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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401393 matches for " M. Schuessler "
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Dynamics of magnetic flux tubes in close binary stars I. Equilibrium and stability properties
V. Holzwarth,M. Schuessler
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20030582
Abstract: Surface reconstructions of active close binary stars based on photometric and spectroscopic observations reveal non-uniform starspot distributions, which indicate the existence of preferred spot longitudes (with respect to the companion star). We consider the equilibrium and linear stability of toroidal magnetic flux tubes in close binaries to examine whether tidal effects are capable to initiate the formation of rising flux loops at preferred longitudes near the bottom of the stellar convection zone. The tidal force and the deviation of the stellar structure from spherical symmetry are treated in lowest-order perturbation theory assuming synchronised close binaries with orbital periods of a few days. The frequency, growth time, and spatial structure of linear eigenmodes are determined by a stability analysis. We find that, despite their small magnitude, tidal effects can lead to a considerable longitudinal asymmetry in the formation probability of flux loops, since the breaking of the axial symmetry due to the presence of the companion star is reinforced by the sensitive dependence of the stability properties on the stellar stratification and by resonance effects. The orientation of preferred longitudes of loop formation depends on the equilibrium configuration and the wave number of the dominating eigenmode. The change of the growth times of unstable modes with respect to the case of a single star is very small.
Dynamics of magnetic flux tubes in close binary stars II. Nonlinear evolution and surface distributions
V. Holzwarth,M. Schuessler
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20030584
Abstract: Observations of magnetically active close binaries with orbital periods of a few days reveal the existence of starspots at preferred longitudes (with respect to the direction of the companion star). We numerically investigate the non-linear dynamics and evolution of magnetic flux tubes in the convection zoneof a fast-rotating component of a close binary system and explore whether the tidal effects are able to generate non-uniformities in the surface distribution of erupting flux tubes. Assuming a synchronised system with a rotation period of two days and consisting of two solar-type components, both the tidal force and the deviation of the stellar structure from spherical shape are considered in lowest-order perturbation theory. The magnetic field is initially stored in the form of toroidal magnetic flux rings within the stably stratified overshoot region beneath the convection zone. Once the field has grown sufficiently strong, instabilities initiate the formation of rising flux loops, which rise through the convection zone and emerge at the stellar surface. We find that although the magnitude of tidal effects is rather small, they nevertheless lead to the formation of clusters of flux tube eruptions at preferred longitudes on opposite sides of the star, which result from the cumulative and resonant character of the action of tidal effects on rising flux tubes. The longitude distribution of the clusters depends on the initial parameters of flux tubes in the overshoot region like magnetic field strength and latitude, implying that there is no globally unique preferred longitude along a fixed direction.
Are the strengths of solar cycles determined by converging flows towards the activity belts?
R. H. Cameron,M. Schuessler
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219914
Abstract: It is proposed that the observed near-surface inflows towards the active regions and sunspot zones provide a nonlinear feedback mechanism that limits the amplitude of a Babcock-Leighton-type solar dynamo and determines the variation of the cycle strength. This hypothesis is tested with surface flux transport simulations including converging latitudinal flows that depend on the surface distribution of magnetic flux. The inflows modulate the build-up of polar fields (represented by the axial dipole) by reducing the tilt angles of bipolar magnetic regions and by affecting the cross-equator transport of leading-polarity magnetic flux. With flux input derived from the observed record of sunspot groups, the simulations cover the period between 1874 and 1980 (corresponding to solar cycles 11 to 20). The inclusion of the inflows leads to a strong correlation of the simulated axial dipole strength during activity minimum with the observed amplitude of the subsequent cycle. This in agreement with empirical correlations and in line with what is expected from a Babcock-Leighton-type dynamo. The results provide evidence that the latitudinal inflows are a key ingredient in determining the amplitude of solar cycles.
