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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 22 matches for " MUNIF GHULAMAHDI "
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Red Guava Leaf Harvesting Impact on Flavonoid Optimation in Different Growth Phases
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2011,
Abstract: Harvesting process is a critical time to identify the quality of raw material for traditional medicine. The time and harvesting techniques, drying process after harvesting, and processing to make the simplicia, are the crucial role to make the good quality of the natural product. On the other hand, there is a lack of general understanding and appreciation about the processes involved in governing shoot and tree growth and development, i.e. red guava. The research objective was to evaluate the influence of leaf harvesting and growth phases on red guava for flavonoid production as antioxidant. Randomized factorial block design in time were laid out with two factors and followed by Duncan’s multiple range test. The treatments were the amount of leaf harvested on tertiary branches (0, 25, 50, and 100%) and growth phases of the plant (vegetative and generative). Leaf harvesting 25% on tertiary branches significantly increased the leaf number (766.3 tree-1) and the number of new quarternary branches, decreasing leaf area index (LAI) and leaf dry weight at the end of the experiment (22 weeks of observation/WO). The highest leaf dry weight (156.94 g tree-1) and LAI (0.47) was found in harvesting 25% tertiary branches. Harvesting 100% leaf on tertiary branches in vegetative phase significantly produced the lowest flavonoid production (7.82 g tree-1). The result suggested that flavonoid production from red guava leaves should be done by harvesting 50% leaf on tertiary branches in generative phase can be used to produce the highest flavonoid (89.90 g tree-1).
Amrul Munif
Media of Health Research and Development , 2012,
Abstract: A study on the correlation of population dynamik An. aconitus with malaria prevalence was conducted in Cineam sub-district, Tasikmalaya district, West Java from August 1998 to March 2000. In 1996, outbreaks of malaria did not only occur in the coastal areas but was also spread throughout the more remote areas. Malaria transmission can be detected by the presence of infectious gametocyte dan non-immune individuals, as well as by looking at environmental factors (rainfall) and also the density of vector population. The intensity of malaria transmission and the degree of malaria prevalence are affected greatly by the last factor. The intensity is also determined by the degree of contact between the person and the vector. An. aconitus have been suspected as malaria vector in Cineam sub-district, Tasikmalaya district. The observation of the bionomics wich one component of mosquitoes and its relationship with malaria prevalence as well as the determination of Anopheles spp. as malaria vectors in endemic areas should be given attention as an effort in preventing malaria outbreaks. The high density of vector mosquitoes is partly caused by their high diversity. Determination of the prevalence value is based on the Slide positifrate (SPR) that was obtained from analyzing blood samples of the population. There was an examination on passive case detection (PCD), active case detection (ACD), and mass blood survey (MBS) of the population beforehand. Methods used in surveying dan catching the vector mosquitoes include using humans as bait both inside and outside the house, using light trap, by resting, and also spraying. The longitudinal survey methods were used. Each catched mosquito was identified by looking at its morphological features.The transmission of malaria was found to occur all year round with the highest peak found in August 