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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401373 matches for " M. Schraner "
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Interannual-to-decadal variability of the stratosphere during the 20th century: ensemble simulations with a chemistry-climate model
A. M. Fischer,M. Schraner,E. Rozanov,P. Kenzelmann
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: Interannual-to-decadal variability in stratospheric ozone and climate have a number of common sources, such as variations in solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosol loading due to volcanic eruptions, El Ni o Southern Oscillation variability and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). Currently available data records as well as model simulations addressing stratospheric chemical climate variability mostly cover only the past few decades, which is often insufficient to address natural interannual-to-decadal variability. Here we make use of recently reconstructed and re-evaluated data products to force and validate transient ensemble model simulations (nine members) across the twentieth century computed by means of the chemistry-climate model SOCOL. The forcings included sea surface temperatures, sea ice, solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosols, QBO, changes in land properties, greenhouse gases, ozone depleting substances, and emissions of carbon monoxides, and nitrogen oxides. The transient simulations are in good agreement with observations, reconstructions and reanalyses and allow quantification of interannual-to-decadal variability during the 20th century. All ensemble members are able to capture the low-frequency variability in tropical and mid-latitudinal total ozone as well as in the strength of the subtropical jet, suggesting a realistic response to external forcings in this area. The region of the northern polar vortex exhibits a large internal model variability that is found in the frequency, seasonality, and strength of major warmings as well as in the strength of the modeled polar vortex. Results from process-oriented analysis, such as correlation between the vertical Eliassen Palm flux (EP flux) component and polar variables as well as stratospheric ozone trends, are of comparable magnitude to those observed and are consistent in all analysed ensemble members. Yet, trend estimates of the vertical EP flux component vary greatly among ensemble members precluding any robust conclusions. This suggests that internal variability in models must be accounted for in order to quantify the atmospheric model response in wave energy upon external forcings.
The 1986–1989 ENSO cycle in a chemical climate model
S. Br?nnimann,M. Schraner,B. Müller,A. Fischer
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2006,
Abstract: A pronounced ENSO cycle occurred from 1986 to 1989, accompanied by distinct dynamical and chemical anomalies in the global troposphere and stratosphere. Reproducing these effects with current climate models not only provides a model test but also contributes to our still limited understanding of ENSO's effect on stratosphere-troposphere coupling. We performed several sets of ensemble simulations with a chemical climate model (SOCOL) forced with global sea surface temperatures. Results were compared with observations and with large-ensemble simulations performed with an atmospheric general circulation model (MRF9). We focus our analysis on the extratropical stratosphere and its coupling with the troposphere. In this context, the circulation over the North Atlantic sector is particularly important. Observed differences between the El Ni o winter 1987 and the La Ni a winter 1989 include a negative North Atlantic Oscillation index with corresponding changes in temperature and precipitation patterns, a weak polar vortex, a warm Arctic middle stratosphere, negative and positive total ozone anomalies in the tropics and at middle to high latitudes, respectively, as well as anomalous upward and poleward Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux in the midlatitude lower stratosphere. Most of the tropospheric features are well reproduced in the ensemble means in both models, though the amplitudes are underestimated. In the stratosphere, the SOCOL simulations compare well with observations with respect to zonal wind, temperature, EP flux, and ozone, but magnitudes are underestimated in the middle stratosphere. The polar vortex strength is well reproduced, but within-ensemble variability is too large for obtaining a significant signal in Arctic temperature and ozone. With respect to the mechanisms relating ENSO to stratospheric circulation, the results suggest that both, upward and poleward components of anomalous EP flux are important for obtaining the stratospheric signal and that an increase in strength of the Brewer-Dobson circulation is part of that signal.
Interannual-to-decadal variability of the stratosphere during the 20th century: ensemble simulations with a chemistry-climate model
A. M. Fischer,M. Schraner,E. Rozanov,P. Kenzelmann
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2008,
Abstract: Interannual-to-decadal variability in stratospheric ozone and climate have a number of common sources, such as variations in solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosol loading due to volcanic eruptions, El Ni o Southern Oscillation variability and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). Currently available data records as well as model simulations addressing stratospheric chemical climate variability mostly cover only the past few decades, which is often insufficient to address natural interannual-to-decadal variability. Here we make use of recently reconstructed and re-evaluated data products to force and validate transient ensemble model simulations (nine members) across the twentieth century computed by means of the chemistry-climate model SOCOL (SOlar Climate Ozone Links). The forcings include sea surface temperatures, sea ice, solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosols, QBO, changes in land properties, greenhouse gases, ozone depleting substances, and emissions of carbon monoxides, and nitrogen oxides. The transient simulations are in good agreement with observations, reconstructions and reanalyses and allow quantification of interannual-to-decadal variability during the 20th century. All ensemble members are able to capture the low-frequency variability in tropical and mid-latitude total ozone as well as in the strength of the subtropical jet, suggesting a realistic response to external forcings in this area. The region of the northern polar vortex exhibits a large internal variability that is found in the frequency, seasonality, and strength of major warmings as well as in the strength of the modeled polar vortex. Results from process-oriented analysis, such as correlation between the vertical Eliassen Palm flux (EP flux) component and polar variables as well as stratospheric ozone trends, are of comparable magnitude to those observed and are consistent in all analysed ensemble members. Yet, trend estimates of the vertical EP flux component vary greatly among ensemble members precluding any robust conclusions. This suggests that internal variability in models must be accounted for in order to quantify the atmospheric model response in wave energy upon external forcings.
