning) on the other, in medical practice and policy debates the counter-positioning of therapy to enhancement is clearly at work. Especially pharmaceutical companies have an interest in occupying the "grey" area between normal and abnormal, treatment and enhancement. This article discusses the dynamics of the treatment-enhancement distinction, and argues that practices that could be labelled "enhancement" can also be understood in terms of medicalisation and "disease mongering". The argument is supported by results from a qualitative empirical study into the experiences and opinions of adults diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Patients are ambivalent about how to understand ADHD: as a disease, a disorder or a normal variation. Intervention with psychopharmacological means can also be understood in different ways. From an insider perspective it is conceived of as a "normalising" of functioning, whereas from an outsider perspective it can be understood as medicalisation of underperformance, or indeed as performance enhancement. This draws attention to new moral issues which are important but under-recognised in the enhancement debate, and which are related to medicalisation.
G. Noordenbos, Vrouwen in de academies van wetenschappen. Van uitsluiting tot uitzondering
Maartje Broekhans
BMGN : Low Countries Historical Review , 2001,
Representing Distant Victims: The Emergence of an Ethical Movement in Dutch Colonial Politics, 1840-1880
Maartje Janse
BMGN : Low Countries Historical Review , 2013,
Abstract: This article attempts to add to our understanding of the relations between the Netherlands and its colonies in the little researched period of 1840-1880 when this relation became politicised. This was a direct result of a new notion of citizenship that developed after the 1848 constitution was implemented: many believed that citizens had now become accountable for government policies, that is, as far as they were acquainted with the effects these had abroad. Colonial issues were among the first for which citizens developed new protest forms and demanded that public opinion should be taken more seriously by the government. This means that not only what happened in the colonies influenced the shape and structure of Dutch politics in an important formative stage, but also that sentiments usually connected to the introduction of the Ethical Policy can be traced back much earlier than is often assumed.
Ethical Issues in Deep Brain Stimulation
Maartje Schermer
Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fnint.2011.00017
Abstract: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently used to treat neurological disorders like Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, and is explored as an experimental treatment for psychiatric disorders like major depression and obsessive compulsive disorder. This mini review discusses ethical issues in DBS treatment and research, as they have been discussed in the medical and ethical literature. With regard to DBS treatment, the most important issues are balancing risks and benefits and ensuring respect for the autonomous wish of the patient. This implies special attention to patient selection, psycho-social impact of treatment, effects on personal identity, and treatment of children. Moreover, it implies a careful informed consent process in which unrealistic expectations of patients and their families are addressed and in which special attention is given to competence. In the context of research, the fundamental ethical challenge is to promote high-quality scientific research in the interest of future patients, while at the same time safeguarding the rights and interests of vulnerable research subjects. Several guidelines have been proposed to ensure this. One of the preconditions to further development of responsible and transparent research practices is the establishment of a comprehensive registry.
OH-selected AGB and post-AGB stellar objects II.Blue versus red evolution off the AGB
Maartje Sevenster
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/339828
Abstract: Using objects found in a systematic survey of the galactic Plane in the 1612-MHz OH line, we discuss in detail two ``sequences'' of post-AGB evolution, a red and a blue. We argue that the red and the blue groups separate by initial mass at 4Msun, based on evolutionary-sequence turn-off colours, spectral energy distributions, outflow velocities and scaleheight. The higher-mass (blue) objects may have earlier AGB termination. The lower-mass (red) objects undergo very sudden reddening for IRAS colour R21\sim1.2; these sources must all undergo a very similar process at AGB termination. The transition colour corresponds to average initial masses of 1.7Msun. A combined IRAS-MSX colour proves a very sensitive tool to distinguish lower-mass, early post-AGB objects from sources still on the AGB and also to distinguish more evolved post-AGB objects from star-forming regions. The high-mass blue objects are the likely precursors of bipolar planetary nebulae, whereas the low-mass red objects will evolve into elliptical planetary nebulae.
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