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Cervical Cancer Awareness and Preventive Practices: A Challenge for Female Urban Slum Dwellers in Lagos, Nigeria
MR Balogun, OO Odukoya, MA Oyediran, PI Ujomu
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2012,
Abstract: Cervical cancer is the commonest gynaecological cancer in Nigeria and women of low socio-economic status are at high risk of this condition. A study was conducted on the awareness of cervical cancer, attitude towards the disease and screening practice of women residing in two urban slums of Lagos, Nigeria. It also determined the prevalence of major risk factors for cervical cancer among the women. Multistage sampling was used to select 240 women who were interviewed with a structured questionnaire and data collected was analyzed with Epi-info version 3.5.1 statistical software. Only 10 (4.2%) women in this study were aware of cervical cancer and none of them believed they were at risk of developing the disease. Most (73.3%) were willing to undergo a cervical cancer screening test. Age, education and previous history of vaginal examination were positively associated with willingness to undergo screening (p < 0.05). The respondents had a high prevalence of major risk factors for cervical cancer such as early age at sexual debut, multiple sexual partners and male partner with other female partners. Efforts need to be intensified to increase awareness of this condition and to promote low-cost cervical cancer screening among this underserved population.
Access to information technology and willingness to receive text message reminders for childhood immunisation among mothers attending a tertiary facility in Lagos, Nigeria
MR Balogun, AO Sekoni, IP Okafor, OO Odukoya, SS Ezeiru, BE Ogunnowo, PC Campbell
South African Journal of Child Health , 2012,
Abstract: Background. Effective communication is imperative for the delivery and receipt of adequate health care services. Aim. To determine access to information technology and willingness to receive short message service (SMS) text message reminders for childhood immunisation services among mothers in Lagos, Nigeria. Method. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, interviews using structured questionnaires were conducted with 399 mothers of children aged <5 years who brought their children to attend the immuno-prophylaxis and child welfare clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital during July and August 2011. Results. The age of the respondents ranged from 16 to 51 years with a mean of 31.1±4.7 years. Almost all (98%) were current owners of mobile phones, 68% had computer access, 66% were current users of the Internet though most used it occasionally and 65% had e-mail addresses. About three-quarters (77%) were willing to receive future SMS reminders about childhood immunisations although 67% preferred telephonic reminders to SMS and only 53% were willing to pay for the reminders. Respondents who were currently married and had at least a post-secondary education were more willing to receive SMS reminders. Conclusion. The mothers had better access to mobile phones than the Internet and were willing to receive SMS immunisation reminders. Future intervention strategies should explore payment mechanisms for SMS reminders, as there is an unwillingness to bear the cost by the respondents.
A Redescriptive History of Humanism and Hermeneutics in African Philosophy  [PDF]
Oladapo Jimoh Balogun
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31A017

The aim of this paper is to contribute to the on-going debate about self-redescription in the history of African philosophy using the method and theory of redescription. This method and theory of redescription has become the deep concern of not only Western philosophers but of many African philosophers which is markedly present in their agitated pursuits of wisdom. This self-redescription is always resiliently presented in the works of Kwasi Wiredu, Kwame Appiah, Gyekye Kwame, Olusegun Oladipo, Wole Soyinka, Sophie Oluwole, Jim Unah, Martin Heidegger and Maduabuchi Duko;r who is the most recent emergence of the problem of theory and method in African philosophy. So, the general purpose of this paperis to enact the intellectual concern of these self-redescription in the history of African philosophy while the specific purpose is to determine the adequacy of humanism and hermeneutics as concepts covering the self-image of African philosophy. This paper will further show the incoherence and incongruence of humanism and hermeneutics with the concrete self-image of African philosophy by redescribing them in the mould of emerging concepts such as the humanness of Orisa intellectual culture, in particular; and orunmineutics as a general philosophical theory.

