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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10383 matches for " MU?OZ-PEDREROS "
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La evaluación del paisaje: una herramienta de gestión ambiental
MUOZ-PEDREROS,ANDRéS;
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-078X2004000100011
Abstract: the landscape is the spatial and visual expression of our surroundings. it is a scarce natural resource, valuable and in growing demand, easily depreciated and difficult to renew. the visual landscape encompasses the aesthetics and the capacity of perception of the observer. in order to evaluate a landscape there are several methods and procedures. a mixed method is proposed with direct valuation of representative subjectivity and a subsequent indirect analysis with an analysis of main components. this modified method attempts to solve the problem of subjectivity with groups of evaluators whose global opinion is representative, and is valuated using a survey that contains a lists of adjectives with numeric values to facilitate its processing. a panel of experts will participate in the analysis of main components. the technique of valuation of the landscape is the analysis of preferences, that regards the value of a landscape as a function of the number of individuals who prefer it. a method is also described to evaluate the fragility of the landscape, which together with the valuation allow the application of criteria for preservation and conservation. an evaluation will be equivalent to a photograph taken at a specific instant in time, that could be compared with a similar photograph in the future. this will make it possible to quantify the loss (or improvement) of valuable landscapes, their destructive agents and their restoration management. the average citizen is nowadays, for several reasons, developing an "environmental conscience" with a newfound recognition of the value of natural spaces and their ecosystems. this explains the increasing resistance from the public to the loss of spaces of high tourism, scenic and recreational value. for this reason, it is imperative to control the environmental impact that certain projects can have on the landscape, especially in the decision making process regarding proposals for projects from the private industry or public
La evaluación del paisaje: una herramienta de gestión ambiental Landscape evaluation: an environmental management
ANDRéS MUOZ-PEDREROS
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2004,
Abstract: El paisaje es la expresión espacial y visual del medio. Es un recurso natural escaso, valioso y con demanda creciente, fácilmente depreciable y difícilmente renovable. El paisaje visual considera la estética y la capacidad de percepción por un observador. Para evaluar un paisaje existen diferentes métodos y procedimientos; aquí se propone un método mixto con valoración directa de subjetividad representativa y análisis posterior indirecto con análisis de componentes principales. El método propuesto intenta mejorar el problema de la subjetividad con grupos de evaluadores cuya opinión global sea representativa y es valorado con instrumentos que contienen listas de adjetivos con expresión numérica que facilita su procesamiento. En el análisis de componentes principales sí participan paneles de expertos. La técnica de valoración del paisaje es el análisis de preferencias, que parte aceptando que el valor de un paisaje está en función del número de individuos que le prefieren. También se describe un método para valorar la fragilidad del paisaje, que integrado a la valoración permite aplicar criterios de preservación y conservación. Una evaluación equivaldrá a una fotografía instantánea, que podrá ser comparada con una fotografía homóloga del futuro. Esto permitirá cuantificar las pérdidas (o ganancias) de paisajes valiosos, sus agentes destructivos y sus medidas mitigantes. El ciudadano promedio está, por diferentes motivos, internalizando cada vez más una suerte de "conciencia ambiental" que redunda en una novedosa valorización de los espacios naturales y sus ecosistemas. Esto explica la creciente resistencia ciudadana a perder espacios de alto valor turístico, paisajístico y recreacional. Por esto se debería controlar el impacto ambiental que ciertos proyectos ocasionen sobre el paisaje, especialmente cuando se trate de tomar decisiones frente a propuestas de instalaciones industriales o facilidades públicas (caminos, alcantarillados y otros). Para ejemplificar la metodología propuesta, se presenta información de un estudio realizado en la Ruta 5 Sur de Chile, en un transecto norte-sur de 587 km The landscape is the spatial and visual expression of our surroundings. It is a scarce natural resource, valuable and in growing demand, easily depreciated and difficult to renew. The visual landscape encompasses the aesthetics and the capacity of perception of the observer. In order to evaluate a landscape there are several methods and procedures. A mixed method is proposed with direct valuation of representative subjectivity and a subsequent indirect analysis with
Impacto de la actividad silvoagropecuaria sobre la calidad del paisaje en un transecto del sur de Chile
MUOZ-PEDREROS,ANDRéS; LARRAíN,ALBERTO;
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2002, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-078X2002000400004
