Abstract:
Bu al mada, evrensel bir kurum olarak kabul edilen ailenin yap sal ve kurumsal kimli i, tarihsel geli im sürecinde ge irdi i evreleri ve muhafazakar dü üncenin aile kurumuna ili kin bak ele al nacakt r. Bir kimlik ve kurum olarak ailenin en nemli zelli i, farkl ekillerde de olsa bütün toplumlarda var olmas d r. Ancak, geleneksel toplumlar n vazge ilmez bir “de eri” olarak g rülen aile, modernite ile birlikte yap sal bir de i ime u ram t r. Her ne kadar bu de i im, toplumdan topluma farkl l k g sterse de nihayetinde sosyal bilimcilerin büyük bir o unlu u, aile kurumunun her ge en gün daha fazla y pranmaya ve zülmeye ba lad n ve gelece inin kestirilemeyece i hususunda hemfikirdirler. Asl nda ailenin zülü ü demek, toplumun organik birli ini ve düzenini olu turan temel yap ta n n yok olmas demektir ki, bu da bireyin ontolojik güvenli ini tehdit eden ve ya amsal kayg lar n art ran en nemli nedenlerden biridir. Ya ama ili kin derin bir güvensizlik ve kayg n n ya and günümüz modern toplumlar nda zelikle bireyselli in zendirilmesi beraberinde kültürel bir yozla may ve yabanc la may da getirmi tir. Bundan dolay d r ki, muhafazakar dü ünce, bunu daha nceden ng rmü ve aile kurumunun mutlak anlamda korunmas n talep etmi tir

Abstract:
In this article, Turkey's modernization in the adventure of a protracted discussion, some time can not become a problem, into the regime and center-periphery in terms of sociological, political science in terms of republican-democratic secularism led to the conflict will be problems. Moreover, Turkey's, as different from the Western world, why the religious field itself, and it makes the state institutional care community on the sovereignty of the state of the quest for a tool-building and nation-applied as a driving force trying to answer the question is looked at. This quest for answers in the first of secularism in the West will look at applications, then the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of religion and state relations in the period will be addressed.

Abstract:
This article is about the general historical dynamics and social phenomenon of neo-liberalism and economic globalization. The question/problem pursued is; is globalization a new process as a replacement for modernity as claimed or a different phase of modernity and capitalism in reality? Because, our world is going through a rapid change and transformation like no other period in history; on one hand space and time concepts are being lost and on the other hand differences and localizations are being homogenized. To understand these processes, first we need to analyze the economy-politics of the `order of the new world` that we are living in and to find an answer to the question of what globalization really is. The impression that we acquired within this quest for an answer and at the same time the conclusion that provides the basis for this article is that globalization is a field/period of struggle between labor and capital, that competitive capitalism lies in the heart of this struggle period, that it includes an ideology against social structure and organized society and that this ideology is being represented by neo-liberalism.

Abstract:
The article contains an effort for a sociological assessment of an Alevi identity. Here, first the theological pillars of the Alevi belief and the historical and cultural reality of these pillars, and in detail the identities of Turkish Alevis and their criticizing behaviour against the Sunni tradition are mentioned. The historical/cultural conflicts between Alevi and Sunni sects demonstrate that Alevism is not only a heterodox cult of sect, but also a life practice containing strong customs and legacies historically, having its own values, rituals and beliefs. However, it can be said that the Alevis living in Turkey, despite their efforts to present themselves with a religious identity, they try to exhibit an existence by their opposition concept, manners towards the current political order, political choices and initiatives; apart from this religious identity. What this existence includes, especially the historical roots of Alevism, its cultural identity, religious phenomena and most importantly their political expectations constitute the main subjects of this article.

Abstract:
Memoryless channels with synchronization errors as defined by a stochastic channel matrix allowing for symbol insertions and deletions in addition to random errors are considered. Such channels are information stable, hence their Shannon capacity exists. However, computation of the channel capacity is formidable, and only some upper and lower bounds on the capacity (for some special cases) exist. In this short paper, using a simple methodology, we prove that the channel capacity is a convex function of the stochastic channel matrix. Since the more widely studied model of an independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) deletion channel is a particular case, as an immediate corollary to this result we also argue that the i.i.d. deletion channel capacity is a convex function of the deletion probability. We further use this result to improve the existing capacity upper bounds on the deletion channel by a proper "convexification" argument. In particular, we prove that the capacity of the deletion channel, as the deletion probability d --> 1, is upper bounded by $0.4143(1-d)$ (which was also observed by a different (weaker) recent result).

