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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 377 matches for " MALLIKA PS "
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COINING: AN ANCIENT TREATMENT WIDELY PRACTICED AMONG ASIANS
TAN AK,MALLIKA PS
Malaysian Family Physician , 2011,
Abstract: Coining is a technique used in treating many illnesses since ancient times. It is a form of dermabrasion therapy still widely practicedin China and South East Asia. This ancient treatment method is employed to rid the body of “heatiness” or “negative energies”.Coining is associated with serious complications, and has been confused with child abuse by physicians unfamiliar to Asian cultures. Despite the availability of more simple and effective treatment for fever, coining is still widely practiced among Asians.
PAEDIATRIC OCULAR TRAUMA IN KUCHING, SARAWAK, MALAYSIA
TAN AK,MALLIKA PS,ASOKUMARAN T,MOHAMAD AZIZ S
Malaysian Family Physician , 2011,
Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the demography, aetiology, type and outcome of paediatric ocular trauma in tertiary centre in Malaysia. Method: We retrospectively studied 118 eyes from 117 patients over a period of 36 months (January 2006 to December 2008). All ocular injuries in patients aged 12 and below seen in the Ophthalmology Department for the first time were included in thisstudy. Results: Mean age of patients was 6.1±3.0 years. 68 cases (58.2%) occurred in pre-school children, whereas 49 (41.9%) in school-aged children. Boys accounted for 65.8% of cases. There was no predilection for either right or the left eye. 47% of cases (56 patients) occurred in Malay. Most of the injuries took place at home when the children were alone (p<0.05). Sharp objects were the commonest cause (45 cases, 38.1%). The majority of cases (103, 87.3%) were considered preventable. The frequency of open and closed globe injury was similar. Hyphema was more common in closed globe injury compared to open globe injury (p<0.05). Other associated injuries such as cataract, vitreous hemorrhage and retinal hemorrhage are similar between the two groups. Visual outcome is generally poor with only 34 eyes (28.8%) had no visual impairment. Conclusion: Ocular trauma in children is an important cause of visual loss. Most cases occurred at home and were preventable. Prevention through education is the best approach.
RISK FACTORS FOR DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN DIABETICS SCREENED USING FUNDUS PHOTOGRAPHY AT A PRIMARY HEALTH CARE SETTING IN EAST MALAYSIA
MALLIKA PS,LEE PY,CHEAH WL,WONG JS
Malaysian Family Physician , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: This study reports on the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and risk factors among diabetic patients, who underwent fundus photography screening in a primary care setting of Borneo Islands, East Malaysia. We aimed to explore the preliminary data to help in the planning of more effective preventive strategies of DR at the primary health care setting. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study on 738 known diabetic patients aged 19-82 years was conducted in 2004. Eye examination consists of visual acuity testing followed by fundus photography for DR assessment. The fundus pictures were reviewed by a family physician and an ophthalmologist. Fundus photographs were graded as having no DR, NPDR, PDR and maculopathy. The data of other parameters was retrieved from patient’s record. Bi-variate and multivariate analysis was used toelucidate the factors associated with DR. Results: Any DR was detected in 23.7% (95% CI=21 to 27%) of the patients and 3.2% had proliferative DR. The risk factors associated with any DR was duration of DM (OR =2.5, CI=1.6 to 3.9 for duration of five to 10 years when compared to <5 years)and lower BMI (OR=1.8, CI=1.1 to 3.0). Moderate visual loss was associated with DR (OR=2.1, CI=1.2 to 3.7). Conclusions: This study confirms associations of DR with diabetic duration, body mass index and visual loss. Our data provide preliminary findings to help to improve the screening and preventive strategies of DR at the primary health care setting.
THYROID ASSOCIATED OPHTHALMOPATHY – A REVIEW
MALLIKA PS,TAN AK,AZIZ S,SYED ALWI SAR
Malaysian Family Physician , 2009,
Abstract: Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune disorder affecting the orbital and periorbital tissues. Hyperthyroidism is commonly associated with thyroid associated ophthalmopathy, however in 5% to 10% of cases it is euthyroid. Genetic, environmental and endogenous factors play a role in the initiation of the thyroid ophthalmopathy. Smoking has been identified as the strongest risk factor for the development of the disorder. The pathogenesis involves activation of both humoral and cell mediated immunity with subsequent production of gycoaminoglycans, hyaluronic acid resulting in oedema formation, increase extraocular mass and adipogenesis in the orbit. The natural history of the disease progresses from active to inactive fibrotic stage over a period of years. Diagnosis is mainly clinical and almost all patients with ophthalmopathy exhibit some form of thyroid abnormality on further testing. Treatment is based on the clinical severity of the disease. Non-severe cases are managed by supportive measures to reduce the symptomatology and severe cases are treated by either medical or surgical decompression. Rehabilitative surgery is done for quiescent disease to reduce diplopia and improve cosmesis.
PATTERN OF OCULAR TRAUMA IN KUCHING, MALAYSIA
MALLIKA PS,TAN AK,ASOKUMARAN T,FAISAL HA
Malaysian Family Physician , 2008,
Abstract: Objectives: To analyze the causes and characteristics of ocular injuries presenting to Sarawak General Hospital (SGH), Kuching. Design: It is a prospective hospital-based study done for a period of 1 year. Setting: Department of Ophthalmology, Sarawak General Hospital, Malaysia. Participants:All ocular injury patients seen for the first time in the Eye Department during the period January 2006 to December 2006 were included in the study. Eye injury patients on follow-up and treated elsewhere were excluded. Results: A total of 233 patients, and 257 eyes, were studied. Men had six-fold higher rates of injury than women. The average age of presentation was 30 years. The predominant age group was between 21-30 years, 26.2 % (n=61). Eye injuries related to work were seen in 36.9% of patients. There was a gross negligence in the use of personal protective devices in the work-related group. The common settings in which the injuries occurred included home 34.3% (n=80) and industrial premises 31.8% (n=74). Assault-related injuries 7.7% (n=18) were seen mostly among young men in the age between 20-30 years. The initial presenting visual acuity of the patients with blunt ocular trauma was better than penetrating injury. Conclusion: Ocular injuries were common in young males. Work related eye injuries were noted in a significant number of cases. Health education and preventive strategies both in the working place and at home will help to decrease the occurrence of ocular injuries.
