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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 104 matches for " Maarit Hallikainen "
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Low-Fat Nondairy Minidrink Containing Plant Stanol Ester Effectively Reduces LDL Cholesterol in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Hypercholesterolemia as Part of a Western Diet
Maarit Hallikainen,Johan Olsson,Helena Gylling
Cholesterol , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/192325
Abstract: The cholesterol-lowering efficacy of plant stanol ester (STAEST) added to fat- or milk-based products is well documented. However, their efficacy when added to nondairy liquid drinks is less certain. Therefore, we have investigated the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of STAEST added to a soymilk-based minidrink in the hypercholesterolemic subjects. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study, the intervention group ( ) consumed 2.7?g/d of plant stanols as the ester in soymilk-based minidrink (65?mL/d) with the control group ( ) receiving the same drink without added plant stanols once a day with a meal for 4 weeks. Serum total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were reduced by 8.0, 11.1, and 10.2% compared with controls ( for all). Serum plant sterol concentrations and their ratios to cholesterol declined by 12–25% from baseline in the STAEST group while the ratio of campesterol to cholesterol was increased by 10% in the controls ( for all). Serum precursors of cholesterol remained unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, STAEST-containing soymilk-based low-fat minidrink consumed once a day with a meal lowered LDL and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations without evoking any side effects in subjects consuming normal Western diet. The clinical trial registration number is NCT01716390. 1. Introduction It is known that the best way to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) is to lower the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level. It has been estimated that each 1% reduction in LDL cholesterol achieves a 1% reduction in the risk of CAD [1]. Phytosterols have attracted considerable interest as cholesterol-lowering agents since the 1950s [2] due to their ability to reduce the serum LDL cholesterol level by interfering with cholesterol absorption. In a recent meta-analysis, LDL cholesterol values were reduced by 9% with a 2?g daily dose of plant stanols, and furthermore increasing the daily intake of plant stanols was found to dose-dependently reduce LDL cholesterol [3]. Most of the studies included in the plant stanol ester (STAEST) meta-analysis have been performed with solid food format, and only in four studies out of 61 has the plant stanol been in liquid dairy and one in a nondairy form [3]. The EFSA NDA Panel concluded in its heath claim dossier that STAEST at a daily intake of 3?g plant stanols (range of 2.7?g to 3.3?g) in matrices approved by Regulation (EC) No 376/2010 (yellow fat spreads, dairy products, mayonnaise, and salad dressings) can lower LDL cholesterol by 11.4% (95% CI: 9.8–13.0) and STAEST added
Short-term LDL cholesterol-lowering efficacy of plant stanol esters
Maarit Hallikainen, Essi Sarkkinen, Ingmar Wester, Matti Uusitupa
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-2-14
Abstract: Eleven mildly to moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects consumed stanol ester margarine (2.0 g/day of stanols) as a part of their habitual diet for 14 days and the changes in serum lipid values were measured three times at 4, 8 and 15 days after the initiation of test margarine consumption (0 day). The returning of serum lipid concentrations to baseline was measured two times after 2 or 3 days and after 7 days of the end of the test margarine consumption.Serum LDL cholesterol concentrations were reduced from 0 day (4.51 ± 0.66 mmol/l) by 3.5% (P = ns), 9.9% (p < 0.05) and 10.2% (P < 0.05) at 4, 8 and 15 days, respectively. Serum campesterol/total cholesterol ratio, an indirect marker of intestinal cholesterol absorption, was significantly reduced on day 4 already. After ending the stanol ester use serum cholesterol concentrations began to return rapidly and after 7 days serum LDL cholesterol was 5.3% less than the initial value (P = ns).The specific effect of plant stanol esters on serum LDL cholesterol can fully be obtained within 1–2 weeks of the use of plant stanol ester-enriched margarine.Several clinical studies have shown that plant stanol esters are effective cholesterol-lowering agents [1,2]. The cholesterol-lowering effect of dietary plant stanol ester has been shown to be sustained for periods up to 12 months [1], but how soon full cholesterol-lowering effect of plant stanol esters can be obtained, is still unclear. In most previous studies [3-5] the vast proportion of reduction in serum cholesterol has been reported to occur within 2–3 weeks, but the effects of plant stanol esters probably appear sooner than that. The results from two clinical studies with normo- or hypercholesterolemic subjects, where the cholesterol measurements have also been done at time point of one week, are conflicting: In one study [6], maximal cholesterol-lowering effect was obtained within a week of dietary plant stanol ester use, whereas in the other [7], no effect on serum c
