Abstract:
We consider an optimal control problem for the three-dimensional non-linear Primitive Equations of the ocean in a vertically bounded and horizontally periodic domain. The observation operator maps a solution of the Primitive Equations to the trajectory of a Lagrangian particle. This paper proves the existence of an optimal control for the regularized problem. To do that, we prove also new energy estimates for the Primitive Equations, thanks to well-chosen functional spaces, which distinguish the vertical dimension from the horizontal ones. We illustrate the result with a numerical experiment.

Abstract:
We consider the linear Primitive Equations of the ocean in the three dimensional space, with horizontal periodic and vertical Dirichlet boundary conditions. Thanks to Fourier transforms we are able to calculate explicitly the pressure term. We then state existence, unicity and regularity results for the linear time-depending Primitive Equations, with low-regularity right-hand side.

Abstract:
We consider the assimilation of Lagrangian data into a primitive equations circulation model of the ocean at basin scale. The Lagrangian data are positions of floats drifting at fixed depth. We aim at reconstructing the four-dimensional space-time circulation of the ocean. This problem is solved using the four-dimensional variational technique and the adjoint method. In this problem the control vector is chosen as being the initial state of the dynamical system. The observed variables, namely the positions of the floats, are expressed as a function of the control vector via a nonlinear observation operator. This method has been implemented and has the ability to reconstruct the main patterns of the oceanic circulation. Moreover it is very robust with respect to increase of time-sampling period of observations. We have run many twin experiments in order to analyze the sensitivity of our method to the number of floats, the time-sampling period and the vertical drift level. We compare also the performances of the Lagrangian method to that of the classical Eulerian one. Finally we study the impact of errors on observations.

Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the back and forth nudging algorithm that has been introduced for data assimilation purposes. It consists of iteratively and alternately solving forward and backward in time the model equation, with a feedback term to the observations. We consider the case of 1-dimensional transport equations, either viscous or inviscid, linear or not (B\"urgers' equation). Our aim is to prove some theoretical results on the convergence, and convergence properties, of this algorithm. We show that for non viscous equations (both linear transport and Burgers), the convergence of the algorithm holds under observability conditions. Convergence can also be proven for viscous linear transport equations under some strong hypothesis, but not for viscous Burgers' equation. Moreover, the convergence rate is always exponential in time. We also notice that the forward and backward system of equations is well posed when no nudging term is considered.

Abstract:
Global sensitivity analysis of a numerical code, more specifically estimation of Sobol indices associated with input variables, generally requires a large number of model runs. When those demand too much computation time, it is necessary to use a reduced model (metamodel) to perform sensitivity analysis, whose outputs are numerically close to the ones of the original model, while being much faster to run. In this case, estimated indices are subject to two kinds of errors: sampling error, caused by the computation of the integrals appearing in the definition of the Sobol indices by a Monte-Carlo method, and metamodel error, caused by the replacement of the original model by the metamodel. In cases where we have certified bounds for the metamodel error, we propose a method to quantify both types of error, and we compute confidence intervals for first-order Sobol indices. L’analyse de sensibilité globale d’un modèle numérique, plus précisément l’estimation des indices de Sobol associés aux variables d’entrée, nécessite généralement un nombre important d’exécutions du modèle à analyser. Lorsque celles-ci requièrent un temps de calcul important, il est judicieux d’effectuer l’analyse de sensibilité sur un modèle réduit (ou métamodèle), fournissant des sorties numériquement proches du modèle original mais pour un co t nettement inférieur. Les indices estimés sont alors entachés de deux sortes d’erreur : l’erreur d’échantillonnage, causée par l’estimation des intégrales définissant les indices de Sobol par une méthode de Monte-Carlo, et l’erreur de métamodèle, liée au remplacement du modèle original par le métamodèle. Lorsque nous disposons de bornes d’erreurs certifiées pour le métamodèle, nous proposons une méthode pour quantifier les deux types d’erreurs et fournir des intervalles de confiance pour les indices de Sobol du premier ordre.

Abstract:
We present a reduced basis offline/online procedure for viscous Burgers initial boundary value problem, enabling efficient approximate computation of the solutions of this equation for parametrized viscosity and initial and boundary value data. This procedure comes with a fast-evaluated rigorous error bound certifying the approximation procedure. Our numerical experiments show significant computational savings, as well as efficiency of the error bound.

Abstract:
The goal of this paper is to solve the global sensitivity analysis for a particular control problem. More precisely, the boundary control problem of an open-water channel is considered, where the boundary conditions are defined by the position of a down stream overflow gate and an upper stream underflow gate. The dynamics of the water depth and of the water velocity are described by the Shallow Water equations, taking into account the bottom and friction slopes. Since some physical parameters are unknown, a stabilizing boundary control is first computed for their nominal values, and then a sensitivity anal-ysis is performed to measure the impact of the uncertainty in the parameters on a given to-be-controlled output. The unknown physical parameters are de-scribed by some probability distribution functions. Numerical simulations are performed to measure the first-order and total sensitivity indices.

Abstract:
The reduced basis method is a powerful model reduction technique designed to speed up the computation of multiple numerical solutions of parametrized partial differential equations. We consider a quantity of interest, which is a linear functional of the PDE solution. A new probabilistic error bound for the reduced model is proposed. It is efficiently and explicitly computable, and we show on different examples that this error bound is sharper than existing ones. We include application of our work to sensitivity analysis studies.

Abstract:
Global sensitivity analysis is often impracticable for complex and time demanding numerical models, as it requires a large number of runs. The reduced-basis approach provides a way to replace the original model by a much faster to run code. In this paper, we are interested in the information loss induced by the approximation on the estimation of sensitivity indices. We present a method to provide a robust error assessment, hence enabling significant time savings without sacrifice on precision and rigourousness. We illustrate our method with an experiment where computation time is divided by a factor of nearly 6. We also give directions on tuning some of the parameters used in our estimation algorithms.

Abstract:
Global sensitivity analysis of a numerical code, more specifically estimation of Sobol indices associated with input variables, generally requires a large number of model runs. When those demand too much computation time, it is necessary to use a reduced model (metamodel) to perform sensitivity analysis, whose outputs are numerically close to the ones of the original model, while being much faster to run. In this case, estimated indices are subject to two kinds of errors: sampling error, caused by the computation of the integrals appearing in the definition of the Sobol indices by a Monte-Carlo method, and metamodel error, caused by the replacement of the original model by the metamodel. In cases where we have certified bounds for the metamodel error, we propose a method to quantify both types of error, and we compute confidence intervals for first-order Sobol indices.