Utility of Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing in Oil Spill Detection in the Mangrove Region of Nigeria  [PDF]
Toju Francis Balogun
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2015.31003
Abstract: The mangrove interfaces between land and sea and provides appropriate ecosystem and habitat and breeding ground for fishes and sea animals. However, it is also a fragile ecosystem which is exposed to environmental degradation due to oil exploration activities. Concern for mangrove environment demands that mapping of the mangrove environment should be carried out so as to know its current status. Conventional method is inadequate to achieve this due to the difficult terrain of the region. This research aims at detecting and mapping the presence of oil spill on water and land in the mangroves using microwave and optical remote sensing. The result proves that optical remote sensing has the potentials for detecting oil spill on the waterway. It also has the capability to detect oil spill on ground using the effects of oil on vegetation as proxy. The study is concluded by recommending further research work on radar as it could not discriminate between the backscatter of oil on land and that of soil with high water content.
Co-Occurrence of Diabetes and Hypertension: Pattern and Factors Associated With Order of Diagnosis among Nigerians
WO Balogun, BL Balogun
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Background : There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of diabetes and hypertension all over the world. Such association results in higher rate of cardiovascular complications. It is however not clear whether the order of occurrence distinguishes two different groups of patients and the implications of this on morbidity and mortality. The main objective of this study is to determine if there are any clinical and metabolic differences between those first diagnosed with diabetes (hypertensive diabetics) compared to those first diagnosed with hypertension (diabetic hypertensives). Methodology : A total of 124 patients with co-existent diabetes and hypertension were consecutively recruited into the study. Demographic and clinical history was captured on a semi-structured questionnaire, followed by measurement of anthropometry and blood pressure. Records of fasting plasma glucose, urinalysis and electrolytes, urea and creatinine were obtained from the case records. Results : There were 83 (66.9%) females and 41 (33.1%) males with mean age of 61.1 (SD 11.1) years. Sixty or 49.6% was hypertensive diabetics while 52 or 43% was diabetic hypertensive. The rest had simultaneous diagnosis of diabetes and hypertension. The diabetic hypertensive subjects significantly had higher BMI (p= 0.04) while the hypertensive diabetics group had higher hip/waist ratio (p = 0.01). The diabetic hypertensive group had higher waist circumference statistically significant only in women (p = 0.04). Also significantly more people (21 or 42%; p = 0.04) in the diabetic hypertensive group used table salt often. A logistic regression performed showed that only use of table salt was independently associated with order of diagnosis of diabetes or hypertension. Conclusion : There could be significant differences in some clinical characteristics of hypertensive diabetics and diabetic hypertensives, and use of table salt may be an important risk factor contributing to coexistence of both conditions.
Carbon Monoxide Concentration Monitoring in Akure—A Comparison between Urban and Rural Environment  [PDF]
Ifeoluwa Adebowale Balogun, Ahmed Adedoyin Balogun, Jimmy Adegoke
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.54030

Air pollution has been identified to be one major problem associated with urbanisation, particularly in developing countries. In this regard, this paper utilizes data from a year-long experiment of simultaneous measurements to examine and compare the variations of carbon monoxide concentrations, a major air pollutant at urban and rural site in Akure, a medium-sized tropical city in south western Nigeria. The comparison was done to assess the urban influence on the air pollutant. CO concentrations at the urban centre have been identified to exhibit distinct diurnal and day-of-week variations with respect to traffic rush hours. It is also observed that the concentrations at the urban centre were 2 - 3 times higher than that of the rural site which exhibited a consistent cyclic diurnal pattern throughout the week. Results further identified the major cause of CO concentration in the urban centre to be vehicular as consistent increase of the air pollutant from 08:00 to 16:00 during the weekdays is found to be associated with “school runs and rush hours” and also rises through the midnight hours on days linked with social events, particularly Saturdays. In relation to human health and World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines, results showed that CO concentrations at the urban centre exceeded the WHO 8-hour average recommendation during daytime throughout the weekdays.

