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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 402501 matches for " M; Espinoza "
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CONSTIPACIóN EN PEDIATRíA
Espinoza M.,Julio;
Revista chilena de nutrición , 2002, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-75182002000300001
Abstract: constipation is a frequent cause of consultation in general and specialized pediatric practice. inadequate food intake and low fiber ingestion, and behavioral and psychology problems induced by the family and school environment are the cause of this increased frequency. new therapeutic alternatives are available with relative success. the latter is due to the prolonged time necessary for the acquisition of the normal habit and the low adhesion to treatment by the children and their family or caretakers.
CONSTIPACIóN EN PEDIATRíA CONSTIPATION IN CHILDHOOD
Julio Espinoza M.
Revista Chilena de Nutricíon , 2002,
Abstract: La constipación es causa frecuente de consulta en pediatría general y del especialista gastrenterólogo. Cada vez más frecuentemente los malos hábitos alimentarios, el consumo escaso de fibra dietaria y trastornos psicológicos ocasionados por el ambiente en que se desarrolla el ni o: estrés intrafamiliar y en el colegio, son la causa de dicho incremento. Nuevas terapéuticas se han incorporado con éxito relativo porque crear nuevos hábitos requiere tiempo prolongado y por la poca adhesividad al tratamiento, por parte del ni o y sus familiares o cuidadores Constipation is a frequent cause of consultation in general and specialized pediatric practice. Inadequate food intake and low fiber ingestion, and behavioral and psychology problems induced by the family and school environment are the cause of this increased frequency. New therapeutic alternatives are available with relative success. The latter is due to the prolonged time necessary for the acquisition of the normal habit and the low adhesion to treatment by the children and their family or caretakers.
The spin evolution of young pulsars
Cristobal M. Espinoza
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921312023629
Abstract: The current understanding of the spin evolution of young pulsars is reviewed through a compilation of braking index measurements. An immediate conclusion is that the spin evolution of all pulsars with a measured braking index is not purely caused by a constant magnetic dipole. The case of PSR J1734-3333 and its upward movement towards the magnetars is used as a guide to try to understand why pulsars evolve with n < 3. Evolution between different pulsar families, driven by the emergence of a hidden internal magnetic field, appears as one possible picture.
CRITERIOS DE CURA EN LA ENFERMEDAD DE CHAGAS: INTERPRETACIóN DE HALLAZGOS PARASITOLóGICOS, SEROLóGICOS Y CLíNICOS
Espinoza M,Raúl A;
Revista del Instituto Nacional de Higiene Rafael Rangel , 2003,
Abstract: one of the most complex aspects relating to the chagas′ disease is to evaluate the effect of treatment over the results of serology and parasitic test, issue where you need a long follow up and the results obtained are most of them controversial. as criterion of evaluation of that treatment "criterion of cure", in that matter, has been used serology changes, parasite in blood and clinic evaluation; while the two firsts need months of observation, the clinic aspects require years, facts which has disappointed to several investigation groups. for most of them even without no clinic correlation that confirm, those patients without evidence of parasite in blood and negative serology, should be considered cured. recent evidences show that using different techniques it can be demonstrated the presence of the parasite in blood of patients with chronic and acute type of chagas disease whose have received drugs against trypanosoma cruzi. besides in the acute patient who has received treatment there are a few correlations between clinic findings and the evidence of myocardial damage obtained by endomyocardial biopsy and other test such as echocardiography and left ventricular cineangiography. all those facts call to evaluate again the criterion of cure in patients with chagas disease whose are receiving treatment against the parasite and make emphasis in create new drugs.