ETHAMBUTOL OCULAR TOXICITY IN A PATIENT WITH PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS
TAN AK,MALLIKA PS,AZIZ S,ASOKUMARAN T
Malaysian Family Physician , 2008,
Abstract: Purpose: To highlight the importance of using the Farnsworth Panel D-15 Hue test in colour vision testing in patients on ethambutol treatment. Case Report: A 70 year-old lady received ethambutol as part of her anti-tuberculous regime. She developed blue-yellow colour defect detectable with the Farnsworth Panel D-15 Hue test, but not with the Isihara Pseudoisochromatic Plates. Ethambutol was immediately discontinued from her anti-tuberculous regime. Two months later, her colour vision returned to normal. Conclusion: This case report illustrates the importance of regular monitoring of patients receiving ethambutol for blue-yellow colour defect using the Farnsworth Panel D-15 Hue Test.
COMPARISON BETWEEN THE PANOPTIC OPHTHALMOSCOPE AND THE CONVENTIONAL DIRECT OPHTHALMOSCOPE IN THE DETECTION OF SIGHT THREATENING DIABETIC RETINOPATHY: THE KUCHING DIABETIC EYE STUDY
TAN AK,MALLIKA PS,AZIZ S,ASOKUMARAN T
Malaysian Family Physician , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the conventional direct ophthalmoscope and the PanOptic ophthalmoscope in the detection of sight threatening retinopathy, as well as the “Ease of Use” of these equipments. Methods: 200 diabetics, newly referred from primary health physicians were examined. Fundus examinations were performed with pupil dilatation in a dark room. The examinations were performed by a single investigator using the PanOptic ophthalmoscope, the conventional direct ophthalmoscope and slit lamp biomicroscopy. Results: The overall sensitivity in detecting sight threatening retinopathy using the conventional direct ophthalmoscope was 73.2% (95% CI: 57.1-85.8%), specificity 93.7% (95% CI: 88.7-96.9%). For PanOptic ophthalmoscope, the overall sensitivity in detecting sight threatening retinopathy was 58.5% (95% CI: 42.1-73.7%), specificity 93.7% (95% CI: 88.7-96.9%). The conventional direct ophthalmoscope was 1.38 times (95% CI: 1.17-1.61 times) as easy to use compared to the PanOptic ophthalmoscope. Conclusion: The PanOptic ophthalmoscope is not superior to the conventional direct ophthalmoscope for the screening of Sight Threatening Retinopathy.
NEONATAL CONJUNCTIVITIS – A REVIEW
MALLIKA PS,ASOKUMARAN T,FAISAL HA,AZIZ S
Malaysian Family Physician , 2008,
Abstract: Ophthalmia neonatorum remains a significant cause of ocular morbidity, blindness and even death in underdeveloped countries. The organisms causing ophthalmia neonatorum are acquired mainly from the mother’s birth canal during delivery and a small percentage of cases are acquired by other ways. Chlamydia and Neisseria are the most common pathogens responsible for the perinatal infection. Fortunately in most cases, laboratory studies can identify the causative organism and unlike other form of conjunctivitis, this perinatal ocular infection has to be treated with systemic antibiotics to prevent systemic colonization of the organism. Routine prophylaxis with 1% silver nitrate solution (crédés method) has been discontinued in many developed nations for the fear of development of chemical conjunctivitis.
DIABETIC RETINOPATHY AND THE EFFECT OF PREGNANCY
MALLIKA PS,TAN AK,AZIZ S,ASOKUMARAN T
Malaysian Family Physician , 2010,
Abstract: Pregnancy is associated with increased risk of development and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Although pregnancy does not have any long term effect on DR, progression of retinopathy changes occur in 50%-70% of cases. The greatest risk of worsening occurs during the second trimester and persists as long as 12 months postpartum. The other factors found to be associated with its progression include duration of the diabetes, severity of retinopathy at conception, hyperglycaemic control, anaemia and progression of coexisting hypertension. Because of the increased risk of progression of the disease inpregnancy, conception should be delayed till the ocular disease is treated and stabilized and laser photocoagulation should be promptly instituted in all cases of severe non-proliferative retinopathy and should not be delayed till the patient develops early proliferative changes. Good diabetic control before and during pregnancy can help prevent this increase in the progression and serious vision loss.
THE IMPORTANCE OF OPHTHALMIC SIGNS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF SUPRASELLAR MENINGIOMA – A CASE REPORT
TAN AK,MALLIKA PS,AZIZ S,ASOKUMARAN T
Malaysian Family Physician , 2009,
Abstract: A 42 year-old-lady presented with gradual, painless, progressive blurring of vision of her left eye for four months. There were no other associated ocular or systemic complaints. Examination showed decreased visual acuity in both eyes and a pale optic disc on the left side. Visual field examination revealed a temporal field defect of the right eye which aroused the suspicion of an intracranial mass lesion. MRI of her brain revealed a suprasellar meningioma. We would like to emphasize the importance of visual field examination of both eyes in patients presenting with unilateral loss of vision.
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