Generalized investigation of the rotation-activity relation: Favouring rotation period instead of Rossby number
A. Reiners,M. Schuessler,V. M. Passegger
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/794/2/144
Abstract: Magnetic activity in Sun-like and low-mass stars causes X-ray coronal emission, which is stronger for more rapidly rotating stars. This relation is often interpreted in terms of the Rossby number, i.e., the ratio of rotation period to convective overturn time. We reconsider this interpretation on the basis of the observed X-ray emission and rotation periods of 821 stars with masses below 1.4 Msun. A generalized analysis of the relation between X-ray luminosity normalized by bolometric luminosity, L_X/L_bol, and combinations of rotational period, P, and stellar radius, R, shows that the Rossby formulation does not provide the solution with minimal scatter. Instead, we find that the relation L_X/L_bol ~ P^{-2}R^{-4} optimally describes the non-saturated fraction of the stars. This relation is equivalent to L_X ~ P^{-2}, indicating that the rotation period alone determines the total X-ray emission. Since L_X is directly related to the magnetic flux at the stellar surface, this means that the surface flux is determined solely by the star's rotation and is independent of other stellar parameters. While a formulation in terms of a Rossby number would be consistent with these results if the convective overturn time scales exactly as L_bol^{-1/2}, our generalized approach emphasizes the need to test a broader range of mechanisms for dynamo action in cool stars.
Properties of simulated sunspot umbral dots
L. Bharti,B. Beeck,M. Schuessler
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913328
Abstract: Realistic 3D radiative MHD simulations reveal the magneto-convective processes underlying the formation of the photospheric fine structure of sunspots, including penumbral filaments and umbral dots. Here we provide results from a statistical analysis of simulated umbral dots and compare them with reports from high-resolution observations. A multi-level segmentation and tracking algorithm has been used to isolate the bright structures in synthetic bolometric and continuum brightness images. Areas, brightness, and lifetimes of the resulting set of umbral dots are found to be correlated: larger umbral dots tend to be brighter and live longer. The magnetic field strength and velocity structure of umbral dots on surfaces of constant optical depth in the continuum at 630 nm indicate that the strong field reduction and high velocities in the upper parts of the upflow plumes underlying umbral dots are largely hidden from spectro-polarimetric observations. The properties of the simulated umbral dots are generally consistent with the results of recent high-resolution observations. However, the observed population of small, short-lived umbral dots is not reproduced by the simulations, possibly owing to insufficient spatial resolution.
Probing quiet Sun magnetism using MURaM simulations and Hinode/SP results: support for a local dynamo
S. Danilovic,M. Schuessler,S. K. Solanki
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913379
Abstract: We obtain information about the magnetic flux present in the quiet Sun by comparing radiative MHD simulations with Hinode/SP observations, with particular emphasis on the role of surface dynamo action. Simulation runs with different magnetic Reynolds numbers (Rm) are used together with observations at different heliocentric angles with different levels of noise. The results show that simulations with an imposed mixed-polarity field and Rm below the threshold for dynamo action reproduce the observed vertical flux density, but do not display a sufficiently high horizontal flux density. Surface dynamo simulations at the highest Rm feasible at the moment yield a ratio of the horizontal and vertical flux density consistent with observational results, but the overall amplitudes are too low. Based on the properties of the local dynamo simulations, a tentative scaling of the magnetic field strength by a factor 2 - 3 reproduces the signal observed in the internetwork regions. We find an agreement with observations at different heliocentric angles. The mean field strength in internetwork, implied by our analysis, is roughly 170 G at the optical depth unity. Our study shows that surface dynamo could be responsible for most of the magnetic flux in the quiet Sun outside the network given that the extrapolation to higher Rm is valid.
