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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401407 matches for " M. Scheffler "
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Theory of alkali metal adsorption on close-packed metal surfaces
C. Stampfl,M. Scheffler
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1142/S0218625X95000339
Abstract: Results of recent density functional theory calculations for alkali metal adsorbates on close-packed metal surfaces are discussed. Single adatoms on the (111) surface of Al and Cu are studied with the self-consistent surface Green-function method by which the pure adsorbate-substrate interaction may be analyzed. Higher coverage ordered adlayers of K on Al(111), Na on Al(111), and Na on Al(001) are treated using the ab-initio pseudopotential plane wave method which affords the prediction of coverage dependent stable and metastable adsorbate geometries and phase transitions of the adsorbate layers. Together, these studies give insight and understanding into current key issues in alkali metal adsorption, namely, the nature of the adsorbate-substrate bond at low coverage and the occurrence of hitherto unanticipated adsorbate geometries, and the associated electronic properties.
Theory of adsorption and desorption of H_2/Si(001)
E. Pehlke,M. Scheffler
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.74.952
Abstract: While the small sticking coefficient for molecular hydrogen on the Si(001) surface apparently requires a large energy barrier of adsorption, no such barrier is observed in desorption experiments. We have calculated the potential-energy surface of an H_2 molecule in front of a Si(001) surface. If we relax the Si substrate, we find an optimum desorption path with a low (\lesssim 0.3 eV) adsorption energy barrier. While molecules impinging on the surface will mostly be reflected at the larger barrier of some frozen-substrate, molecules adsorbed on the surface can desorb along the low-barrier path.
Diffusivity of Ga and Al adatoms on GaAs(001)
A. Kley,M. Scheffler
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: The diffusivity of Ga and Al adatoms on the (2x4) reconstructed GaAs(001) surface are evaluated using detailed ab initio total energy calculations of the potential energy surface together with transition state theory. A strong diffusion anisotropy is found, with the direction of fastest diffusion being parallel to the surface As-dimer orientation. In contrast to previous calculations we identify a short--bridge position between the two As atoms of a surface dimer as the adsorption site for Al and Ga adatoms.
Study of CO Oxidation over Ru(0001) at High Gas Pressures
C. Stampfl,M. Scheffler
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1016/S0039-6028(96)01509-9
Abstract: Experiments performed at high gas partial pressures have demonstrated that the kinetics of the CO oxidation reaction at Ru(0001) is different and somewhat anomalous compared to that over other transition metal surfaces and, in particular, the turnover rate is exceptionally high. In order to gain insight into the underlying reasons for this behavior, we performed density functional theory calculations using the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation functional. We find that the high rate is due to a weakly, but nevertheless well bound, (1x1) oxygen adsorbate layer which may form for high O_2 pressures but not under usual ultra high vacuum conditions. The calculations indicate that reaction to CO_2 occurs both via scattering of gas-phase CO molecules as well as by CO molecules weakly adsorbed at vacancies in the oxygen adlayer, where the latter mechanism dominates the rate.
Mechanism of efficient carbon monoxide oxidation at Ru(0001)
C. Stampfl,M. Scheffler
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: We performed density-functional theory calculations using the generalized gradient approximation for the exhange-correlation functional to investigate the unusual catalytic behavior of Ru under elevated gas pressure conditions for the carbon monoxide oxidation reaction, which includes a particularly high CO_2 turnover. Our calculations indicate that a full monolayer of adsorbed oxygen actuates the high rate, enabling CO_2 formation via both scattering of gas-phase CO molecules as well as by CO molecules adsorbed at oxygen vacancies in the adlayer, where the latter mechanism is expected to be very efficient due to the relatively weak adsorption energy of both CO and O, as well as the close proximity of these reactants. In the present paper we analyse the bonding and electronic properties associated with the reaction pathway for CO_2 production via the scattering reaction. We find that the identified ``bent'' transition state is due to electron transfer into the unoccupied 2 pi orbitals of the CO molecule which reduces the Pauli repulsion between the impinging CO and the O-covered surface. Bond formation to CO_2 then proceeds by electron transfer back from the CO 2 pi orbitals into the bonding region between CO and the adsorbed O atom.
