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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1044 matches for " MM Adamu "
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An Appraisal of the Crisis in Darfur in Western Sudan and the Prospect for a Lasting Peace
MM Adamu
African Research Review , 2008,
Abstract: The Darfur crisis in western Sudan started in February 2003. It has to date claimed the lives of an estimated number of 200,000 people and another 2.5 million have been displaced and are now living in make shift refugee camps in Chad and neighbouring countries. All attempts to broker peace among the major warring factions had proved abortive and there is little or no hope that the displaced people would one day return to their villages. The killings, raping, suffering and starvation had continued despite the presence of the African Union troops which numbered about 7000 and deployed since 2004. A lot of propaganda, misinformation, fabrications and distortions have gone across to the public in trying to explain the causes and attendant consequence of the said conflict. These have clearly stood on the way to a real understanding of the genesis of the crisis for a lasting peace to be obtained and peace building to be accelerated, and end this bloodshed and suffering that had been the bane of the region for the past five years. This paper is an appraisal of the various views and opinions that had been put forward by different interest groups on the causes of the crisis, its impact and the way forward towards the attainment of peace. African Research Review Vol. 2 (3) 2008: pp. 315-333
The Legend of Queen Sheba, the Solomonic Dynasty and Ethiopian History: An Analysis
MM Adamu
African Research Review , 2009,
Abstract: The legend of Queen Sheba is undoubtedly one of the oldest legends, producing the oldest monarchy in Africa comparable, perhaps, only to the imperial dynasty in Japan or the Seifuwa dynasty in the Lake Chad basin. It is clearly one of the most accepted, believed, pervasive and resonant among all the legends of origin in Africa, today. The legend is still widely believed by the majority of Ethiopians and is reflected in their day to day daily lives. The existence of the Orthodox Tewahido church and other religious ceremonies, the presence of Beta Israel, the names of people like Makeda or Sheba and organizations such as the Sheba Miles are all testimonies to the legend living in the present Ethiopian communities. It purported to explain how the Ethiopian ruling dynasty ‘the Solomonic dynasty’ was descended from Solomon and through him from Abraham and the early patriarchs. The dynasty followed a succession of rulers from Yekunno- Amlak in circa 1270AD to the last emperor in the person of Haile- Selassie 1 who was deposed in 1974. This has lasted for a period close to a thousand years and making the dynasty to be one of the longest and oldest monarchies anywhere in the world. This paper is intended to look more closely at some of the claims made by this legend and its implication on the Ethiopian peoples, their heritage and identity. It is strongly argued that the legend is only legendary and a historical travesty. It cannot be proven historically. The paper concluded by examining the political as well as the socio-economic significance of the legend in contemporary discours.
The Somalian Crisis: A Legacy of Colonialism?
MM Adamu
African Research Review , 2009,
Abstract: The Somalian crisis seemed to have defied all solutions since its inception in1991. The country had become increasingly ungovernable and the condition had been described as the worst humanitarian crisis in the world. Somalia is considered by many to be a ‘failed state’ being the only state in the world with a vacant seat at the United Nations. It is not that it has been abolished but that it has entered what some analysts have called an undetermined ‘Gray Zone’. All these have been as a result of the crisis that engulfed the country since the fall of the regime of Siyyad Barre almost two decades ago and further complicated by the Ethiopian /American invasion of 2006. This paper examines the roots of the crisis, the attempts made at reconciliation as well as the role of international bodies in averting or escalating the crisis. The paper also looks at the possibility of finding a lasting peace in the country. It is argued that the Somalian crisis should be largely seen as a legacy of colonialism in the country as well as the misdeeds of some people like Siyyad Barre. The paper shows that the only way to peace is to allow the Somalians to determine the manner in which they want to be ruled.
