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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 37239 matches for " Ma Chao "
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Cancer Immunotherapy and Next-Generation Clinical Immune Assessment
Chao Ma
Frontiers in Oncology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2014.00265
Abstract: The interplay between cancerous cells and immune cells has always been an intriguing topic in medicine and biology. Cancer cells emerge from self-cells through a series of genetic mutations. They often retain self-cells’ capacity in being exempt from immune surveillance. Therefore, bringing cancer cells back under the radar of immune system has long been considered as a necessary step towards complete tumor eradication and long-term antitumor protection. Based on this rationale, a series of immunotherapies were designed and many have shown promising results. Some have gone through multiple stages of clinical trials. As a result, a successful immunotherapy is an intricate clinical procedure that affects the function of a myriad of cells. Only comprehensive studies that profile multiple aspects (e.g. cellular abundance, phenotypes and functions) over time at the finest details can effectively monitor the convoluted immune response induced by therapy. Many recent technical developments aim to provide a solution for comprehensive clinical immune assessment. In this book, we compiled a series of high-quality papers that summarize recent developments of immune assessment tool and methodology, as well as new biological findings in tumor immunity and cancer immunotherapy. The book starts with a number of reviews and research articles that form an update of cancer immunotherapy. (Ma et al., 2013) reviewed new technologies to assess functional proteomics of single immune cells, their applications in clinical cancer immunotherapy, as well as new big-data computational methods to interpret the massive readouts. Next, a review paper by (Chen et al., 2013) highlighted recent advances in microfluidics tools used for functional immuno-phenotyping and emphasized the potential of integrated microfluidics circuitry. (Klinke, 2013) focused on the concept of combining next-generation genome sequencing and computational power to uncover mechanism underlying tumor immunity evolution. In their opinion papers, (Kwak et al., 2013) and (Fan et al., 2013) hypothesized the importance of protein secretion profile in developing definitive correlates for cancer and immune heterogeneity. The book goes on to the discussion of biology behind cancer immunotherapy. (Monjazeb et al., 2013) explored the topic of tumor induced immune suppression and proposed combinatorial therapy to induce antigen non-specific immune response and overcome immune evasion. (Najjar and Finke, 2013) reviewed the role of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in tumor mediated immune evasion and updated the
Research on Communication Products Diffusion in China Using Cellular Automata
Fang Ma,Gangling Chao
International Business Research , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ibr.v4n2p147
Abstract: Based on cellular automata (CA), the diffusion of communication products, namely the mobile phone (MP) and the landline telephone (LT), were modeled and simulated. The ordinary least squares (OLS) procedure and nonlinear regression method were carried out to estimate the diffusion parameters. The predicted results were compared with the actual data. It is found that: (1) the diffusion processes of mobile phone and landline telephone were successfully examined using cellular automata method, (2) the predicted results of mobile phone and landline telephone show four stages of the product life cycle, (3) the present situation of mobile phones in China is at the fast growth stage and the present situation of landline telephone is at the maturity stage, (4) the market of mobile communication is growing fast and has a brighter future and the landline communication market is meeting great challenges. The future competition will be more serious between the mobile communication and the landline communication. Both of them can benefit from introduction of advanced technology and new services because such a strategy has the potential to convert some consumers of one of communications into another communications. As for the whole communications, the innovation of technology and services will be generated and introduced into the industry of communications to drive the market.
Single Cell Functional Proteomics for Assessing Immune Response in Cancer Therapy: Technology, Methods, and Applications
Chao Ma,Rong Fan
Frontiers in Oncology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2013.00133
Abstract: In the past decade, significant progresses have taken place in the field of cancer immunotherapeutics, which are being developed for most human cancers. New immunotherapeutics, such as Ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4), have been approved for clinical treatment; cell-based immunotherapies such as adoptive cell transfer (ACT) have either passed the final stage of human studies (e.g., Sipuleucel-T) for the treatment of selected neoplastic malignancies or reached the stage of phase II/III clinical trials. Immunotherapetics has become a sophisticated field. Multimodal therapeutic regimens comprising several functional modules (up to five in the case of ACT) have been developed to provide focused therapeutic responses with improved efficacy and reduced side-effects. However, a major challenge remains: the lack of effective and clinically applicable immune assessment methods. Due to the complexity of antitumor immune responses within patients, it is difficult to provide comprehensive assessment of therapeutic efficacy and mechanism. To address this challenge, new technologies have been developed to directly profile the cellular immune functions and the functional heterogeneity. With the goal to measure the functional proteomics of single immune cells, these technologies are informative, sensitive, high-throughput, and highly multiplex. They have been used to uncover new knowledge of cellular immune functions and have been utilized for rapid, informative, and longitudinal monitoring of immune response in clinical anti-cancer treatment. In addition, new computational tools are required to integrate high-dimensional data sets generated from the comprehensive, single cell level measurements of patient’s immune responses to guide accurate and definitive diagnostic decision. These single cell immune function assessment tools will likely contribute to new understanding of therapy mechanism, pre-treatment stratification of patients, and ongoing therapeutic monitoring and assessment.