Characterization of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain collection isolated from diverse Costa Rican natural ecosystems
Arrieta,Glen; Espinoza,Ana M;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2006,
Abstract: costa rican natural ecosystems are among the most diverse in the world. for this reason, we isolated strains of the entomopathogenic bacteria bacillus thuringiensis (bt ) to determine their diversity, distribution and abundance. a total of 146 bt strains were obtained from environmental samples collected from diverse natural ecosystems and life zones of costa rica. we recovered bt strains from 71%, 63%, 61% and 54% of soil samples, fresh leaves, other substrates and leaf litter respectively. bt was isolated in 65%of the samples collected in the humid tropical forest in national parks (braulio carrillo, gandoca manzanillo, sierpe, hitoy cerere, and cahuita), and in 59% of the samples collected in the dry tropical forest (parque nacional marino las baulas, palo verde and santa rosa). in the very humid tropical forest (tortuguero) bt was isolated in 75% of the samples and in the very humid tropical forest transition perhumid (carara)it was found in 69% of the samples. the strains exhibit a diverse number, size and morphology of parasporal inclusion bodies: irregular (47%),oval (20%), bipyramidal (3%), bipyramidal and cubic (1%), bipyramidal, oval and irregular (5%) and bipyramidal, oval and cubic crystals (2%). strains isolated from braulio carrillo, tortuguero and cahuita, presented predominantly irregular crystals. on the other hand, more than 60% of the isolates from térraba-sierpe and hitoy-cerere had medium oval crystals. strains from gandoca-manzanillo, palo verde and carara presented mainly combinations of oval and irregular crystals. nevertheless, the greatest diversity in crystal morphology was observed in those from santa rosa, llanos del río medio queso and parque marino las baulas. protein analyses of the crystal-spore preparations showed ? -endotoxin with diverse electrophoretic patterns, with molecular weights in the range of 20 to 160 kda. fifty six percent of the strains amplified with the cry2 primer, 54% with vip3, 20% with cry1, 9% with cry3-cry7 and
Ingreso y bienes de la población de edad media y avanzada en México
Rebeca Wong,Mónica Espinoza
Papeles de población , 2003,
Abstract: El propósito de este artículo es resumir el monto y los tipos de ingreso que percibe y bienes que posee la población de edad media y avanzada en México. Se usan datos de la nueva Encuesta Nacional sobre Salud y Envejecimiento en México (Enasem) 2001, un estudio prospectivo de panel con representación nacional de las personas de 50 a os de edad y más. Los resultados confirman las hipótesis formuladas: la distribución del ingreso y la riqueza están sesgadas en favor de ciertos grupos, sobre todo aquéllos con mayor educación; la composición de la riqueza se da principalmente en forma no financiera y el apoyo familiar es una fuente de ingreso importante; la asociación entre riqueza y salud es positiva en general, lo cual es consistente con la literatura internacional. Además se encuentra que la riqueza acumulada está distribuida más equitativamente que el ingreso, y se concluye que el indicador de riqueza ofrece una dimensión de análisis adicional al ingreso, con potencial para contribuir a los estudios del bienestar de la población en edad media y avanzada en México.
Characterization of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain collection isolated from diverse Costa Rican natural ecosystems
Glen Arrieta,Ana M Espinoza
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2006,
Abstract: Costa Rican natural ecosystems are among the most diverse in the world. For this reason, we isolated strains of the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt ) to determine their diversity, distribution and abundance. A total of 146 Bt strains were obtained from environmental samples collected from diverse natural ecosystems and life zones of Costa Rica. We recovered Bt strains from 71%, 63%, 61% and 54% of soil samples, fresh leaves, other substrates and leaf litter respectively. Bt was isolated in 65%of the samples collected in the humid tropical forest in national parks (Braulio Carrillo, Gandoca Manzanillo, Sierpe, Hitoy Cerere, and Cahuita), and in 59% of the samples collected in the dry tropical forest (Parque Nacional Marino las Baulas, Palo Verde and Santa Rosa). In the very humid tropical forest (Tortuguero) Bt was isolated in 75% of the samples and in the very humid tropical forest transition perhumid (Carara)it was found in 69% of the samples. The strains exhibit