The SOCOL version 3.0 chemistry-climate model: description, evaluation, and implications from an advanced transport algorithm
A. Stenke,M. Schraner,E. Rozanov,T. Egorova
Geoscientific Model Development Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/gmdd-5-3419-2012
Abstract: We present the third generation of the coupled chemistry-climate model (CCM) SOCOL (modeling tools for studies of SOlar Climate Ozone Links). The most notable modifications compared to the previous model version are: (1) the dynamical core has been updated with the fifth generation of the middle-atmosphere general circulation model MA-ECHAM, and (2) the advection of the chemical species is now calculated by a mass-conserving and shape-preserving flux-form transport scheme instead of the previously used hybrid advection scheme. The whole chemistry code has been rewritten according to the ECHAM5 infrastructure and transferred to Fortran95. In contrast to its predecessors, SOCOLvs3 is now fully parallelized. The performance of the new SOCOL version is evaluated on the basis of transient model simulations (1975–2004) with different horizontal (T31 and T42) resolutions, following the approach of the CCMVal-1 model validation activity. The advanced advection scheme significantly reduces the artificial loss and accumulation of tracer mass in regions with strong gradients that was observed in previous model versions. Compared to its predecessors, SOCOLvs3 generally shows more realistic distributions of chemical trace species, especially of total inorganic chlorine, in terms of the mean state, but also of the annual and interannual variability. Advancements with respect to model dynamics are for example a better representation of the stratospheric mean state in spring, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, and a slowdown of the upward propagation in the tropical lower stratosphere. Despite a large number of improvements model deficiencies still remain. Examples include a too fast vertical ascent and/or horizontal mixing in the tropical stratosphere, the cold temperature bias in the lowermost polar stratosphere, and the overestimation of polar total ozone loss during Antarctic springtime.
Technical Note: Chemistry-climate model SOCOL: version 2.0 with improved transport and chemistry/microphysics schemes
M. Schraner,E. Rozanov,C. Schnadt Poberaj,P. Kenzelmann
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: We describe version 2.0 of the chemistry-climate model (CCM) SOCOL. The new version includes fundamental changes of the transport scheme such as transporting all chemical species of the model individually and applying a family-based correction scheme for mass conservation for species of the nitrogen, chlorine and bromine groups, a revised transport scheme for ozone, furthermore more detailed halogen reaction and deposition schemes, and a new cirrus parameterisation in the tropical tropopause region. By means of these changes the model manages to overcome or considerably reduce deficiencies recently identified in SOCOL version 1.1 within the CCM Validation activity of SPARC (CCMVal). In particular, as a consequence of these changes, regional mass loss or accumulation artificially caused by the semi-Lagrangian transport scheme can be significantly reduced, leading to much more realistic distributions of the modelled chemical species, most notably of the halogens and ozone.
Technical Note: Chemistry-climate model SOCOL: version 2.0 with improved transport and chemistry/microphysics schemes
M. Schraner,E. Rozanov,C. Schnadt Poberaj,P. Kenzelmann
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2008,
Abstract: We describe version 2.0 of the chemistry-climate model (CCM) SOCOL. The new version includes fundamental changes of the transport scheme such as transporting all chemical species of the model individually and applying a family-based correction scheme for mass conservation for species of the nitrogen, chlorine and bromine groups, a revised transport scheme for ozone, furthermore more detailed halogen reaction and deposition schemes, and a new cirrus parameterisation in the tropical tropopause region. By means of these changes the model manages to overcome or considerably reduce deficiencies recently identified in SOCOL version 1.1 within the CCM Validation activity of SPARC (CCMVal). In particular, as a consequence of these changes, regional mass loss or accumulation artificially caused by the semi-Lagrangian transport scheme can be significantly reduced, leading to much more realistic distributions of the modelled chemical species, most notably of the halogens and ozone.