Measuring Service Value Based on Service Semantics  [PDF]
Chao Ma, Zhongjie Wang, Xiaofei Xu, Qian Wu
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2013.61007
Abstract:

Service participants can obtain different service values through participating in multiple service solutions with the same function but different performances and these solutions are usually represented as the pre-designed service models. Whether or to what degree the service values can be implemented under the support of the pre-designed service models is as a critical criterion for evaluating and selecting the most appropriate one from these service solutions. Therefore an approach of service value measurement based on service semantics (i.e. meaning of service models) is presented in this paper. Starting from a definition of service value, we present a series of concepts (e.g. value indicators, value profit constraints, etc.) and measure them based on the pre-designed service models. This paper also defines the value dependency relationships among the corresponding service values due to the uncertainty of relationships between multiple quality parameters of service elements, and then analyzes the impact of the value dependency on service value measurement. In order to complement the discussions above, a real-world case study from ocean transportation service is conducted for demonstration.

Self-Assembly Effects of Seafood Waste and Cow Dung to Remediate Saline Soil  [PDF]
Kejun Wen, Cong Liu, Liping Wu, Chao Ma, Yuyao Zhang
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.68078
Abstract: This research is based on the U8 (43) uniform table to conduct uniform experiments for improving saline soil. Different proportions of saline soil and silt, with a composted residue of marine fish and seashells that was mixed with sawdust and cow dung, were chosen as the assembly factors. The improvement coefficients for available nitrogen phosphorus of the mixed salt mud and for the production of tall fescue hay were adopted as the characterization values. According to the causal relations that were previously established by 64 types of permutations and combinations, the optimal assembly scheme with maximum characterization values was determined. The results indicate that the artificial soil that consisted of saline soil and silts in a ratio of 8:2; sea fish waste, shellfish trash and sawdust in a ratio of 5:4:1; and 8 kg of cow dung (10 wt%) is the best among the 64 types of composting treatments. Under the improved conditions, the predictive values of the increasing coefficients of valid nitrogen and valid phosphorus in the soil are 1.99 and 1.93, respectively; the predictive value of the tall fescue in a unit area production is 238.83 g·m-2. Its error accuracy is more than 99.82%. All of the above results indicate that utilizing the saline soil improvement media, which is composed of Haihe river silts, fish and shellfish slag, cow dung, and other wastes, provides a new option for saline soil improvement.
Topology Optimization Design of Automotive Engine Bracket  [PDF]
Po Wu, Qihua Ma, Yiping Luo, Chao Tao
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2016.84021
Abstract: According to the structural characteristics of the automobile engine bracket, the finite element model of the bracket is established. As the connecting part between the engine and the body, the performance requirements of the automobile engine bracket affect the comfort and the safety of the vehicle directly. Using the RADIOSS solver, the dangerous point of the bracket is analyzed. Under the premise of ensuring its reliability, with the help of OptiStruct software to carry out the topology optimization design, to get the optimal material distribution of the bracket and the final design will meet the performance requirements.
Simulation Analysis on Navigation Indexes of Wanzhou Yangtze River Highway Bridge after the Anti-Collision Device Construction by Ship Model Test  [PDF]
Kui Yu, Chao Tao, Xuequan Chu, Xiqin Ma
Engineering (ENG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2016.811072
Abstract: After the anti-collision facility construction of Wanzhou Yangtze River Highway Bridge, the conditions of navigation in bridge area are complex. In order to study the navigation conditions of the reach and layout optimization measures, ensuring the safety of the ship navigation test has been carried out on the ship model navigation in the bridge area. According to the requirements of the maximum safety limit of the ship model test, the paper puts forward the best route, the control method and the difficulty of navigation through the analysis of the test results, and finally gives the recommendations and suggestions.