Effects of the scatter in sunspot group tilt angles on the large-scale magnetic field at the solar surface
J. Jiang,R. H. Cameron,M. Schuessler
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/791/1/5
Abstract: The tilt angles of sunspot groups represent the poloidal field source in Babcock-Leighton-type models of the solar dynamo and are crucial for the build-up and reversals of the polar fields in Surface Flux Transport (SFT) simulations. The evolution of the polar field is a consequence of Hale's polarity rules, together with the tilt angle distribution which has a systematic component (Joy's law) and a random component (tilt-angle scatter). We determine the scatter using the observed tilt angle data and study the effects of this scatter on the evolution of the solar surface field using SFT simulations with flux input based upon the recorded sunspot groups. The tilt angle scatter is described in our simulations by a random component according to the observed distributions for different ranges of sunspot group size (total umbral area). By performing simulations with a number of different realizations of the scatter we study the effect of the tilt angle scatter on the global magnetic field, especially on the evolution of the axial dipole moment. The average axial dipole moment at the end of cycle 17 (a medium-amplitude cycle) from our simulations was 2.73G. The tilt angle scatter leads to an uncertainty of 0.78 G (standard deviation). We also considered cycle 14 (a weak cycle) and cycle 19 (a strong cycle) and show that the standard deviation of the axial dipole moment is similar for all three cycles. The uncertainty mainly results from the big sunspot groups which emerge near the equator. In the framework of Babcock-Leighton dynamo models, the tilt angle scatter therefore constitutes a significant random factor in the cycle-to-cycle amplitude variability, which strongly limits the predictability of solar activity.
Direct Mass Spectroscopy Analysis and Comparison of Middle Eastern and Texas Crude Oils  [PDF]
Gamze Kaya, Necati Kaya, Mahmood Amani, Abul H. M. J. Rahman, Alexandre A. Kolomenskii, Hans A. Schuessler
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2017.74025
Abstract: We analyzed two types of crude oil samples: Middle Eastern crude oil and Texas crude oil by using a residual gas analyzer (RGA) based on the linear quadrupole principle. This portable mass analyzer is capable of measuring hydrocarbons with masses of up to 300 atomic mass units (amu) as well as low mass targets, such as methane and carbon dioxide at ppm level concentrations. The generated mass spectra revealed differences in the composition and signal intensity of hydrocarbons of Middle Eastern and Texas crude oil samples. Even if RGA 300 is manufactured to be served as a detailed gas analysis of vacuum systems, we have shown that it is sensitively capable of detection of hydrocarbons and it enables one to qualitative and quantitative analysis of the composition of the crude oils.
Calculated Electronic Behavior and Spectrum of Mg+@C60 Using a Simple Jellium-shell Model
W. Even,J. Smith,M. W. Roth,H. A. Schuessler
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2004, DOI: 10.3390/i5110333
Abstract: We present a method for calculating the energy levels and wave functions of any atom or ion with a single valence electron encapsulated in a Fullerene cage using a jelluim-shell model. The valence electron-core interaction is represented by a one-body pseudo-potential obtained through density functional theory with strikingly accurate parameters for Mg+ and which reduces to a purely Coulombic interaction in the case of H. We find that most energy states are affected little by encapsulation. However, when either the electron in the non-encapsulated species has a high probability of being near the jellium cage, or when the cage induces a maximum electron probability density within it, the energy levels shift considerably. Mg+ shows behavior similar to that of H, but since its wave functions are broader, the changes in its energy levels from encapsulation are slightly more pronounced. Agreement with other computational work as well as experiment is excellent and the method presented here is generalizable to any encapsulated species where a one-body electronic pseudo-potential for the free atom (or ion) is available. Results are also presented for off-center hydrogen, where a ground state energy minimum of -14.01 eV is found at a nuclear displacement of around 0.1 ?.
Modeling the Sun's open magnetic flux and the heliospheric current sheet
J. Jiang,R. Cameron,D. Schmitt,M. Schuessler
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/709/1/301
Abstract: By coupling a solar surface flux transport model with an extrapolation of the heliospheric field, we simulate the evolution of the Sun's open magnetic flux and the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) based on observational data of sunspot groups since 1976. The results are consistent with measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field near Earth and with the tilt angle of the HCS as derived from extrapolation of the observed solar surface field. This opens the possibility for an improved reconstruction of the Sun's open flux and the HCS into the past on the basis of empirical sunspot data.
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