Abstract:
We show how a single flux quantum can be effectively manipulated in a superconducting film with a matrix of blind holes. Such a sample can serve as a basic memory element, where the position of the vortex in a [k x l] matrix of pinning sites defines the desired combination of n bits of information (2^n=k*l). Vortex placement is achieved by strategically applied current and the resulting position is read-out via generated voltage between metallic contacts on the sample. Such a device can also act as a controllable source of a nanoengineered local magnetic field for e.g. spintronics applications.

Abstract:
A numerical approach to Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory is demonstrated and we review its applications to several examples of current interest in the research on superconductivity. This analysis also shows the applicability of the two-dimensional approach to thin superconductors and the re-defined effective GL parameter kappa. For two-gap superconductors, the conveniently written GL equations directly show that the magnetic behavior of the sample depends not just on the GL parameter of two bands, but also on the ratio of respective coherence lengths.

Abstract:
To find best FMS solutions, experts use numerous multicriteria methods for evaluation and ranking, methods based on artificial intelligence, and multicriteria optimization methods. Presented in this paper is a developed technoeconomic method for evaluation and selection of FMS based on productivity. The method is based on group technology (GT) process planning.

Abstract:
The effects of the coupling between two electronic condensates in two-gap mesoscopic superconductors are studied within the Ginzburg-Landau theory using a finite difference technique. In applied magnetic field, we derive the dependency of the size of the vortex on the sample size and the strength of the Josephson coupling. In addition, we elaborate on the dependence of the critical temperature and field on the parameters of the coupled condensates. We demonstrate further the existence and stability of fractional states, for which the two condensates comprise different vorticity. Moreover, we also found pronounced asymmetric fractional states and we show their experimentally observable magnetic response. Finally we introduce the magnetic coupling between condensates, and study in particular the case where one band is type II and the other is type I, i.e. the sample is effectively of I.x type. The calculated M(H) loops show a clear signature of the mixed type of superconductivity, which we find to be strongly affected by the ratio of the coherence lengths in the two condensates.

Abstract:
In submicron superconducting squares in a homogeneous magnetic field, Ginzburg-Landau theory may admit solutions of the vortex-antivortex type, conforming with the symmetry of the sample [Chibotaru et al., Nature 408, 833 (2000)]. Here we show that these fascinating, but never experimentally observed states, can be enforced by artificial fourfold pinning, with their diagnostic features enhanced by orders of magnitude. The second-order nucleation of vortex-antivortex molecules can be driven either by temperature or applied magnetic field, with stable asymmetric vortex-antivortex equilibria found on its path.

Abstract:
In a numerical experiment based on Gross-Pitaevskii formalism, we demonstrate unique topological quantum coherence in optically trapped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). Exploring the fact that vortices in rotating BEC can be pinned by a geometric arrangement of laser beams, we show the parameter range in which vortex-antivortex molecules or multiquantum vortices are formed as a consequence of the optically imposed symmetry. Being low-energy states, we discuss the conditions for spontaneous nucleation of these unique molecules and their direct experimental observation, and provoke the potential use of the phase print of an antivortex or a multiquantum vortex when realized in unconventional circumstances.

Abstract:
Symmetry-induced vortex-antivortex configurations in superconducting squares and triangles were predicted earlier; yet, they have not been resolved in experiment up to date. Namely, with vortex-antivortex states being highly unstable with respect to defects and temperature fluctuations, it is very unlikely that samples can be fabricated with the needed quality. Here we show how these drawbacks can be overcome by strategically placed nanoholes in the sample. As a result, (i) the actual shape of the sample becomes far less important, (ii) the stability of the vortex-antivortex configurations in general is substantially enhanced, and (iii) states comprising novel giant-antivortices (with higher winding numbers) become energetically favorable in perforated disks. In the analysis, we stress the potent of strong screening to destabilize the vortex-antivortex states. In turn, the screening-symmetry competition favors stabilization of new asymmetric ground states, which arise for small values of the effective Ginzburg-Landau parameter kappa.

Abstract:
Using the non-linear Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory, we obtain the possible vortex configurations in superconducting thin films containing a square lattice of antidots. The equilibrium structural phase diagram is constructed which gives the different ground-state vortex configurations as function of the size and periodicity of the antidots for a given effective GL parameter $\kappa^{*}$. Giant-vortex states, combination of giant- and multi-vortex states, as well as symmetry imposed vortex-antivortex states are found to be the ground state for particular geometrical parameters of the sample. The antidot occupation number $n_o$ is calculated as a function of related parameters and comparison with existing expressions for the saturation number $n_s$ and with experimental results is given. For a small radius of antidots a triangular vortex lattice is obtained, where some of the vortices are pinned by the antidots and some of them are located between them. Transition between the square pinned and triangular vortex lattices is given for different values of the applied field. The enhanced critical current at integer and rational matching fields is found, where the level of enhancement at given magnetic field directly depends on the vortex-occupation number of the antidots. For certain parameters of the antidot lattice and/or temperature the critical current is found to be larger for higher magnetic fields. Superconducting/normal $H-T$ phase boundary exhibits different regimes as antidots are made larger, and we transit from a plain superconducting film to a thin-wire superconducting network. Presented results are in good agreement with available experiments and suggest possible new experiments.

Abstract:
The photo-response of a thin current-carrying superconducting stripe with a 90-degree turn is studied within the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory. We show that the photon acting near the inner corner (where the current density is maximal due to the current crowding [J. R. Clem and K. K. Berggren, Phys. Rev. B {\bf 84}, 174510 (2011)]) triggers the nucleation of superconducting vortices at currents much smaller than the expected critical one, but {\it does not} bring the system to a higher resistive state and thus remains undetected. The transition to the resistive state occurs only when the photon hits the stripe away from the corner due to there uniform current distribution across the sample, and dissipation is due to the nucleation of a kinematic vortex-antivortex pair near the photon incidence. We propose strategies to account for this problem in the measurements.

Abstract:
Magnetic flux patterns are known to strongly differ in the intermediate state of type-I and type-II superconductors. Using a type-I/type-II bilayer we demonstrate hybridization of these flux phases into a plethora of unique new ones. Owing to a complicated multi-body interaction between individual fluxoids, many different intriguing patterns are possible under applied magnetic field, such as few-vortex clusters, vortex chains, mazes or labyrinthal structures resembling the phenomena readily encountered in soft matter physics. However, in our system the patterns are tunable by sample parameters, magnetic field, current and temperature, which reveals transitions from short-range clustering to long-range ordered phases such as parallel chains, gels, glasses and crystalline vortex lattices, or phases where lamellar type-I flux domains in one layer serve as a bedding potential for type-II vortices in the other - configurations clearly beyond the soft-matter analogy.