1998 (SPR= 4.9%), but then declined drastically in May (SPR=2.46%) and July 1999 (SPR= 2.4%) The occurrence of human biting by An. aconitus was the highest in January with a man biting rate (MBR) index of 2.3, while that of An. barbirostris was the highest in October with a MBR index of 6.75. There is no significant difference between biting occurrence inside dan outside the house (P< 0.05). In contrast, the population density of An. aconitus was not found all year round, especially in August, September, October, dan December 1998, as well as in February and September 1999, but managed to show the highest parity in June 1999 (33). On the other hand, as the malaria prevalence increased, the population of An. aconitus also increase
Effi Damayanti,Amrul Munif
Media of Health Research and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat respon Trichogaster trichopterus terhadap larva Aedes aegypti, kajian serangan dilakukan dengan cara respon fungsional yaitu kemampuan pemangsa dalam mengendalikan kepadatan populasi mangsanya. Hal ini sangat dipengaruhi oleh jumlah mangsanya dan pemangsa akan semakin mudah memakan mangsanya jika mangsanya ada dalam jumlah yang banyak. Untuk mengetahui kemampuan pemangsa dalam menurunkan kepadatan populasi mangsanya, dapat dilihat dari respon fungsionalnya. Dalam hal ini yang dimaksud dengan respon fungsional adalah suatu kemampuan pemangsa untuk mengendalikan kepadatan populasi mangsa, pada waktu tertentu. Pada penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan penelitian RAK-Faktorial, yang terdiri dari tiga faktor (perlakuan) yaitu ukuran T. trichopterus, jumlah instar, dan instar terhadap kemampuan makan serta kecepatan memangsa ikon tersebut. Berdasarkan hasil pengamatan T. trichopterus mempunyai kemampuan makan maksimal pada instrar II dan sebaliknya paling rendah pada pemberian instar IV. T. trichopterus termasuk kedalam respon fungsional kepadatan populasi mangsa tipe I bila dilihat dari cara makannya yang mengambil mangsanya dengan cara menghisap. T. trichopterus ini dalam mengubah kepadatan populasi mangsanya berbeda-beda, sebab semakin lama waktu yang diperlukan untuk mendapatkan, memakan dan mencerna (TH) semakin kecil koefisien serangannya. Dilihat dari ukuran ikon ternyata T. trichopterus yang berukuran 4 cm menunjukkan kemampuan makan yang tinggi bila dibandingkan dengan T. trichopterus ukuran 2 cm dan 3 cm sehingga dapat dijadikan kontrol laju pertumbuhan populasi larva Ae. aegypti. Kata Kunci: respon fungsional, pengendali hayati, Trichogaster trichopterus, Aedes aegypti
Amrul Munif,Yusniar Ariati
Media of Health Research and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Kemampuan spesies nyamuk berperan sebagai vektor penyakit ditentukan oleh kondisi fisik, fisiologi, perilaku dan lingkungan kehidupannya. Tubuh vektor harus dapat mengakomodasi keberadaan patogen tanpa mencederai patogen itu. sebaliknya ia juga tidak mengalami cedera apapun. Penguasaan informasi mengenai bionomik vektor yang mencakup antara lain tata kehidupan, daur hidup, habitat, lama hidup, daya reproduksi serta perilaku sangat penting untuk pemahaman epidemiologi penyakit yang ditularkan. Tujuan penelitian adalah mempelajari daur hidup, siklus gonotrofik, fekunditas nvamuk An. aconitus di laboratorium. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap spesies nyamuk An. aconitus yang dilakukan di Lab. Puslitbang Ekologi dan Status Kesehatan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Daur hidup dari telur sampai dewasa rata-rata 11 hari, tingkat kematian pada setiap stadium besarnya ben'ariasi pada stadium telur, larva dan pupa. Pengamatan tabel hidup nyamuk An. aconitus pada kondisi laboratorium dengan pemberian pakan darah manusia menunjukkan periode hidup rata-rata populasi laboratorium dalam satu generasi (T) adalah 9,86 konstanta yang menyatakan potensial reproduktif (Rm) sebesar 1,95 serta besaran yang menunjukkan kemampuan Suatu populasi pada satu generasi untuk perbanyakan diri persatuan waktu (α) sebesar 0,2, artinya populasi An. aconitus berkembang sangat lamban. Kata Kunci. vektor, daur hidup, An. aconitus, fekunditas