a diverse number, size and morphology of parasporal inclusion bodies: irregular (47%),oval (20%), bipyramidal (3%), bipyramidal and cubic (1%), bipyramidal, oval and irregular (5%) and bipyramidal, oval and cubic crystals (2%). Strains isolated from Braulio Carrillo, Tortuguero and Cahuita, presented predominantly irregular crystals. On the other hand, more than 60% of the isolates from Térraba-Sierpe and Hitoy-Cerere had medium oval crystals. Strains from Gandoca-Manzanillo, Palo Verde and Carara presented mainly combinations of oval and irregular crystals. Nevertheless, the greatest diversity in crystal morphology was observed in those from Santa Rosa, Llanos del Río Medio Queso and Parque Marino las Baulas. Protein analyses of the crystal-spore preparations showed -endotoxin with diverse electrophoretic patterns, with molecular weights in the range of 20 to 160 kDa. Fifty six percent of the strains amplified with the cry2 primer, 54% with vip3, 20% with cry1, 9% with cry3-cry7 and 8% with cry8. The cry 11 and cyt genes were found in 8% and 7% of the strains, respectively. When analyzed with specific primers for the cry1 subfamily, 13 different genetic profiles were obtained. In addition, twenty-four strains did not amplify with any of the primers used, suggesting they contain novel cry genes. The diversity of Bt genes found in this collection indicates it could have great potential for the control of different species of insect pests. The toxicological characterization of the strains by bioassays against important insect pests will provide useful information about thei
CRITERIOS DE CURA EN LA ENFERMEDAD DE CHAGAS: INTERPRETACIóN DE HALLAZGOS PARASITOLóGICOS, SEROLóGICOS Y CLíNICOS
Raúl A Espinoza M
Revista del Instituto Nacional de Higiene Rafael Rangel , 2003,
Abstract: Uno de los aspectos más complejos de la enfermedad de Chagas es evaluar el efecto del tratamiento etiológico con relación a los resultados de las pruebas parasitológicas y serológicas, donde se necesita un seguimiento prolongado y los resultados obtenidos son en gran parte controversiales. Como criterios de evaluación del tratamiento (criterios de cura), se han empleado los cambios en la serología, la parasitemia y la evolución clínica; mientras los primeros se pueden observar en meses, la evaluación clínica requiere a os de control, hecho que ha desalentado a varios grupos de investigación. Para muchos, aunque no exista correlación clínica que lo confirme, aquellos pacientes tratados que cursan con una parasitemia y serología negativas, se consideran curados. Evidencia reciente muestra que otras técnicas han demostrado la persistencia del parásito en pacientes con Chagas crónico y también en pacientes con enfermedad aguda que han recibido drogas contra el Trypanosoma cruzi. Más aún, en el paciente agudo que ha sido tratado, existe poca correlación entre los hallazgos clínicos y la evidencia de da o miocárdico obtenido por biopsias endomiocárdicas y otros estudios, como el ecocardiograma y el cineventriculograma del ventrículo izquierdo. Lo anterior sugiere la necesidad de revaluar los criterios de cura en los pacientes con enfermedad de Chagas que reciben tratamiento etiológico, o donde se evaluarían nuevas drogas contra el parásito. One of the most complex aspects relating to the Chagas′ disease is to evaluate the effect of treatment over the results of serology and parasitic test, issue where you need a long follow up and the results obtained are most of them controversial. As criterion of evaluation of that treatment "criterion of cure", in that matter, has been used serology changes, parasite in blood and clinic evaluation; while the two firsts need months of observation, the clinic aspects require years, facts which has disappointed to several investigation groups. For most of them even without no clinic correlation that confirm, those patients without evidence of parasite in blood and negative serology, should be considered cured. Recent evidences show that using different techniques it can be demonstrated the presence of the parasite in blood of patients with chronic and acute type of Chagas disease whose have received drugs against Trypanosoma cruzi. Besides in the acute patient who has received treatment there are a few correlations between clinic findings and the evidence of myocardial damage obtained by endomyocardial biopsy and other test s
Relación de los cultivos modificados genéticamente con el ambiente y la salud de la población costarricense
Espinoza,Ana M; Arrieta-Espinoza,Griselda; Sittenfeld,Ana;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2004,