Cholesterol Metabolism and Weight Reduction in Subjects with Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnoea: A Randomised, Controlled Study
Maarit Hallikainen,Henri Tuomilehto,Tarja Martikainen,Esko Vanninen,Juha Sepp?,Jouko Kokkarinen,Jukka Randell,Helena Gylling
Cholesterol , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/769457
Abstract: To evaluate whether parameters of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) associate with cholesterol metabolism before and after weight reduction, 42 middle-aged overweight subjects with mild OSA were randomised to intensive lifestyle intervention ( ) or to control group ( ) with routine lifestyle counselling only. Cholesterol metabolism was evaluated with serum noncholesterol sterol ratios to cholesterol, surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption (cholestanol and plant sterols) and synthesis (cholestenol, desmosterol, and lathosterol) at baseline and after 1-year intervention. At baseline, arterial oxygen saturation ( ) was associated with serum campesterol ( ) and inversely with desmosterol ratios ( ) independently of gender, BMI, and homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) was not associated with cholesterol metabolism. Weight reduction significantly increased and serum cholestanol and decreased AHI and serum cholestenol ratios. In the groups combined, the changes in AHI were inversely associated with changes of cholestanol and positively with cholestenol ratios independent of gender and the changes of BMI and HOMA-IR ( ). In conclusion, mild OSA seemed to be associated with cholesterol metabolism independent of BMI and HOMA-IR. Weight reduction increased the markers of cholesterol absorption and decreased those of cholesterol synthesis in the overweight subjects with mild OSA. 1. Introduction Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) characterized by repeated episodes of apnoea and hypopnoea during sleep is one of the most common sleep disturbances [1]. OSA is independently associated with hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes [2–7]. Furthermore, recent epidemiological studies have concluded that OSA is an important risk factor for mortality, particularly due to coronary artery disease [8, 9]. However, the underlying mechanisms explaining these associations are rather complex, and although several possibilities have been proposed, they are not entirely accepted. In general, atherogenesis as well as OSA is considered as slow processes, and the onset is likely to begin years before any symptoms appear. We have earlier demonstrated that even mild OSA is associated with the activation of the proinflammatory system [10]. Furthermore, since elevated LDL cholesterol level is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, the question raises whether OSA has a role in hypercholesterolaemia or in cholesterol metabolism. In some, but not in
The archaic biography of Homer
Kivilo, Maarit
Studia Humaniora Tartuensia , 2001,
Kivilo, Maarit
Studia Humaniora Tartuensia , 2000,
Observations of L-and C-Band Backscatter and a Semi-Empirical Backscattering Model Approach from a Forest-Snow-Ground System
Ali Nadir Arslan;Jouni Pulliainen;Martti Hallikainen
PIER , 2006, DOI: 10.2528/PIER05062701
Abstract: Observations of L- and C-band backscatter from snow cover are presented at all polarizations. Airborne passive-microwave data was collected in Northern Finland during EMAC'95 (European Multi-sensor Airborne Campaign-95). The measurements cover the 6.8-18.7 GHz frequency range with both verticaland horizontal polarizations. The empirical SAR data were acquired by EMISAR of TechnicalUniv ersity of Denmark over the city of Oulu in Northern Finland during EMAC'95. Airborne measurements were conducted on 22-23 March, and on 2-3 May 1995. The land-use map of the test sites was obtained from the NationalLand Survey of Finland. This study combines the semi-empirical and empirical models that were developed. Applicability of the forest transmissivity formulas developed by using the different data sets of passive and active sensors is shown. Because of the effect of dry snow at C-band is more visible than at L-band. A C-band semi-empiricalbac kscattering modelis developed for the forest-snow-ground system.