Comparative performance of HbA1c 6.5% for FPG ≥ 7.0 vs 2hr PG≥ 11.1 criteria for diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes
AN Adamu
African Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Background: International expert committee on the use of HbA1c to diagnose diabetes mellitus in 2009 and World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 has advocated the use of HbA1c to diagnose diabetes mellitus. Objective: To determine and compare the relationship between the new cut off value of HbA1c with established criteria. Methods: Thirty-one hypertensive subjects attending Lagos University Teaching Hospital were recruited for HbA1c and standard oral glucose tolerance test. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and two-hour plasma glucose (2hrpp) value of e”126mg/dl and >200mg/dl were used as standard respectively for diagnosis of diabetes. The HbA1c of e”6.5% was used to diagnose diabetes. The performance and correlation of HbA1c with FPG and 2hrpp were calculated and results were compared. Results: Mean age of the subjects was 53.97±6.27years. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), efficiency and correlation of FPG is 50%, 68%, 27%, 85%, 64% and 0.5 respectively while the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, efficiency and correlation of 2hrpp is 73.91%, 62.5%,85%, 41.66%, 70.97% and 0.73% respectively. There was a significant difference between FPG and 2hrpp interms of sensitivity, PPV and NPV. Conclusion: The results of HbA1c with 2hrpp has better correlation, sensitivity, and PPV compared to HbA1c with FPG.
Modeling the Transmission Dynamics of the Monkeypox Virus Infection with Treatment and Vaccination Interventions  [PDF]
Sulaiman Usman, Ibrahim Isa Adamu
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2017.512191
Abstract: Presently, an ongoing outbreak of the monkeypox virus infection that began in Bayelsa State of Nigeria has now spread to other parts of the country including mostly States in the South-South with the Nigerian Ministry of Health confirming 4 samples out of the 43 sent for testing at WHO Regional Laboratory in Dakar, Senegal. This reminds us that apart from the eradicated smallpox, there are other poxviruses that pose potential threat to people in West and Central Africa. In this paper, we developed a mathematical model for the dynamics of the transmission of monkeypox virus infection with control strategies of combined vaccine and treatment interventions. Using standard approaches, we established two equilibria for the model namely: disease-free and endemic. The disease-free equilibrium was proved to be both locally and globally asymptotically stable if R0 < 1 using the next-generation matrix and the comparison theorem. While the endemic equilibrium point existed only when R0 > 1, was proved to be locally asymptotically stable if R0 > 1 using the linearization plus row-reduction method. The basic reproduction numbers for the humans and the non-human primates of the model are computed using parameter values to be R0,h = 9.1304 x 10-6 and R0,n = 3.375 x 10-3 respectively. Numerical simulations carried out on the model revealed that the infectious individuals in the human and non-human primates’ populations will die out in the course of the proposed interventions in this paper during the time of the study. Sensitivity analysis carried out on the model parameters shows that the basic reproduction numbers of the model which served as a threshold for measuring new infections in the host populations decrease with increase in the control parameters of vaccination and treatment.
Drugs Supply and Laboratory Services in Dots System of Kaduna State: A Health Care Worker Perspective  [PDF]
Shehu Usman Adamu, D. McGill
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.61003
Abstract: A study was conducted in Kaduna State Nigeria to ascertain the impact of Drug Supply and laboratory services towards effective functioning of DOTS system. Six DOTS providing centres were identified for the study and in each centre, three respondents were selected based on their profession, the Medical Officer, the Pharmacist and the Laboratory Technician totaling 18. The officers were interviewed for the purpose of the research. Semi structured Interviews were conducted in this research as a means of obtaining Health workers perspective. The Interview which was conducted in their respective work station was open ended and all questions are same for all respondents. During the course of the study, all respondents agreed that the sources of drugs supply to their respective centres was the Kaduna State Tuberculosis and leprosy control Program office from the state capital and that drugs are been supplied quarterly and are adequate with slight interruption due to Logistic while for Laboratory services the respondents were of the view that there is the need to improve on it as there are cases of shortage of reagents and erratic supply of Electricity for effective Laboratory functioning.
