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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401616 matches for " M. Saint-Faust "
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Developmental Origins of Chronic Renal Disease: An Integrative Hypothesis
F. Boubred,M. Saint-Faust,C. Buffat,I. Ligi,I. Grandvuillemin,U. Simeoni
International Journal of Nephrology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/346067
Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality. Hypertension (HT) is one of the principal risk factors associated with death. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is probably underestimated, increases the risk and the severity of adverse cardiovascular events. It is now recognized that low birth weight is a risk factor for these diseases, and this relationship is amplified by a rapid catch-up growth or overfeeding during infancy or childhood. The pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms involved in the “early programming” of CKD are multiple and partially understood. It has been proposed that the developmental programming of arterial hypertension and chronic kidney disease is related to a reduced nephron endowment. However, this mechanism is still discussed. This review discusses the complex relationship between birth weight and nephron endowment and how early growth and nutrition influence long term HT and CKD. We hypothesize that fetal environment reduces moderately the nephron number which appears insufficient by itself to induce long term diseases. Reduced nephron number constitutes a “factor of vulnerability” when additional factors, in particular a rapid postnatal growth or overfeeding, promote the early onset of diseases through a complex combination of various pathophysiological pathways. 1. Introduction Cardiovascular diseases ((CVD) hypertension, coronary disease and stroke, and heart failure) are one of the leading causes of mortality in industrialized countries, and the prevalence is increasing in emerging societies. All cardiovascular diseases account for 4.3 million deaths per year in the European Union, and the prevalence of chronic heart failure in the United States of America is approximately 6 million [1, 2]. In industrialized countries, hypertension (HT) affects 25% to 35% of the global population and reaches 60% to 70% of the population aged 60 or more. Hypertension is the principal risk factor of death worldwide [3]. It increases the severity of ischemic vascular diseases and, with obesity and type 2 diabetes, is one of the important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Chronic kidney disease is defined as reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) up to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), proteinuria, or both. Prevalence of ESRD, estimated to be 0.5–2.5‰ worldwide, is increasing in several countries [4]. In turn, impaired renal factor favors the development of and amplifies the severity of CVD [5–7]. During the last two decades, it has been raised the concept of developmental programming of adult chronic
SAMBLASTER: fast duplicate marking and structural variant read extraction
Gregory G. Faust,Ira M. Hall
Quantitative Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btu314
Abstract: Motivation: Illumina DNA sequencing is now the predominant source of raw genomic data, and data volumes are growing rapidly. Bioinformatic analysis pipelines are having trouble keeping pace. A common bottleneck in such pipelines is the requirement to read, write, sort and compress large BAM files multiple times. Results: We present SAMBLASTER, a tool that reduces the number of times such costly operations are performed. SAMBLASTER is designed to mark duplicates in read-sorted SAM files as a piped post-pass on DNA aligner output before it is compressed to BAM. In addition, it can simultaneously output into separate files the discordant read-pairs and/or split-read mappings used for structural variant calling. As an alignment post-pass, its own runtime overhead is negligible, while dramatically reducing overall pipeline complexity and runtime. As a stand-alone duplicate marking tool, it performs significantly better than PICARD or SAMBAMBA in terms of both speed and memory usage, while achieving nearly identical results. Availability: SAMBLASTER is open source C++ code and freely available from https://github.com/GregoryFaust/samblaster
The Dark Side of the Light Show: Predators of Fireflies in the Great Smoky Mountains
Sara M. Lewis,Lynn Faust,Rapha l De Cock
Psyche , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/634027
Abstract: In the Great Smoky Mountains of East Tennessee, the Light Show is a popular seasonal attraction created by thousands of courting male Photinus carolinus fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) that flash in synchrony to locate females. This study was undertaken to provide a temporal snapshot of whether invertebrate predators are active within these dense and conspicuous firefly breeding aggregations. In addition, we examined whether female Photuris fireflies, which are specialist predators on other fireflies, show any feeding preferences within the diverse local firefly fauna. A field survey revealed a surprisingly diverse suite of generalist insectivores feeding on fireflies within P. carolinus breeding aggregations. In addition, laboratory studies revealed major differences in prey consumption rates when Photuris predators were given access to several lampyrid taxa. This suite of generalist and specialist predators appears to create a complex selective landscape that is predicted to be a powerful force shaping the evolution of firefly defenses.
Wirksamkeit von Botulinumtoxin A als Behandlungsform bei Patientinnen mit idiopathischer Detrusorhyperaktivit t mit Inkontinenz: Langzeitergebnisse einer prospektiven, nicht-randomisierten Studie
Faust E,Kuschel St,Schmid DM,Werner M
Journal für Urologie und Urogyn?kologie , 2007,
Abstract: In vorliegender Arbeit wurden im Rahmen einer prospektiv-kontrollierten, nicht-randomisierten Studie 26 Patientinnen mit idiopathischer Detrusorhyperaktivit t vor und nach Behandlung mit Botulinumtoxin untersucht. Die Daten umfassen urodynamische Kontrollen vor sowie 4, 12 und 36 Wochen nach intravesikaler Botox-Injektion in den Detrusormuskel, wobei 4, 12 und 36 Wochen nach Injektion eine vollst ndige Kontinenz in 69 %, 96 % und 73 % der Patientinnen erreicht wurde. Somit liegt mit der Botulinumtoxininjektion eine effektive, sichere und gut vertr gliche Therapieoption der idiopathischen Detrusorhyperaktivit t vor.