Rainfall Comparison from Different Precipitation Estimates over West Africa  [PDF]
I. A. Balogun, R. A. Balogun, T. Ademola
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2018.81002
Abstract: Comparison of different instantaneous precipitation estimates over three climatic zones in West Africa was carried out using Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM), 3A12 and 3A25 algorithms, the 3B43 rainfall product, and rain gauge product from the Global Precipitation Climatology Center (GPCC) as ground truth. The 3A12 rainfall product is observed to over-estimate rainfall intensity during MAM and JJAS periods, in all the zones, except in Guinea where it is observed to under-estimate rainfall intensity during the JJAS season. It was also observed that Savannah and Sahel had substantial frequency (occurrences) of zero (0 mm/hr) rainfall intensities during MAM, but only the Sahel zone indicated high frequencies of 0 mm/hr rainfall intensities during JJAS. The mean 3A12 rainfall indicated substantial disparity with that of the gauge (GPCC) rainfall especially in Guinea and Savannah. During peak rainfall season (JJAS) all the rainfall products under-estimate rainfall in Guinea and Sahel region of West Africa, but over-estimates rainfall in the Savannah region, whereas during low rainfall episodes (MAM), all the rainfall products over estimate rainfall when compared with the gauge (GPCC) rainfall product. The Gauge (GPCC)-3B43 had the best relationship (highest correlation) in all the three zones during MAM. All the rainfall products showed very strong correlation with Gauge (GPCC) in all the zones in West Africa during the March-May (MAM) period. The Gauge (GPCC)-3B43 correlation maintained the best relationship with Gauge (GPCC) among the rainfall products, during JJAS.
Comparison of Fusarium oxysporum fsp lycopersici races 1, 2 and 3, and f.sp radicis lycopersici based on the sequences of fragments of the ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer region
OS Balogun
Biokemistri , 2007,
Abstract: Sequence analysis of genomic fragments from the intergenic spacer region from three isolates of Fusarium oxysporum fsp lycoperisci and fsp radicis lycopersici was carried out using the big dye terminator sequencing procedure. Two conditions of the DNA templates were also evaluated for their influence on the outcome of the terminator reaction. Results showed that sequencing using the PCR products of M13 primer reaction with either direct E. coli colony, (condition 1) or purified plasmid DNA as templates (condition 2), were successful and the sequences of the cloned IGS fragments were the same indicating that time and cost could be minimized by excluding the plasmid purification steps. Based on the sequence analysis of the IGS fragment of race 1 (kis-1a) (ca. 638 bp including the forward and reverse primers sequences) it is observed that there is at least 95% similarity between the F. oxysporum races 1, 2, 3, and rly. Using the BioEdit sequence analysis program, there are 14 conserved regions with the longest continuous consensus segment being between nucleotide position number 1 and 129. Region 2 has 18 segment length (164-181), while region 3 is the shortest region with 15 segment length (183-197).
Influence of DNA treatments on Southern blot hybridization analysis of Fusarium oxysporum F. sp lycopersici and F. sp radicis-lycopersici genomic DNAs
OS Balogun
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: DNA samples obtained by a non-phenol/chloroform isolation method, from three races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and f. sp. radicis-lycopersici were treated in different ways with a view to evaluating the effect of three pre-electrophoresis DNA treatments on the outcome of Southern blot hybridization analysis using a Digoxigenin (DIG)-IGS fragment probe. Results showed that where DNA material is scarce, the use of undigested (native) fungal DNA not only saved time but it also gave better hybridization signal than predigestion treatments with EcoRV restriction enzyme. Hot water digestion of DNA prior electrophoresis and hybridization gave the least satisfactory result.
Proverbial Oppression of Women in Yoruba African Culture: A Philosophical Overview
OA Balogun
Thought and Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya , 2010,
Abstract: This paper posits that there are elements of oppression in some of the Yoruba proverbs that relate to women. It argues that these proverbs violate the rights and dignity of women, and that they are indicators of discrimination against women in Yoruba culture. The paper further argues that the most fundamental but neglected aspect in gender discourse lies in the proverbial resources of the community. The paper provides textual evidence of proverbial oppression of the feminine gender in Yoruba culture, and also underscores their pernicious effects on the struggle for gender balance. The paper contends that there is an urgent need to review the assumptions underlying these proverbs.
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