Projetos de futuro de jovens universitários do Distrito Federal: um estudo de caso
Raisa Maarit Pauliina Ojala
Sociedade e Estado , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/s0102-69922008000200013
Mineral and trace element contents of lichens in Finnish reindeer herding area
Mauri Nieminen,Maarit Rantataro
Rangifer , 1990,
Intracerebral Hemorrhage in the Oldest Old: A Population-Based Study (Vantaa 85+)
Maarit Tanskanen,Liisa Myllykangas
Frontiers in Neurology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00103
Abstract: Aims: Very elderly subjects represent the fastest growing population in the world. Most of the recent studies on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have been carried out on younger patients and/or preferably using novel radiological techniques. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and histopathological characteristics of the ICH in the oldest old. Materials and methods: The brains of 300 autopsied individuals (248 females, 52 males, mean age at death 92.4 ± 3.7 years) were investigated as part of the prospective population-based Vantaa 85+ study. After macroscopic investigation, the presence and extent of microscopic brain hemorrhages (MH) were analyzed by counting the number of iron containing macrophages (siderophages) by Prussian blue staining. Deposits with >5 siderophages were defined as MH+, forming a subgroup of MH. Genotyping of apolipoprotein E (APOE) and the analysis of microscopic (MI) or larger infarctions and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) were performed using standardized methods. Regression analysis was used to predict the presence of ICH, with and without co-localized CAA, and was adjusted for age at death and gender. Results: The prevalence of macroscopic ICH was 2.3% in total; consisting of 1% large lobar hemorrhage (LH), 1% deep hemorrhage (DH), and 0.3% of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). 62% had MH and 15.3% MH+. All MH+ lesions were found to be >2 mm wide. 55.9% of subjects with MH and 81.2% of those with MH+ showed MH/MH+ and CAA in the same brain region (MHCAA and MH+CAA, respectively). MH was associated with none of the neuropathological or clinical conditions, nor with the APOE carrier status. The subjects with MH+, MHCAA or MH+CAA carried the APOE ε4 allele more frequently than controls (OR 3.681, 3.291, 7.522, respectively). Siderophages in MH+CAA co-localized with CAA and with two-thirds of the MI in the tissue sections. Conclusion: Macroscopic ICH was rare in the very elderly. MH was frequent and clinically insignificant. MH+ was rare but closely related with the APOE ε4 genotype and the presence of severe CAA and infarction.
Dynamo action in thermally unstable interstellar flows
Maarit J. Mantere,Elizabeth Cole
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/753/1/32
Abstract: Numerous studies have investigated the role of thermal instability in regulating the phase transition between the cold cloudy and warm diffuse medium of the interstellar medium. Considerable interest has also been devoted in investigating the properties of turbulence in thermally unstable flows, special emphasis on molecular clouds and the possibility of star formation. In this study, we investigate another setting in which this instability may be important, namely its effect on dynamo action in interstellar flows. The setup we consider is a three dimensional periodic cube of gas with an initially weak magnetic field, subject to heating and cooling, the properties of which are such that thermal instability is provoked at certain temperature regime. Dynamo action is established through external forcing on the flow field. By comparing the results with a cooling function with exactly the same net effect but no thermally unstable regime, we find the following. The critical Reynolds number for the onset of the large-scale dynamo was observed to roughly double between the thermally stable versus unstable runs, the conclusion being that the thermal instability makes large-scale dynamo action more difficult. Whereas density and magnetic fields were observed to be almost completely uncorrelated in the thermally stable cases investigated, the action of thermal instability was observed to produce a positive correlation of the form B propto rho^0.2. This correlation is rather weak, and in addition it was observed to break down at the limit of the highest densities.
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