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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 494670 matches for " M.K. Haruna "
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Control of African Trypanosomiasis in Nigeria: Time to Strengthening Integrated Approaches (A Review)
U.O. Adamu,M.K. Haruna,R.P. Ovbagbedia,R. Bizi
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of this review is to highlight the inadequacies of the current control of African Trypanosomiasis in Nigeria and the need to strengthen the already integrated control approach. African Trypanosomiasis is one of the most devastating diseases of man and animals in Sub-Saharan African countries, Nigeria inclusive. Over the past century numerous methods of control have been developed yet the disease has proved very difficult to eradicate. Current methods to control the disease, in the absence of a vaccine, rely on the use of anti-trypanosomal drugs and vector control. In animals, an additional control method is the use of trypanotolerant breeds of livestock. Unfortunately, all of these methods have disadvantages and none has proved to be ideal. The public health importance of trypanosomiasis, has led to attempts to control the disease nationally and regionally with initiatives such as the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) of the African union. At the Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (NITR), a combination of control methods is being used for research development and control efforts against the disease. However, diminishing funding for research development and control activities against the disease has hindered this approach. Hence there is a great need to strengthen these integrated approaches for more effective control of trypanosomiasis. Strengthening intersectoral and inter-agency collaboration is greatly advocated in the fight against trypanosomiasis, in order to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of control, as well as enhance the prospect of sustainability and food security as supported by PATTEC. Hence, further fostering the existing relationship with PATEC in a bid towards the eradication of trypanosomiasis from Nigeria.
Immunomodulatory Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Tridax procumbens on Swiss Alblno Rats Orogastrically Dosed with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCIB 950)
M.K. Oladunmoye
International Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: The Immunomodulatory properties of ethanolic leave extract fromTridax procumbens was investigated in Swiss albino rat orogastrically dosed with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The animals were divided into six groups of four per group. The first group was given the standard inoculum of Pseoudomonas aeruginosa only and the second group was given 8 mL of the standard inoculum of the organism and treated with ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens. The third category was given the ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens only while the last group was given normal saline. The uninfected rats showed a (WBC) values of 4,080 mm3 which increased to 8,400 mm3 during infection and later dropped to 3,700 mm3 after infections was treated with the extract from Tridax procubens. The PCV was normal before infection, dropped during infection and increased after infection was treated with extract. The rats infected and treated with Tridax procumben showed a WBC, PCV, neutrophil lymphocyte and eosinophil count of 4,100 mm3, 53, 46, 53, 1%, before infection; a count of 4,600 mm3, 29, 50, 50, 0%, during infection and 3,400 mm3, 42, 62, 32%, respectively after infection. The rats given extract only showed a WBC, PCV,neutrophil, lymphocyte and eopsinophil counts of 5,840 mm3, 53, 51, 48, 1%, before infection; a count of 5,400 mm3, 31, 49, 51% during infection and 4,000 mm3, 36, 68, 30%, respectively after infection. The control rat showed little or no increase in WBC, PCV, neutrophil, lymphocyte and Eosinophil count. The urinalysis showed that the rats had pH of 6, Negative to glucose, ketone, nitrite, Ascorbic acid, protein, bilirubin, blood and normal urobilinogen for all groups before infection. The control rats showed a pH of 6, negative to glucose, Ascorbic acid, ketone, Nitrite, protein, bilirubin, blood and normal urobilinogen which showed the same pattern with all groups before infection. The urine microscopy revealed large number of pus cells, casts, crystal and bacterial cells during infection in those infected with the Pseudomonas aeruginosa only. While infected-treated rats showed a reduced number of pus cells, casts, crystals and bacterial cells during infection.These results showed that ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens has immunomodulatory properties and it is able to inhibit proliferation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Killing of Some Microorganisms and Haemolytic Activity of Two Varieties of Acalypha wilkesiana
M.K. Oladunmoye
International Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: The effect of concentration change on the rate of killing of some selected microorganisms by ethanolic extracts from two varieties of Acalypha wilkesiana was carried out using the plate count technique. The haemolytic activities by the agar diffusion method was investigated.The killing rate was found to increase as concentration increases. This was shown by reduction in the amount of survivors in cfu mL 1 as the exposure time progresses. The rate of killing of the microbial population by the extract was also found to be concentration dependent as increase in concentration lead to reduction in microbial loads. The relationship was established to be exponential one as revealed by the concentration queficent The two varieties of the Acalypha wilkesiana also differ in the ability to kill the different bacteria species and fungus (Candida albicans) with the macrophylla showing higher degree of killing than the Hoffmanin. Generally, the rate of killing was found to vary among the different bacteria species with gram negative ones like Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas being killed at a lower rate than the gram positive organism like Bacillus and Staphylococcus. Candida albicans being a fungus was killed at extremely lower rate than the bacteria. The haemolytic activity was found to be higher in Macrophylla than Hoffmanin and the values increase as the concentration increases.
Effect of Natural and Controlled Fermentation Using Saccharomyces cerevisae as Starter Culture to Enhance the Nutritional Qualities of Locust Beans (Parkia biglobosa, Robert bam)
M.K. Oladunmoye
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Locust beans were fermented to assess its effect on the nutrient composition as well as the qualitative and quantitative determination of the microorganisms involved in the process. Chemical analysis was carried out on the beans to obtain its proximate composition, the average mean composition of carbohydrate was found to decrease from 19.30% of the raw sample to 17.09% of the fermented locust beans; while the moisture content increased from 12.00 to 42.65%, the fat content decreased from 21.02% of raw sample to 10.10%; ash content decrease from 4.47% of unfermented locust beans to 4.31% of fermented locust beans. The crude fibre also decreased from 13.06 to 8.53 in the fermented locust beans. Protein content decrease from 30.14 of unfermented locust beans to 17.32 of fermented locust beans. The pH of the locust beans also increase to 7.93 in the fermented sample from the 5.31 in the raw sample. The identities of the organisms involved in the fermentation were found to be Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus Sp. for bacteria and Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium sp. for fungi.
Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activities and Phytochemical Screening of Two Varieties of Acalypha wilkesiana
M.K. Oladunmoye
International Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Comparative studies on the antimicrobial activities and phytochemical screening of two varieties of Acalypha wilkesiana were carried to investigate the inhibitory potential on some selected pathogens and determine the phytoconstituents of pharmacologic importance. Ethanol was used as the extraction solvent and the microorganisms used were Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis Clostridium sporogenes, B. cereus, B. subtilis, Klebsiella pneunoniae, Trichophyton interdistale, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium camenberti and Fusarium solanni. Growth inhibition indicates on agar plate was used for the antimicrobial sensitivity. The extract was found to posses broad spectrum of activity on both fungi and the bacteria; the latter found was to be more susceptible. Generally Macrophylla variety was found to be more effective in inhibiting the growth of the organisms than Hoffmanin. The Gram- negative organisms like Klebsiella and Pseudomonas was found to be more resistance than the Gram-positive organism as indicated by zone of inhibition. The release of sodium and potassium ions was found to be the mechanism of action of the extract and the amount leaked vary from one organism to the other and is also dependent on the Acalypha variety. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) vary between 0.2-0.98. Comparing the efficacy of the extract with commercial antibiotics showed that the latter was more potent but with narrow spectrum of activity only on the fungi unlike the former with broad spectrum of activity on both fungi and bacteria. The bioactive compounds in the extract include saponin, Tannin, Anthroquinine and glycoside.
Dendritic Cell Therapy For Cancer
Gharate M.K.
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2008,
Abstract: The immune system is the body's defense system. In order for cancer to occur, the immune system must have failed. Dendritic cells are found in all tissues of the body, and many of them began as macrophages. The first dendritic cell discovered is found throughout the skin and is called a Langerhan's cell. Dendritic cells are a specific type of "antigen-presenting cell." They attach themselves to antigens and alter them in a manner that will allow T-lymphocytes to recognize them. The T-lymphocytes then become sensitized to that specific antigen and attack any cell carrying that exact antigen.
The problem of bending the thick orthotropic plate of three-dimensional formulation
M.K. Usarov
Magazine of Civil Engineering , 2011, DOI: 10.5862/mce.22.7
Abstract: Article provides a solution to the problem of bending the thick three-dimensional orthotropic plate under the action of an external sinusoidal distributed normal load.As the equations of equilibrium the three-dimensional equations of elasticity theory were selected. The solution of the equations of equilibrium can be expanded in a Maclaurin series, and the problem reduces to two dimensions. The numerical values of stresses and displacements were determined.Based on the analysis of numerical results it was ascertained that the required accuracy of calculations is achieved by taking into account the eight members of the Maclaurin series.
Complications in Neck Dissection 10 years ex-perience with 268 cases in the Cancer Institute
Acta Medica Iranica , 1973,
Abstract: Immediate and late post operative complications or radical Neck Dissection were discussed. Preventive measures and the treatment of each were mentioned briefly. Our 10 years experience with complications or neck dissection in the Cancer Institute was presented.
A Study On Outbreak Of Malarial Fever Among The Residents Of Village Mandal Of Taluka Viramgam, Distt. Ahmedabad, Gujarat
Lala M.K
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 1989,
Abstract: Outbreak of malaria had occurred in the months of September to November 1988 amongst the residents of village mandal, taluka viramgam, district ahmedabad. As compared to September-November 1987, significant increase in annual blood examination rate (ABER) and slide positivity rate (SPR) was observed in 1988 (September-November). 88 deaths occurred due to malaria from August to December 1988. Mortality rate was more amongst children and people of the lower class. Case fatality rate (CFR) was maximum (11.45%) in October 1988. But due to intensive measures it decreased to 1.47% in December 1988. Appearance of breeding places of mosquitoes due to heavy rains after three consecutive droughts, inadequate surveillance, mosquito resistance to insecticides, plasmodium resistance to drug treatment may have led to this outbreak amongst the residents of village mandal.
Fumigant Toxicity of Essential Oils Against Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae L.(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
M.K. Chaubey
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Essential oils being natural products, biodegradable and ecologically safe are emerging candidates as replacement of synthetic pesticides in pest management programme. In the present study, essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillating dried fruits of Cuminum cyminum (Apiaceae) and Piper nigrum (Piperaceae) and its repellant, fumigant toxicity and effect on acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) activity was determined against rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae. C. cyminum and P. nigrum essential oils showed significant (p<0.05) repellant activity and caused fumigant toxicity in S. oryzae adults with median lethal concentrations (LC50) 0.67 and 0.58 L cm-3 air, respectively. Fumigation of S. oryzae adults with sublethal concentrations of C. cyminum and P. nigrum essential oils significantly (p<0.05) inhibited AChE activity. Reduction in AChE activity was 77.38 and 50.0 and 75.0 and 53.57% of the control after 24 h of fumigation with 40 and 80% of 24-h LC50 of C. cyminum and P. nigrum essential oils, respectively. In conclusion, these essential oils probably induce toxicity in insects by inhibiting AChE activity.
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