HCV and HIV Infection among Heroin Abusers in a Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program  [PDF]
Yi-Chieh Lee, Jian-Kang Chao, Ming-Der Shi, Mi-Chia Ma, I-Chen Chao
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.812124
Abstract: Over the years, it was getting attention to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immu-nodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among injected drug users (IDUs) in Taiwan. This study investigated the frequency of risky behaviors for HCV carriers and IDUs who were HIV carriers in methadone maintenance treatment program. The subjects, intravenously injected heroin abusers, were collected from a special methadone maintenance treatment clinic. The survey included characteristics of participants, sexual activity and attitude towards condom usage. The total number of subjects was 151. Data were analyzed using the statistical package SPSS 15.0. The analytical methods included descriptive analysis, Fisher’s exact test, and the logistic regression model. The study showed that 82% of intravenously injected heroin abusers were hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive, and 44.4% were hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive; 89.5% of HIV-positive heroin abusers were type C hepatitis positive. Only 21.2% of these intra-venously injected heroin abusers always used a condom, and 39.7% never used a condom during sexual activity. Logistic regression analysis showed smoking, sharing syringes needles, HBV status and condom use status were four main risk factors on HIV infection. Sharing or using contaminated syringes needles was the main cause of HIV, HBV, and HCV infection in the drug addiction group. Since our government has the policy of providing a methadone maintenance treatment program, the spread of HIV is under control, but knowledge about HIV and safe sex education still needs improvement.
Reactive Arthritis Secondary to Cauda Equina Injury following Spine Fracture: A Case Report
Xiao Li,Shaoling Wu,Chao Ma
Case Reports in Orthopedics , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/648080
Abstract: A 38-year-old man presented with a one-month history of muscle weakness and dysesthesia in the lower extremities, urinary retention, and urinary tract infection after lumbar burst fracture resulted from high fall. During the rehabilitation in our hospital, he had arthritis in both the ankle and knee. However, the patient was treated as gouty arthropathy initially. The arthritis was completely remitted in a few days after the patient was diagnosed as reactive arthritis and started with sulfasalazine therapy and there was no recurrence during 4 months of follow-up. Based on this case, early recognition of reactive arthritis is of major importance to avoid delayed initiation of appropriate treatment in the patients with polyarthritis secondary to neurogenic bladder following cauda equina injury after spine fracture.
Simultaneous Determination of Hydroquinone, Catechol and Resorcinol at Graphene Doped Carbon Ionic Liquid Electrode
Li Ma,Guang-Chao Zhao
International Journal of Electrochemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/243031
Abstract: A new composite electrode has been prepared with doping graphene into the paste consisting graphite and ionic liquid, n-octyl-pyridinum hexafluorophosphate (OPFP). This electrode shows an excellent electrochemical activity for the redox of hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CC), and resorcinol (RS). In comparison with bare paste electrode, the redox peaks of three isomers of dihydroxybenzene can be obviously, simultaneously observed at graphene doping paste electrode. Under the optimized condition, the simultaneous determination of HQ, CC, and RS in their ternary mixture can be carried out with a differential pulse voltammetric technique. The peak currents are linear to the concentration of HQ, CC, and RS in the range form to , to , and to ?mol?L?1, respectively. The limits of detection are ?mol?L?1 for HQ, ?mol?L?1 for CC, and ?M for RS, respectively. 1. Introduction Catechol (CC), resorcinol (RS), and hydroquinone (HQ) are three isomers of dihydroxybenzene, which have been widely recognized as important environmental pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union (EU) due to their high toxicity and low degradability in the ecological environment [1]. The absorption of CC or HQ from the gastrointestinal tract can induce some disease such as renal tube degeneration and liver function decrease [2]. In addition, inhalation of high concentration of RS can directly lead to the death of human beings. Therefore, a highly sensitive and selective analytical method is necessary for the simultaneous determination of the three dihydroxybenzene isomers. Up to now, various methods have been exploited for the determination of the dihydroxybenzenes, such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) [3, 4], spectrophotometry [5, 6] Electrochemiluminescence [7], synchronous fluorescence [8], gas chromatography/mass spectrometry [9], capillary electrochromatography [10], pH-based-flow injection analysis [11], and electrochemical methods [12–23]. Among these methods, electrochemical method is of particular interest due to its high sensitivity, low cost, good selectivity, and rapid detection. For most electrochemical methods, more attention is focused on the simultaneous determination of CC and HQ due to their redox peaks are overlapped at ordinary electrode [12–20]. However, the simultaneous determination of HQ, CC, and RS by electrochemical methods is few reported. Recently, a number of novel material-based electrochemical electrodes for detection of dihydroxybenzene isomers have been reported. For example, an enhanced electrochemical
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