Amrul Munif,Mardiana Mardiana
Bulletin of Health Research , 2012,
Abstract: The capability of Beauveria bassiana fungus to kill mosquito larvae was challenged with Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus in a study conducted at the entomology laboratory of the Health Ecology Research Centre. Cx. p. quinquefeasciatus was more sensitive compared to Ae. aegypti to the B. bassiana strain from Sukamandi (West Java), which is probably due to the mosquitoes behaviour and conidiospore larvacidal effect. Conidia dust application, with a dosage of 2.2 mglliter, to water surface, within 48 hours was able to kill almost all the Cx. p. quinquefasciatus. However a dosage of 4 mglliter was required to kill all the Ae.aegypti. And a dosage of 1.3 mg conidiospore I liter is able to kill 50% Cx. p. quinquefasciatus. It seems that B. bassiana has greater capability to eradicate Cx. p. quinquefasciatus compared to Ae. aegypti
Amrul Munif,Pranoto Pranoto
Bulletin of Health Research , 2012,
Abstract: A study to evaluate the efficacy of biological larvicide Teknar 1500 S which contains 1500 SAAU of Baccillus thuringiensis israeliensis (Bti) serotype H-14 crystal delta endotoxin against Anopheles maculatus larvae was conducted at Kokap district, Kulon Progo Regency in Yogyakarta Province. Three methods of applications were compared, i.e. spraying, using plastic bags and pouring off the larvicide on a small stream. The design of the study was Split Plot design with six replicates. The larval densities were measured one day before application; 1, 8, 14, and 21 days after application. The larvae reduction rates of the three methods of applications were significantly different ( a = 0,01). Spraying produced significantly better results compared to the two other methods.
Pranoto Pranoto,Amrul Munif
Bulletin of Health Research , 2012,
Abstract: A study to evaluate the efficacy of an insect growth regulator (IGR) methoprene 1.3% (trade name: Allosid G) against Aedes aegypti larvae was conducted in Jakarta from November 1991 through March 1992. The study was conducted by uniformly scattering 1.3% G methoprene in bottom of metal drums filled with 50 liter of regular tap water. Total of 24 drums were utilized for the study with 20 of them given varied dosage rate of 0.315 gr, 0.625 gr, 1.25 gr, 2.5 gr and 5 gr. Four of the drums without IGR were used for control. One hundred 2 days old larvae of Ae. aegypti were poured into each drum weekly for total of 14 weeks. Also subsequently 25% (total of 12.5 liter) of water from each drum was taken out and replaced with same amount of regular tap water weekly for same period (14 weeks). Observation of larvae growth in the water taken out of the drum was carried by counting the number of dead and alive pupae. Living pupae were transferred into a paper cup covered with mosquito net for further observation number of pupae and adults died and alive. A split plot design was performed using 4 replicates for each application and regression analysis was applied to analyse the data. Efficacy of the IGR in each treatment was calculated through the percentage calculation of efficacy of each replicate devided by four. Weekly efficacy of IGR was calculated as follows : number of died pupae and number of died adults devided by total number of died pupae, number of died adults and number adults alive mutiplied by 100%. The trial showed that 100% mortality occured three weeks after treatment, and it decreased from 100% to 91.56% and 99.25% 14 weeks after treatment.