Abstract: relationship of genetically modified crops with the environment and health of the costa rican human population. genetic engineering and the food derived from genetically modified crops (gmcs) have been the center of debate worldwide, as has occurred historically with the advent of new technologies. questions are derived from the potential impact of gmcs to the environment and the safety of the products to the consumers. in relation to the first inquiry, practice has been oriented to a case-by-case-study, according to the own characteristics of the gmc, in order to minimize its impact in the environment. scientific studies in diverse latitudes of the world have demonstrated that gmcs in the market showed no adverse effects related to this issue. in relation to food derived from the gmcs, rigorous evaluation protocols have been developed and approved by fao and who to guarantee the innocuousness of these products. up to the moment, no contraindications for human health have been pointed out for the products that are available today in the market. in the particular case of costa rica, the country has established since the 90s a regulatory biosafety framework for the management of the gmcs, safeguarding the biodiversity of the country and the health of consumers. at the same time the country has made significant public and private investments in the field that allowed the country to obtain a leading position in biosafety in the region and genetic engineering research at national research centers. any attempt to restrict or prohibit these activities in the country, will put in risk the previously described investment, will affect the generation of new knowledge for decision making and the leadership in the field, preventing the benefits derived from this promising technology. rev. biol. trop. 52(3): 727-732. epub 2004 dic 15.
Relación de los cultivos modificados genéticamente con el ambiente y la salud de la población costarricense
Ana M Espinoza,Griselda Arrieta-Espinoza,Ana Sittenfeld
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2004,
Abstract: La ingeniería genética y los alimentos derivados de los cultivos genéticamente modificados (CGMs) han sido objeto de debate a escala mundial, como ocurre históricamente con el surgimiento de tecnologías novedosas. Se cuestiona si los CGMs son seguros al ambiente y si los productos derivados de ellos son inocuos para los consumidores. Sobre la primera de esas inquietudes, la práctica se ha orientado a estudiar caso por caso, según las propias características del CGM, para minimizar su impacto en el ambiente. Estudios científicos en diversas latitudes han demostrado que no ha habido efectos da inos en este particular. En cuanto a los alimentos derivados de los CGMs se han desarrollado sistemas de evaluación rigurosa para permitir su consumo y comercialización, y hay protocolos aprobados por la FAO y la OMS para garantizar su inocuidad. Hasta el momento, en ningún caso se han detectado contraindicaciones para la salud humana en los productos disponibles hoy en el mercado. Por su parte, Costa Rica estableció desde los a os 90 un marco regulatorio en bioseguridad que se encarga de garantizar la seguridad para la salud y el ambiente en el manejo de los CGMs. Asimismo, se ha hecho una gran inversión estatal y privada en esta área, lo que le permitió a Costa Rica posicionarse en la región como uno de los primeros países con fortalezas en materia de bioseguridad y de investigación en ingeniería genética en centros de investigación nacionales. Cualquier intento de restringir o prohibir dicha actividad pondría en riesgo esa inversión, afectaría la generación de nuevo conocimiento para la toma de decisiones y el liderazgo alcanzado en el campo y nos privaría de los beneficios de esta prometedora tecnología. Relationship of genetically modified crops with the environment and health of the Costa Rican human population. Genetic engineering and the food derived from genetically modified crops (GMCs) have been the center of debate worldwide, as has occurred historically with the advent of new technologies. Questions are derived from the potential impact of GMCs to the environment and the safety of the products to the consumers. In relation to the first inquiry, practice has been oriented to a case-by-case-study, according to the own characteristics of the GMC, in order to minimize its impact in the environment. Scientific studies in diverse latitudes of the world have demonstrated that GMCs in the market showed no adverse effects related to this issue. In relation to food derived from the GMCs, rigorous evaluation protocols have been developed and approved by FAO and WHO
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