Abstract:
The space-time distortion perceived subjectively during saccadic eye movements is an associative phenomenon of a transient shift of observer’s visual frame of reference from one position to another. Here we report that the lines of subjective simultaneity defined as two spatially separated flashes perceived during saccades were nearly uniformly tilted along the physical time-course. The causality of the resulting space-time compression may be explained by the Minkowski space-time diagram in physics.

Abstract:
Evolution of disoriented chiral condenstates is studied with the classical sigma model in 3+1 dimensions. By smoothly connecting a chiral symmetric solution of the formation period to a solution of the decay period, we obtain a complete spacetime evolution of the pion field for a simple and physically interesting source. The formation process is discussed quantitatively from the viewpoint of the axial-vector isospin conservation.

Abstract:
We attempt to understand the final-state interaction in the two-body nonleptonic decay of a heavy particle for which many multibody decay channels are also open. No matter how many multibody channels couple to the two-body channels, the analyticity of the S-matrix relates the phase and the magnitude of the two-body decay amplitude through a dispersion relation. In general, however, the phase cannot be determined by strong interactions alone. The dispersion relation requires on a general ground that the final-state interaction phases be small for the two-body decay amplitudes when the initial particle is very heavy. We then analyze the final-state interaction phases in terms of the s-channel eigenstates of the S-matrix and obtain semiquantitative results applicable to the B decay with a random S-matrix hypothesis. We use the high-energy scattering date and the dual resonance model as a guide to the relevant aspects of strong interactions at long and intermediate distances.

Abstract:
In view of important implications in the B decay, the 0-0- decay modes of J/psi are analyzed with broken flavor SU(3) symmetry in search for long-distance final-state interactions. If we impose one mild theoretical constraint on the electromagnetic form factors, we find that a large phase difference of final-state interactions is strongly favored between the one-photon and the gluon decay amplitudes. Measurement of the \pi+\pi- and K+K- cross sections off the J/psi peak in e+e- annihilation can settle the issue without recourse to theory.

Abstract:
The new BES measurement on the two-body decays of J/psi and psi' into an axial-vector meson and a pseudoscalar meson is analyzed with the axial-K mixing including the one-photon annihilation contribution. A somewhat puzzling pattern of the K_1^+ K^- decay channels can be understood with no tight constraint on the mixing angle. The branching fractions of the K_1^0 K-bar^0 channels will be the cleanest source of information to determine the mixing angle from the 1^+ 0^- decays of J/psi and psi'.

Abstract:
Topologically nontrivial time-dependent solutions of the classical nonlinear sigma model are studied as candidates of the disoriented chiral condensate (DCC) in 3+1 dimensions. Unlike the analytic solutions so far discussed, these solutions cannot be transformed into isospin-uniform ones by chiral rotations. If they are produced as DCC's, they can be detected by a distinct pattern in the angle-rapidity distribution of the neutral-to-chrged-pion ratio.

Abstract:
We look for a mechanism that removes without numerical fine tuning the strong constraint imposed by the flavor changing neutral current interaction of leptoquark exchange. If n x n degenerate leptoquarks couple universally to n generations of quarks and leptons in the weak basis, not only can the neutral current interactions be flavor diagonal, but also the charge current interaction takes exactly the same form as W exchange at low energies. Atomic parity violation still imposes tight constraints. Electroweak doublets with some left-right symmetry have the best chance to be the lightest leptoquarks.

Abstract:
We examine the so-called rho-pi puzzle of the psi(2S) decay by incorporating two inputs: One is the relative phase between the one-photon and the gluon decay amplitude, and the other is a possible anomaly in the inclusive nonelectromagnetic decay rate of psi(2S). We propose the possibility that in the psi(2S) decay a hadronic decay process of long distance origin is important in addition to the short-distance decay process. The amplitude of this additional process should nearly cancel the three-gluon amplitude in the exclusive psi(2S)---> 1-0- and turn the sum dominantly real in contrast to the J/psi decay. We present general consequences of this mechanism and then briefly look into two models which possibly explain the course of this additional amplitude.

Abstract:
The updated experimental data are used to analyze the final-state interaction phases of the two-body decay amplitudes of the B mesons. Combining the upper bounds on the branching fractions of the color-suppressed modes with those of the charged modes, we have set constraints on the relative phases between the amplitudes $A(B^0 \to X^- Y^+)$ and $A(B^+ \to X^0 Y^+)$ where $X=\overlien{D}$ or $\overine{D}^*$ and $Y=\pi$ and $\rho$. The numbers that we have obtained point to small final-state interactions. When these relative phases are expressed in those of the isospin amplitudes, the bounds become less tight since experimental errors accumulate. In the decay where many multibody channels are open, however, there is little advantage in breaking up the observed amplitudes into the isospin eigenchannels for analysis of the final-state interactions.

Abstract:
I present a critical account of the final-state interaction (FSI) in two-body B decays from viewpoint of the hadron picture. I emphasize that the phase and the magnitude of decay amplitude are related to each other by a dispersion relation. In a model phase of FSI motivated by experiment, I illustrate how much the magnitude of amplitude can deviate from its factorization value by the FSI.