Challenges and Outcome of Innovative Behavior: A Qualitative Study of Tourism Related Entrepreneurs
Mohd Bukhari,Azmil Munif; Faiz Hilmi,Mohd;
Journal of technology management & innovation , 2012, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-27242012000200011
Abstract: the tourism industry is currently malaysia’s third most important industry in terms of foreign exchange earnings after the manufacturing and palm oil sectors. its contribution to gdp growth is about 7.2%, suggesting that the industry is still in its infancy and therefore offers much scope for future growth. furthermore tourism industry has been recognized as important economic activities especially during the current economic crisis. malaysian government announced as part of the mini budget tabled in parliament on 10th march 2009 that rm200 million will be allocated to various tourism related programs. however, tourism industry is in a downward spiral due to various reasons such as global economic crisis and strong competition from other countries. innovative efforts are necessary to further promote this industry so as to reap the full benefits and potential of this sector, besides giving it a competitive edge against its competitors like thailand, hong kong and singapore. emphasis should be given to the development of competitive tourism products or services to enhance foreign exchange earnings and savings. innovative approach such as creativity is the key element for success. this paper attempts to synthesize the scope and role of innovation in the determination of effectiveness of tourism related entrepreneurs. furthermore, this paper proposed that strategic innovativeness and behavioral innovativeness enhance performance of entrepreneurs. this paper presents the findings of the first phase of a larger research project on innovativeness of tourism related entrepreneurs. this initial phase involves an exploratory study into the innovative behavior of 23 tourism related entrepreneurs based in the island of langkawi. based on in depth semi-structured interview, the participant discussed their business challenges and innovative behavior that they adopted in responding to those challenges. this research contributes to the understanding of innovative behavior of touris
Potential of Endophytic Bacterial to Control Lesion Nematode (Pratylenchus brachyurus) on Patchouli
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2007,
Abstract: Root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus brachyurus) is one of the most important pathogens of patchouli that caused significant losses. Studies on the potential of endophytic bacterial to control P. brachyurus on patchouli had been conducted. To evaluate the effectiveness of endophytic bacterial against to P. brachyurus on patchouli, nine isolates of bacteria ( NJ2, NJ25, NJ41, NJ46, NJ57, NA22, ERB21, ES32, and E26) were applied by deeping root seedling into bacterial suspension. A study of the physiological characteristics of nine isolates was conducted by using specific medium. The results showed that endophytic bacterial was significantly reduced the population of P. brachyurus and all isolates bacterial promoted growth of patchouli (shoot weight, root weight, and root length). Four isolates, i.e. Bacillus NJ46, Bacillus Na22, Bacillus NJ2, and Bacillus NJ57 were among the potential control agents that reduced nematode populations as much as 68.1-73.9%. Almost all of the isolated bacteria from patchouli roots were able to solubilizing phosphate, while some of them had the ability to produce chitinase, cellulase, protease, HCN, and fluorescency.
Amrul Munif,M. Sukirno,Mardiana Mardiana
Media of Health Research and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Anopheles farauti merupakan vektor penyakit malaria di daerah Indonesia bagian Timur, sejak tahun 2004 telah berhasil dikembangbiakan strain yang berasal dari laboratorium NAMRU di laboratorium entomologi Puslitbang Ekologi Kesehatan. Siklus hidup dari telur sampai dewasa rata--rata 11 hari, sedangkan umumnya nyamuk Anopheles antara 12 sampai 16 hari. Tingkat kematian pada setiap stadium besamya bervariasi pada stadium telur mencapai 13,5%, larva 3,58% dan pupa 9,46%. Setelah 2 hari mengalami koopulasi, selanjutnya nyamuk betina diberi makan darah marmut. Waktu pemberian pakan yang baik dalam satu hari 2 kali, pada jam 18.00 dan 7.00 pagi untuk menghasilkan telur. Dengan cara pemberian makan pada waktu tertentu, temyata An. farauti dewasa lama hidup rata-rata mencapai 25,67 hari. Nampaknya pemberian makan 2 kali sehari dapat mendukung perkembangbiakan yang optimal. Pada umumnya jenis nyamuk Anopheles akan menggigit mangsa pada malam hari, berbeda dengan Aedes yang menggigit pagi hari dan sore. Nyamuk mulai mengisap darah pada 2 hari setelah muncul dari pupa dan bertelur 2-3 hari kemudiam menggigit kembali rata-rata setelah 36 jam. Pengamatan tabel hidup nyamuk Anfarauti pada kondisi laboratorium dengan pemberian pakan darah marmut temyata menunjukkan bahwa periode hidup rata-rata suatu populasi dalam satu generasi persatuan waktu (T=12,96), konstanta yang menyatakan potensial reproduktif (Rm=4,12), serta besaran yang menunjukkan kemampuan suatu populasi pada satu generasi untuk perbanyakan diri (a.= 0,62).
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