The 1986–1989 ENSO cycle in a chemical climate model
S. Br nnimann, M. Schraner, B. Müller, A. Fischer, D. Brunner, E. Rozanov,T. Egorova
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2006,
Abstract: A pronounced ENSO cycle occurred from 1986 to 1989, accompanied by distinct dynamical and chemical anomalies in the global troposphere and stratosphere. Reproducing these effects with current climate models not only provides a model test but also contributes to our still limited understanding of ENSO's effect on stratosphere-troposphere coupling. We performed several sets of ensemble simulations with a chemical climate model (SOCOL) forced with global sea surface temperatures. Results were compared with observations and with large-ensemble simulations performed with an atmospheric general circulation model (MRF9). We focus our analysis on the extratropical stratosphere and its coupling with the troposphere. In this context, the circulation over the North Atlantic sector is particularly important. Relative to the La Ni a winter 1989, observations for the El Ni o winter 1987 show a negative North Atlantic Oscillation index with corresponding changes in temperature and precipitation patterns, a weak polar vortex, a warm Arctic middle stratosphere, negative and positive total ozone anomalies in the tropics and at middle to high latitudes, respectively, as well as anomalous upward and poleward Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux in the midlatitude lower stratosphere. Most of the tropospheric features are well reproduced in the ensemble means in both models, though the amplitudes are underestimated. In the stratosphere, the SOCOL simulations compare well with observations with respect to zonal wind, temperature, EP flux, meridional mass streamfunction, and ozone, but magnitudes are underestimated in the middle stratosphere. With respect to the mechanisms relating ENSO to stratospheric circulation, the results suggest that both, upward and poleward components of anomalous EP flux are important for obtaining the stratospheric signal and that an increase in strength of the Brewer-Dobson circulation is part of that signal.
Rotavirus Viroplasm Fusion and Perinuclear Localization Are Dynamic Processes Requiring Stabilized Microtubules
Catherine Eichwald, Francesca Arnoldi, Andrea S. Laimbacher, Elisabeth M. Schraner, Cornel Fraefel, Peter Wild, Oscar R. Burrone, Mathias Ackermann
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047947
Abstract: Rotavirus viroplasms are cytosolic, electron-dense inclusions corresponding to the viral machinery of replication responsible for viral template transcription, dsRNA genome segments replication and assembly of new viral cores. We have previously observed that, over time, those viroplasms increase in size and decrease in number. Therefore, we hypothesized that this process was dependent on the cellular microtubular network and its associated dynamic components. Here, we present evidence demonstrating that viroplasms are dynamic structures, which, in the course of an ongoing infection, move towards the perinuclear region of the cell, where they fuse among each other, thereby gaining considerably in size and, simultaneouly, explaining the decrease in numbers. On the viral side, this process seems to depend on VP2 for movement and on NSP2 for fusion. On the cellular side, both the temporal transition and the maintenance of the viroplasms are dependent on the microtubular network, its stabilization by acetylation, and, surprisingly, on a kinesin motor of the kinesin-5 family, Eg5. Thus, we provide for the first time deeper insights into the dynamics of rotavirus replication, which can explain the behavior of viroplasms in the infected cell.
Rotavirus Increases Levels of Lipidated LC3 Supporting Accumulation of Infectious Progeny Virus without Inducing Autophagosome Formation
Francesca Arnoldi, Giuditta De Lorenzo, Miguel Mano, Elisabeth M. Schraner, Peter Wild, Catherine Eichwald, Oscar R. Burrone
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095197
Abstract: Replication of many RNA viruses benefits from subversion of the autophagic pathway through many different mechanisms. Rotavirus, the main etiologic agent of pediatric gastroenteritis worldwide, has been recently described to induce accumulation of autophagosomes as a mean for targeting viral proteins to the sites of viral replication. Here we show that the viral-induced increase of the lipidated form of LC3 does not correlate with an augmented formation of autophagosomes, as detected by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. The LC3-II accumulation was found to be dependent on active rotavirus replication through the use of antigenically intact inactivated viral particles and of siRNAs targeting viral genes that are essential for viral replication. Silencing expression of LC3 or of Atg7, a protein involved in LC3 lipidation, resulted in a significant impairment of viral titers, indicating that these elements of the autophagic pathway are required at late stages of the viral cycle.
Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Us3 Deletion Mutant is Infective Despite Impaired Capsid Translocation to the Cytoplasm
Peter Wild,Sabine Leisinger,Anna Paula de Oliveira,Elisabeth M. Schraner,Andres Kaech,Mathias Ackermann,Kurt Tobler
Viruses , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/v7010052
Abstract: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) capsids are assembled in the nucleus bud at the inner nuclear membrane into the perinuclear space, acquiring envelope and tegument. In theory, these virions are de-enveloped by fusion of the envelope with the outer nuclear membrane and re-enveloped by Golgi membranes to become infective. Us3 enables the nucleus to cytoplasm capsid translocation. Nevertheless, Us3 is not essential for the production of infective progeny viruses. Determination of phenotype distribution by quantitative electron microscopy, and calculation per mean nuclear or cell volume revealed the following: (i) The number of R7041(?U S3) capsids budding at the inner nuclear membrane was significantly higher than that of wild type HSV-1; (ii) The mean number of R7041(?U S3) virions per mean cell volume was 2726, that of HSV-1 virions 1460 by 24 h post inoculation; (iii) 98% of R7041(?U S3) virions were in the perinuclear space; (iv) The number of R7041(?U S3) capsids in the cytoplasm, including those budding at Golgi membranes, was significantly reduced. Cell associated R7041(?U S3) yields were 2.37 × 10 8 and HSV-1 yields 1.57 × 10 8 PFU/mL by 24 h post inoculation. We thus conclude that R7041(?U S3) virions, which acquire envelope and tegument by budding at the inner nuclear membrane into the perinuclear space, are infective.
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