We report comparatively on fabrication of two-section
ridge-waveguide tapered 3 quantum well (QW) InGaAsP/InP (1300 nm) and 5 QW AlGaInAs/InP (1550 nm) diode lasers. Gas mixtures of
CCl_{2}F_{2}/O_{2} and H_{2}/CH_{4} were used to form ridge-waveguide on the lasers with InP-based material
structures. As known, chlorine- and hydro-carbon based gases are used to
fabricate ridge-waveguide structures. Here, we show the difference between the
structures obtained by using the both gas mixtures in which surface and
sidewall structures as well as performance of the lasers were analysed using
scanning electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that gas mixtures of CCl_{2}F_{2}/O_{2} highly deteriorated the etched structures although different flow rates, rf
powers and base pressures were tried. We also show that the structures etched
with H_{2}/CH_{4} gas mixtures produced much better
results that led to the successful fabrication of two-section devices with
ridge-waveguide. The lasers fabricated using H_{2}/CH_{4} were characterized using output power-current (P-I) and spectral results.

Abstract:
In assembling printed circuit boards (PCB), the use of numerically or computer controlled electronic component placement machines has become quite popular in the last decades. However, serious operations research problems arise through their use such as, allocation of component types to machines, board production schedule, feeder configuration and placement sequencing. In this study, the problem of allocation of component types to machines is taken up where two non-identical machines are deployed serially on a line to complete the assembly process of PCBs. For the solution of this problem three heuristic algorithms are suggested and their performances are investigated on experimental data.

Abstract:
We develop several analytical lower bounds on the capacity of binary insertion and deletion channels by considering independent uniformly distributed (i.u.d.) inputs and computing lower bounds on the mutual information between the input and output sequences. For the deletion channel, we consider two different models: independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) deletion-substitution channel and i.i.d. deletion channel with additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). These two models are considered to incorporate effects of the channel noise along with the synchronization errors. For the insertion channel case we consider the Gallager's model in which the transmitted bits are replaced with two random bits and uniform over the four possibilities independently of any other insertion events. The general approach taken is similar in all cases, however the specific computations differ. Furthermore, the approach yields a useful lower bound on the capacity for a wide range of deletion probabilities for the deletion channels, while it provides a beneficial bound only for small insertion probabilities (less than 0.25) for the insertion model adopted. We emphasize the importance of these results by noting that 1) our results are the first analytical bounds on the capacity of deletion-AWGN channels, 2) the results developed are the best available analytical lower bounds on the deletion-substitution case, 3) for the Gallager insertion channel model, the new lower bound improves the existing results for small insertion probabilities.

Abstract:
Memoryless channels with deletion errors as defined by a stochastic channel matrix allowing for bit drop outs are considered in which transmitted bits are either independently deleted with probability $d$ or unchanged with probability $1-d$. Such channels are information stable, hence their Shannon capacity exists. However, computation of the channel capacity is formidable, and only some upper and lower bounds on the capacity exist. In this paper, we first show a simple result that the parallel concatenation of two different independent deletion channels with deletion probabilities $d_1$ and $d_2$, in which every input bit is either transmitted over the first channel with probability of $\lambda$ or over the second one with probability of $1-\lambda$, is nothing but another deletion channel with deletion probability of $d=\lambda d_1+(1-\lambda)d_2$. We then provide an upper bound on the concatenated deletion channel capacity $C(d)$ in terms of the weighted average of $C(d_1)$, $C(d_2)$ and the parameters of the three channels. An interesting consequence of this bound is that $C(\lambda d_1+(1-\lambda))\leq \lambda C(d_1)$ which enables us to provide an improved upper bound on the capacity of the i.i.d. deletion channels, i.e., $C(d)\leq 0.4143(1-d)$ for $d\geq 0.65$. This generalizes the asymptotic result by Dalai as it remains valid for all $d\geq 0.65$. Using the same approach we are also able to improve upon existing upper bounds on the capacity of the deletion/substitution channel.

Abstract:
We derive an upper bound on the capacity of non-binary deletion channels. Although binary deletion channels have received significant attention over the years, and many upper and lower bounds on their capacity have been derived, such studies for the non-binary case are largely missing. The state of the art is the following: as a trivial upper bound, capacity of an erasure channel with the same input alphabet as the deletion channel can be used, and as a lower bound the results by Diggavi and Grossglauser are available. In this paper, we derive the first non-trivial non-binary deletion channel capacity upper bound and reduce the gap with the existing achievable rates. To derive the results we first prove an inequality between the capacity of a 2K-ary deletion channel with deletion probability $d$, denoted by $C_{2K}(d)$, and the capacity of the binary deletion channel with the same deletion probability, $C_2(d)$, that is, $C_{2K}(d)\leq C_2(d)+(1-d)\log(K)$. Then by employing some existing upper bounds on the capacity of the binary deletion channel, we obtain upper bounds on the capacity of the 2K-ary deletion channel. We illustrate via examples the use of the new bounds and discuss their asymptotic behavior as $d \rightarrow 0$.