In the present study, we investigated the effect of regulatory focus on bias in memory for task duration. Specifically, whether or not a person’s motivational outlook, seeking gains or avoiding losses, would cause them to over- or underestimate task duration. Eighty-four college students completed an origami task for which motivational focus (gains or losses), experience with the task and amount of attention directed to the task were manipulated. Participants with a focus on seeking gains tended to remember the task as taking less time when their attention was drawn towards the details of the task instead of away from the task than did participants in the other conditions. It seems that this effect occurred because participants with a focus for seeking gains did not sufficiently account for the fact that drawing attention toward the task caused them to take longer on the task than on previous trials.

Abstract:
Two recent experiments successfully observed Landau levels in the tunneling spectra of the topological insulator Bi2Se3. To mimic the influence of a scanning tunneling microscope tip on the Landau levels we solve the two-dimensional Dirac equation in the presence of a localized electrostatic potential. We find that the STM tip not only shifts the Landau levels, but also suppresses for a realistic choice of parameters the negative branch of Landau levels.

Abstract:
We present a parametric deterministic formulation of Bayesian inverse problems with input parameter from infinite dimensional, separable Banach spaces. In this formulation, the forward problems are parametric, deterministic elliptic partial differential equations, and the inverse problem is to determine the unknown, parametric deterministic coefficients from noisy observations comprising linear functionals of the solution. We prove a generalized polynomial chaos representation of the posterior density with respect to the prior measure, given noisy observational data. We analyze the sparsity of the posterior density in terms of the summability of the input data's coefficient sequence. To this end, we estimate the fluctuations in the prior. We exhibit sufficient conditions on the prior model in order for approximations of the posterior density to converge at a given algebraic rate, in terms of the number $N$ of unknowns appearing in the parameteric representation of the prior measure. Similar sparsity and approximation results are also exhibited for the solution and covariance of the elliptic partial differential equation under the posterior. These results then form the basis for efficient uncertainty quantification, in the presence of data with noise.

Under consideration is a nonclassical stationary problem on heat
conduction in a body with the pre-set surface temperature and heat flow. The
body contains inclusions at unknown locations and with unknown boundaries. The
body and inclusions have different constant thermal conductivities. The author
explores the possibility of locating inclusions. The article presents an
integral criterion based on which a few statements on identification of
inclusions in a body are proved.

Abstract:
Introduction. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of electrical-acoustic stimulation on vestibular function in CI patients by using the EquiTest and to help answer the question of whether electrically stimulating the inner ear using a cochlear implant influences the balance system in any way. Material and Methods. A test population (=50) was selected at random from among the cochlear implant recipients. Dynamic posturography (using the EquiTest) was performed with the device switched off an switched on. Results. In summary, it can be said that an activated cochlear implant affects the function of the vestibular system and may, to an extent, even lead to a stabilization of balance function under the static conditions of dynamic posturography, but nevertheless also to a significant destabilization. Significant improvements in vestibular function were seen mainly in equilibrium scores under conditions 4 and 5, the composite equilibrium score, and the vestibular components as revealed by sensory analysis. Conclusions. Only under the static conditions are significantly poorer scores achieved when stimulation is applied. It may be that the explanation for any symptoms of dizziness lies precisely in the fact that they occur in supposedly noncritical situations, since, when the cochlear implant makes increased demands on the balance system, induced disturbances can be centrally suppressed.

Abstract:
Introduction. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of electrical-acoustic stimulation on vestibular function in CI patients by using the EquiTest and to help answer the question of whether electrically stimulating the inner ear using a cochlear implant influences the balance system in any way. Material and Methods. A test population ( ) was selected at random from among the cochlear implant recipients. Dynamic posturography (using the EquiTest) was performed with the device switched off an switched on. Results. In summary, it can be said that an activated cochlear implant affects the function of the vestibular system and may, to an extent, even lead to a stabilization of balance function under the static conditions of dynamic posturography, but nevertheless also to a significant destabilization. Significant improvements in vestibular function were seen mainly in equilibrium scores under conditions 4 and 5, the composite equilibrium score, and the vestibular components as revealed by sensory analysis. Conclusions. Only under the static conditions are significantly poorer scores achieved when stimulation is applied. It may be that the explanation for any symptoms of dizziness lies precisely in the fact that they occur in supposedly noncritical situations, since, when the cochlear implant makes increased demands on the balance system, induced disturbances can be centrally suppressed. 1. Introduction Cochlear implant recipients often complain of postoperative symptoms of dizziness [1–4]. Although the auditory and vestibular systems are clearly distinct from one another, the mechanisms of neural transmission are identical. For this reason the electrical stimulation through the agency of the cochlear implant may have an effect both on the auditory and vestibular systems. Several studies on the effect of electrical stimulation by the cochlear implant were carried out. Ito in 1998 described in his study that 18% of 55 cochlear implant recipients saw connection between dizziness and the activation of the CI. This gave grounds for supposing that the electricity spreads diffusely and could therefore stimulate the nerve endings of the vestibular nerve [5]. Bance et al.tested 17 patients for spontaneous nystagmus using video nystagmography. Only one patient produced eye movements under electrical stimulation by the cochlear implant, although no discomfort was reported [6]. In this study, the proportion of cases in which the cochlear implant had a detrimental effect on the vestibular organ was 6%, which closely corresponds to the findings of

Abstract:
It is shown that the interplay of long-range disorder and in-plane magnetic field gives rise to an out-of-plane spin polarization and a finite spin Hall conductivity of the two-dimensional electron gas in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling. A key aspect is provided by the electric-field induced in-plane spin polarization. Our results are obtained first in the \textit{clean} limit where the spin-orbit splitting is much larger than the disorder broadening of the energy levels via the diagrammatic evaluation of the Kubo-formula. Then the results are shown to hold in the full range of the disorder parameter $\alpha p_F \tau$ by means of the quasiclassical Green function technique.

Abstract:
We comment on transport experiments in underdoped LaSrCuO in the non-superconducting phase. The temperature dependence of the resistance strongly resembles what is expected from standard localization theory. However this theory fails, when comparing with experiments in more detail.

Abstract:
We study certain aspects of the effective, occasionally called collective, description of complex quantum systems within the framework of the path integral formalism, in which the environment is integrated out. Generalising the standard Feynman-Vernon Caldeira-Leggett model to include a non-linear coupling between ``particle'' and environment, and considering a particular spectral density of the coupling, a coordinate-dependent mass (or velocity-dependent potential) is obtained. The related effective quantum theory, which depends on the proper discretisation of the path integral, is derived and discussed. As a result, we find that in general a simple effective low-energy Hamiltonian, in which only the coordinate-dependent mass enters, cannot be formulated. The quantum theory of weakly coupled superconductors and the quantum dynamics of vortices in Josephson junction arrays are physical examples where these considerations, in principle, are of relevance.

Abstract:
Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are a commonly used tool for inference of transcription factor (TF) binding sites from DNA sequence data. We exploit the mathematical equivalence between HMMs for TF binding and the "inverse" statistical mechanics of hard rods in a one-dimensional disordered potential to investigate learning in HMMs. We derive analytic expressions for the Fisher information, a commonly employed measure of confidence in learned parameters, in the biologically relevant limit where the density of binding sites is low. We then use techniques from statistical mechanics to derive a scaling principle relating the specificity (binding energy) of a TF to the minimum amount of training data necessary to learn it.