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Determination of Shale Minerals in Reservoir Rocks
MB Adamu
Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy together with multivariate statistical regression was used to produce calibrations between spectra of standard mineral mixtures and gas shale reservoir rocks. A Classical Least Square (CLS) model was developed from the attenuated spectra of mixtures of five mineral standards chosen to represent the most frequently encountered minerals in shale-type reservoir rocks namely: quartz, illite/smectite (30:70), kaolinite, calcite and dolomite. The CLS model developed was able to quantify the mineral components of independent mixtures with an absolute error between 1 to 3wt% for all the pure minerals in the mixtures. Samples from a suite of shale reservoir rocks were analysed using standard Quantitative X-Ray Diffraction (QXRD) and with FTIR. Unknown mineral concentrations in the samples were then predicted using spectra and the calibration equations. Good correlations were achieved between the QXRD and ATR-CLS predicted concentrations (r2>0.8), with average absolute error of between 1 to 6wt%. This provides evidence that attenuated FTIR is a promising method for rapid and accurate determination of minerals in reservoir rocks for building higher resolution data without additional time consuming and expensive traditional analyses.
Achalasia: What is the best treatment?
Ahmed Adamu
Annals of African Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: Background: Achalasia is an infrequent primary motility disorder of the esophagus. Because of uncertain etiology, treatment is only palliative and is directed at decreasing lower esophageal sphincter pressure, improving esophageal emptying and relieving the symptoms of achalasia. Current treatment options include pharmacological, endoscopic and surgical. We undertook a systematic literature review of the management strategies currently available for achalasia. Method: A Medline, PubMed and Cochrane database search was conducted using reference manager 11. Original articles and reviews published in the English literature on the management of achalasia were reviewed. Emphasis was placed on articles published in the last ten years on randomized controlled trials comparing the various forms of treatment. Results: Esophageal manometry is the standard diagnostic evaluation for achalasia. Accurate diagnosis can also be made based on clinical findings and barium esophagogram. Medical treatment with nitrates or calcium channel blockers has variable results in alleviating the symptoms of achalasia but long-term results are disappointing because of tolerance and side effects. Intrasphincteric injection of botulinum toxin, pneumatic dilatation and surgical myotomy are variably effective at controlling the symptoms of achalasia but each modality has specific strength and weaknesses which make their choice suitable in a particular group of patients. While pneumatic dilatation is superior to botulinum toxin injection surgical myotomy provides the best long-term control of symptoms in patients with achalasia. Conclusion: Laparoscopic myotomy should be the initial treatment for most patients with achalasia. Pneumatic dilatation is the most cost-effective alternative but its long-term efficacy is less than that of surgical myotomy. Endoscopic botulinum toxin injection can be considered when other forms of treatment are contraindicated.
The Utopian Quest in Bessie Head’s When Rain Clouds Gather and Maru
Adamu Pangmeshi
Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities , 2009,
Abstract: Prior to Nelson Mandela’s ascension to power in South Africa, literature of the country had been essentially a protest against the dehumanizing treatment that was meted on the Blacks by the minority Whites who were at the helm of power through the policy of apartheid. This somehow created socio-political upheavals and a pervasive atmosphere. Consequently, some writers while unfolding this social enigma, did so with a vision of proposing an ideal society for humanity. One of them is Bessie Head. This paper seeks to examine Head’s When Rain Clouds Gather and Maru in a bid to demonstrate that her quest for a perfect society has been provoked by her experiences in life and the dystopian South African. Informed by new historicism, it is argued that an ideal or a perfect society is a figment of the imagination.
IDENTIFICATION OF ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCES ON WATER QUALITY OF JAKARA RIVER, NORTHWESTERN NIGERIA
ADAMU MUSTAPHA
Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation , 2012,
Abstract: Jakara River, northwestern, Nigeria has been found to be polluted by various sources of pollution associated with excessive land use. This study attempted to identify the sources of pollution in the Jakara Basin using principal component analysis and factor analysis (PCA/FA). Four different sampling points were designed along Jakara River and surface water samples were collected for sixty days. Fifteen physico-chemical parameters were analyzed which includes: water temperature, turbidity, salinity, conductivity, pH, nitrates (NO3-), ammonia-nitrate (NH3-NL), total solids (TS), suspended solids (SS), dissolved solids (DS), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), phosphates (PO43-), and chloride (Cl). PCA/FA extracted five principal components (PCs) explaining 70.7% of the total variance of the raw data. PCA/FA showed that Jakara River is influenced mostly by organic and nutrients (anthropogenic) pollution from domestic wastewater and little contribution from geology of the area, erosion and farmland run-off. These results provide fundamental information for the authorities to take sound action for developing better water pollution control and effective management of river water quality in the area.
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