Anomalous Behavior of Ru for Catalytic Oxidation: A Theoretical Study of the Catalytic Reaction CO + 1/2 O_2 --> CO_2
C. Stampfl,M. Scheffler
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.78.1500
Abstract: Recent experiments revealed an anomalous dependence of carbon monoxide oxidation at Ru(0001) on oxygen pressure and a particularly high reaction rate. Below we report density functional theory calculations of the energetics and reaction pathways of the speculated mechanism. We will show that the exceptionally high rate is actuated by a weakly but nevertheless well bound (1x1) oxygen adsorbate layer. Furthermore it is found that reactions via scattering of gas-phase CO at the oxygen covered surface may play an important role. Our analysis reveals, however, that reactions via adsorbed CO molecules (the so-called Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism) dominate.
Coadsorption of CO and O on Ru(0001): A structural analysis by density functional theory
C. Stampfl,M. Scheffler
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: Knowledge of the atomic geometry of a surface is a prerequisite for any detailed understanding of the surface's electronic structure and chemical properties. Previous studies have convincingly demonstrated that density functional theory (DFT) yields accurate surface atomic geometries and that reliable predictions concerning stable and metastable phases can be made on the basis of the calculated energetics. In the present work we use DFT to investigate the atomic structure of four ordered coadsorbate phases of carbon monoxide and oxygen on Ru(0001). All of the structures have a (2x2) periodicity with differing concentrations of CO molecules and O atoms. For two of these phases dynamical low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) intensity analyses have been performed and the agreement between our DFT- and the LEED-determined structures is found to be very good. We predict the atomic geometry of the third phase for which no structural determination based on experiments has been made to date. We also predict the stability of a new ordered mixed phase.
Stable and Metastable Structures of Cobalt on Cu(001): An ab initio Study
R. Pentcheva,M. Scheffler
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.61.2211
Abstract: We report results of density-functional theory calculations on the structural, magnetic, and electronic properties of (1x1)-structures of Co on Cu(001) for coverages up to two monolayers. In particular we discuss the tendency towards phase separation in Co islands and the possibility of segregation of Cu on top of the Co-film. A sandwich structure consisting of a bilayer Co-film covered by 1ML of Cu is found to be the lowest-energy configuration. We also discuss a bilayer c(2x2)-alloy which may form due to kinetic reasons, or be stabilized at strained surface regions. Furthermore, we study the influence of magnetism on the various structures and, e.g., find that Co adlayers induce a weak spin-density wave in the copper substrate.
Theory of Adsorption on Metal Substrates
M. Scheffler,C. Stampfl
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: Contents: 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Concepts and definitions 5.3 The tight-binding picture of bonding 5.4 Adsorption of isolated adatoms 5.5 Alkali-metal adsorption: the traditional picture of on-surface adsorption 5.6 Substitutional adsorption and formation of surface alloys 5.7 Adsorption of CO on transition-metal surfaces - a model system for a simple molecular adsorbate 5.8 Co-adsorption [the example CO plus O on Ru(0001)] 5.9 Chemical reactions at metal surfaces 5.10 The catalytic oxidation of CO 5.11 Summary outline of main points
Density-functional theory calculations of hopping rates of surface diffusion
C. Ratsch,M. Scheffler
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.58.13163
Abstract: Using density-functional theory we compute the energy barriers and attempt frequencies for surface diffusion of Ag on Ag(111) with different lattice constants, and on an Ag adsorbate monolayer on Pt(111). We find that the attempt frequency is of the order of 1 THz for all the systems studied. This is in contrast to the so-called compensation effect, and to recent experimental studies. Our analysis suggests that the applicability of simple (commonly used) scaling laws for the determination of diffusion and growth parameters is often not valid.
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