Abstract: this study is centered on the concept of "visual landscape", based upon two central factors, aesthetics and the observer′s capacity of perception of the landscape. the landscape in southern chile has been transformed over the past centuries, and particularly in recent decades. this transformation is a product of forestry, agriculture and cattle grazing activities; this study attempts to evaluate the landscape quality in a north-south transect of 587 km, along chile's 5 south highway extending from cabrero to puerto montt. landscape units (unidades de paisaje, up) were established, quantified and evaluated by a mixed method with direct valuation of the representative subjectivity and subsequent indirect analysis, with analysis of components. a total of 1,702 landscape units (up) were analyzed, concluding that the most frequent macro-units are: visual obstruction, native vegetation, agriculture cultivation, and artificial plantations. the general average was 11.57 vp (sd = 5.01), considered acceptable in the fines scale. the macro-units of highest value were: native vegetation and agriculture cultivation, and those with lowest value were: visual obstruction and artificial plantations. information was compiled about the frequency of the macro-units per sector and the evaluation of 42 sub-units of landscape value, 22 landscape units (up) and four macro-units. this paper discusses the different valuations, the historical evolution of landscapes in southern chile, and alternative propositions of mitigation in landscape units of low evaluation. this evaluation may be compared with future evaluations in order to quantify losses (or gains) of landscape, its destructive agents and mitigating measures
Mapas de riesgo para Hantavirus en el Parque Nacional Conguillío, sur de Chile
MUOZ-PEDREROS,ANDRéS; RUTHERFORD,PATRICIO; GIL,CLAUDIA;
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-078X2007000300009
Abstract: the risk of infection with hantavirus depends on factors that determine a probability of contagion with the reservoirs: (a) the vegetation structure and the land use as a primary scene, where specific factors such as composition, structure and density of the vegetation describe elements related to the habitat of the reservoirs, (b) the existence of populations of reservoir rodents, (c) human establishments, such as availability and density of roads, inhabited areas or human presence (e.g., houses, warehouses). these three factors, brought together, provide the necessary facts to establish the risk. it is important to consider that these factors have a dynamics of seasonal change during the year and natural and man-made environmental modifications. in this way, we seek to understand the risk to which humans beings are submitted in the rural space. the spatial models correspond to representations of the reality observed in a certain area and determined to diverse geographical, topographic, biological, climatic factors, etc. the aim of this study was to establish potential sectors of risk to hantavirus in a national park of the region ix of chile using thematic maps of environmental variables in a geographical information system to analyze aereal photograhs by means of photo interpretation, transference, digitalization and graphical-alphanumerical database managing. the vector layer was rasterized using a pixel size of 50 m. the map of risk was constructed using an additive model of layers through the model builder 1.0 software, an extension of arc view 3.2. the base of the procedure was the arithmetic overlay process what overlaps the layers adding the numeric terms of each variable using the same ponderation for every layer (e.g., land use, habitat for the reservoir, seropositivity of the reservoir, human cases and instalations). we present a risk map, for this highly visited park, which signal as the most important risk areas, the areas where all of the turistic inf
Mapas de riesgo para Hantavirus en el Parque Nacional Conguillío, sur de Chile Hantavirus risk maps for Conguillío National Park, southern Chile
ANDRéS MUOZ-PEDREROS,PATRICIO RUTHERFORD,CLAUDIA GIL
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2007,
Abstract: El riesgo de infección con Hantavirus depende de factores, que determinan una probabilidad de contagio con los reservorios, tales como: (a) la estructura vegetacional y el uso del suelo como un escenario primario, donde los factores específicos de composición, estructura y densidad de la vegetación detallan elementos relacionados con el habitat de los reservorios. (b) La existencia de poblaciones de roedores reservorio. (c) Establecimientos humanos, como disponibilidad y densidad de caminos, áreas habitadas o de presencia humana (e.g., casas, bodegas). Estos tres factores, habitat (probabilidad de ocurrencia del reservorio), roedores seropositivos (peligro de contagio) y humanos (población expuesta), conjugados, proporcionan los elementos de juicio necesarios para establecer el riesgo. Es importante considerar que estos factores tienen una dinámica de cambio estacional durante el a o y modificaciones ambientales naturales y antrópicas. Así, buscamos comprender el riesgo a que está sometido el ser humano en el espacio rural. Los modelos espaciales corresponden a representaciones de la realidad observada en un área determinada y condicionada a diversos factores geográficos, topográficos, biológicos, climáticos, etc. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer sectores potenciales de riesgo al hantavirus en un parque nacional de la IX Región de Chile empleando cartas temáticas de variables ambientales en un Sistema de Información Geográfica para analizar fotografías aéreas mediante fotointerpretación, transferencia, digitalización y manejo de base de datos gráfica y alfanumérica, validada en terreno. La capa vectorial fue "rasterizada" con un tama o de pixel de 50 m. El mapa de riesgo se construyó utilizando un modelo aditivo de capas mediante el uso del software Model Builder 1.0, extensión de Arc View 3.2. La base del procedimiento fue el proceso de "overlay" aritmético, que sobrepone las capas adicionando los términos de valor de cada variable utilizando la misma de ponderación en cada una de ellas (e.g., uso del suelo, habitat del reservorio, seropositividad del reservorio, casos y asentamientos humanos). Presentamos un mapa de riesgo que se ala como principales áreas de riesgo, precisamente donde se emplaza la infraestructura turística principal de este visitado parque The risk of infection with Hantavirus depends on factors that determine a probability of contagion with the reservoirs: (a) the vegetation structure and the land use as a primary scene, where specific factors such as composition, structure and density of the vegetation describe elements r
Impacto de la actividad silvoagropecuaria sobre la calidad del paisaje en un transecto del sur de Chile The impact of forestry, agriculture, and cattle grazing activities on the quality of landscape in a transect of southern Chile
ANDRéS MUOZ-PEDREROS,ALBERTO LARRAíN
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2002,
Abstract: Este trabajo está centrado en el concepto de paisaje visual que considera la estética y la capacidad de percepción del paisaje de un observador como factores centrales. El paisaje en el sur de Chile se ha transformado en los últimos siglos, y en particular en las últimas décadas, producto de la actividad silvoagropecuaria, por lo que aquí evaluamos este paisaje en un transecto norte-sur de 587 km a lo largo de la ruta 5 Sur de Chile, en el tramo Cabrero (37o00'S, 72o23'O)- Puerto Montt (41o30'S, 72o50'O). Se establecieron Unidades de Paisaje (UP) que se cuantificaron y evaluaron empleando un método mixto con valoración directa de subjetividad representativa y análisis posterior indirecto, con análisis de componentes. Se analizaron 921 UP concluyéndose que las macrounidades más frecuentes fueron: obstrucciones visuales, vegetación nativa, cultivos agrícolas y plantaciones exóticas. El promedio general fue de 11,57 VP (Valor de Paisaje) (DE = 5,01), considerado como agradable en la escala de Fines. Las macrounidades de mayor valoración fueron vegetación nativa y cultivos agrícolas y las de menor evaluación fueron obstrucciones visuales y plantaciones exóticas. Se entrega información sobre frecuencia de macrounidades por sectores y valoración de 42 subunidades de paisaje, 22 UP y cuatro macrounidades. Se discuten las diferentes valoraciones y la evaluación histórica de los paisajes del sur de Chile. Esta evaluación podrá ser comparada con evaluaciones futuras para cuantificar las pérdidas (o ganancias) de paisaje, sus agentes de destrucción y sus medidas mitigantes. This study is centered on the concept of "visual landscape", based upon two central factors, aesthetics and the observer′s capacity of perception of the landscape. The landscape in southern Chile has been transformed over the past centuries, and particularly in recent decades. This transformation is a product of forestry, agriculture and cattle grazing activities; this study attempts to evaluate the landscape quality in a north-south transect of 587 km, along Chile's 5 South highway extending from Cabrero to Puerto Montt. Landscape Units (Unidades de Paisaje, UP) were established, quantified and evaluated by a mixed method with direct valuation of the representative subjectivity and subsequent indirect analysis, with analysis of components. A total of 1,702 Landscape Units (UP) were analyzed, concluding that the most frequent macro-units are: Visual Obstruction, Native Vegetation, Agriculture Cultivation, and Artificial Plantations. The general average was 11.57 VP (SD = 5.01), considered accep
USO DE HABITAT DE CUATRO CARNIVOROS TERRESTRES EN EL SUR DE CHILE
Zú?iga,Alfredo; Muoz-Pedreros,Andrés; Fierro,Andrés;
Gayana (Concepción) , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-65382009000200004
Abstract: the process of landscape transformation has been more intense and extended in the central depression of central and southern chile than in the nearby mountain ranges. the original forest cover has almost disappeared; only small fragments persist inserted into a matrix of agroecosystems. this situation may influence the distribution of carnivorous mammals, depending on their degree of habitat specialization and home range size. the goal of this study was to evaluate, through the study of feces dsitribution, the habitat selection of the carnivore assemblage in a fragmented environment in southern chile. we document the selective use of exotic forest plantations of pinus radiata with a scrub understoiy by puma concolor, galictis cuja, and lycalopex griseus. leopardus guigna, despite not showing a statistically significant selection of the native forest, presents a greater number of records in this type of habitat. habitat selection by the predators studied shows a variable degree of use of altered and fragmented environments. surrounding forest plantations present an understoiy of native vegetation, which fits the requirement of most of the carnivores. the levels of spatial overlapping and the adequacy to new environments are discussed.
REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF Dromiciops gliroides (MARSUPIALIA: MICROBIOTHERIIDAE) IN TEMPERATE RAINFORESTS OF SOUTHERN CHILE
Muoz-Pedreros,Andrés; Lang,Brian K; Bretos,Marta; Meserve,Peter L;
Gayana (Concepción) , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-65382005000200002
Abstract: the reproductive biology of dromiciops gliroides is described from five females collected during spring (october, december 1984) in southern continental chile. developmental morphology of intra-uterine embryos (october litters) was examined by microscopic analysis and compared with morphological attributes of 8 pouched young (december litters). intra-uterine embryos demonstrate ontogenetic features characteristic of altricial neonates, which migrate from the urogenital opening to the marsupium in order to complete the later stages of development. d. gliroides apparently is a monoestrus, seasonal breeder producing one litter per year. maximum recorded litter size is four, with birth occurring in early spring (october). the life cycle of d. gliroides is subdivided into seven distinct periods: pair formation, intra-uterine development, parturition, intra-marsupium development, nocturnal family excursions, and juvenile independence. phylogenetic relationships of d. gliroides to neotropical and autralian marsupials are considered by comparing aspects of reproductive biology and early life history characteristics
Diversidad de micromamíferos en tres ambientes de la Reserva Nacional Lago Pe?uelas, Región de Valparaíso, Chile
Muoz-Pedreros,Andrés; Fletcher,Susan; Yá?ez,José; Sánchez,Pamela;
Gayana (Concepción) , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-65382010000100003
Abstract: chilean mediterranean ecosystems, the only of this type present in south américa of the four present in the world, are considered priority áreas for conservation due to their high concentration of endemic species that have experienced accelerated rates of habitat destruction. they contain more than 39% of the mammal species, 47% of its endemic species, and 65% of the threatened species of chile. yet, these ecosystems are poorly represented in the system of protected áreas, one of which is the reserva nacional lago pe?uelas (rnlp) that is part of the biosphere reserve la campana-pe?uelas, but whose mammal fauna is poorly documented. we studied both α and β diversity of the mammal assemblage in all three environments present at the rnlp (sclerophyllous forest, mixed shrub, and savanna oí acacia caven). sherman traps grids were installed, pellets of two raptors (tyto alba and bubo magellanicus) were analyzed, tracks and signs were recorded, and direct observations were performed in the four seasons of the year 2001. we determined species richness (s), relative abundance, a diversity - considering its richness and structure (shannon-wiener and pielou indexes)-, β diversity (bray-curtis index), and compared the diversity found with that documented for the same latitude from east to west. we recorded a total of 16 species: thylamys elegans, oligoryzomys longicaudatus, abrothrix longipilis, a. olivaceus, chelemys megalonyx, phyllotis darwini, myocastor coypus, octodon degus, o. lunatus, spalacopus cyanus, abrocoma bennetti, rattus norvegicus, r. rattus, mus musculus, lepus capensis, and oryctolagus cuniculus. the coastal sclerophyllous forest was the most diverse with a species homogeneous distribution, followed by the mixed shrub, and fnally the a. caven savanna. also, the sclerophyllous forest is similar to the mixed scrub; in turn, both are very dissimilar to the savanna of a. caven. the diversity recorded in the study área is consistent with that of other áreas of the
DIETA DE LYCALOPEX GRISEUS (GRAY, 1837) (MAMMALIA: CANIDAE) EN LA DEPRESION INTERMEDIA DEL SUR DE CHILE
Zú?iga,Alfredo; Muoz-Pedreros,Andrés; Fierro,Andrés;
Gayana (Concepción) , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-65382008000100013
Abstract: a study about food habits of chilla (lycalopex griseus) was done in a sector of the intermediate depression of southern chile, called predio rucamanque, region de la araucanía. faeces were collected through three seasons of the year, identifying their diet composition. results show a trend towards small mammals followed by birds, and in a lesser ratio, insects.
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