The Persistent Sodium Current Blocker Riluzole Is Antiarrhythmic and Anti-Ischaemic in a Pig Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction
Steven M. Weiss,David A. Saint
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014103
Abstract: The potential of the cardiac persistent sodium current as a target for protection of the myocardium from ischaemia and reperfusion injury is gaining increasing interest. We have investigated the anti-ischaemic and antiarrhythmic effects of riluzole, a selective INaP blocker, in an open chest pig model of infarction.
Macroscopic 2D Wigner islands
M. Saint Jean,C. Even,C. Guthmann
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1209/epl/i2001-00379-x
Abstract: In this paper we present new versatile "2D macroscopic Wigner islands" useful to investigate the various behaviors observed in mesoscopic confined systems. Our "Wigner islands" consist of electrostatically-interacting charged balls with millimetric size. We have experimentally determined the ground configurations for systems of N particles (N=1-30) confined in a parabolic potential and checked the influence of the confinement and interacting potentials. The results obtained are compared with the published numerical results.
Neuroprotective effects of compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease
Katharina Faust, Stephan Gehrke, Yufeng Yang, Lichuan Yang, M Flint Beal, Bingwei Lu
BMC Neuroscience , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-10-109
Abstract: In the present study, a Drosophila DJ-1A model of PD was used to test potential neuroprotective drugs. The drugs applied are the Chinese herb celastrol, the antibiotic minocycline, the bioenergetic amine coenzyme Q10 (coQ10), and the glutamate antagonist 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulphamoylbenzo[f]-quinoxaline (NBQX). All of these drugs target pathogenic processes implicated in PD, thus constitute mechanism-based treatment strategies. We show that celastrol and minocycline, both having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, confer potent dopaminergic neuroprotection in Drosophila DJ-1A model, while coQ10 shows no protective effect. NBQX exerts differential effects on cell survival and brain dopamine content: it protects against DN loss but fails to restore brain dopamine level.The present study further validates Drosophila as a valuable model for preclinical testing of drugs with therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases. The lower cost and amenability to high throughput testing make Drosophila PD models effective in vivo tools for screening novel therapeutic compounds. If our findings can be further validated in mammalian PD models, they would implicate drugs combining antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as strong therapeutic candidates for mechanism-based PD treatment.PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the western world and the single most common movement disorder. Over 1 million people in the United States are affected [1]. Symptoms including rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia and postural instability are due to degeneration of the brain's nigrostriatal system with progressive loss of DNs in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), accompanied by depletion of the transmitter dopamine in the striatum. Current pharmacological therapy for PD ameliorates symptoms for a limited period of time, without retarding or reversing disease progression. Currently administered drugs work by increasing the concentration of fu
A New Human 3D-Liver Model Unravels the Role of Galectins in Liver Infection by the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica
Debora B. Petropolis,Daniela M. Faust,Gagan Deep Jhingan,Nancy Guillen
PLOS Pathogens , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004381
Abstract: Investigations of human parasitic diseases depend on the availability of appropriate in vivo animal models and ex vivo experimental systems, and are particularly difficult for pathogens whose exclusive natural hosts are humans, such as Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan parasite responsible for amoebiasis. This common infectious human disease affects the intestine and liver. In the liver sinusoids E. histolytica crosses the endothelium and penetrates into the parenchyma, with the concomitant initiation of inflammatory foci and subsequent abscess formation. Studying factors responsible for human liver infection is hampered by the complexity of the hepatic environment and by the restrictions inherent to the use of human samples. Therefore, we built a human 3D-liver in vitro model composed of cultured liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatocytes in a 3D collagen-I matrix sandwich. We determined the presence of important hepatic markers and demonstrated that the cell layers function as a biological barrier. E. histolytica invasion was assessed using wild-type strains and amoebae with altered virulence or different adhesive properties. We showed for the first time the dependence of endothelium crossing upon amoebic Gal/GalNAc lectin. The 3D-liver model enabled the molecular analysis of human cell responses, suggesting for the first time a crucial role of human galectins in parasite adhesion to the endothelial cells, which was confirmed by siRNA knockdown of galectin-1. Levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including galectin-1 and -3, were highly increased upon contact of E. histolytica with the 3D-liver model. The presence of galectin-1 and -3 in the extracellular medium stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine release, suggesting a further role for human galectins in the onset of the hepatic inflammatory response. These new findings are relevant for a better understanding of human liver infection by E. histolytica.
Microwave cavity-enhanced transduction for plug and play nanomechanics at room temperature
Thomas Faust,Peter Krenn,Stephan Manus,J?rg P. Kotthaus,Eva M. Weig
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1723
Abstract: Nanomechanical resonators with increasingly high quality factors are enabled following recent insights into energy storage and loss mechanisms in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Consequently, efficient, non-dissipative transduction schemes are required to avoid the dominating influence of coupling losses. We present an integrated NEMS transducer based on a microwave cavity dielectrically coupled to an array of doubly-clamped pre-stressed silicon nitride beam resonators. This cavity-enhanced detection scheme allows resolving the resonators' Brownian motion at room temperature while preserving their high mechanical quality factor of 290,000 at 6.6 MHz. Furthermore, our approach constitutes an "opto"mechanical system in which backaction effects of the microwave field are employed to alter the effective damping of the resonators. In particular, cavity-pumped self-oscillation yields a linewidth of only 5 Hz. Thereby, an adjustement-free, all-integrated and self-driven nanoelectromechanical resonator array interfaced by just two microwave connectors is realised, potentially useful for applications in sensing and signal processing.
Signatures of two-level defects in the temperature-dependent damping of nanomechanical silicon nitride resonators
Thomas Faust,Johannes Rieger,Maximilian J. Seitner,J?rg P. Kotthaus,Eva M. Weig
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.100102
Abstract: The damping rates of high quality factor nanomechanical resonators are well beyond intrinsic limits. Here, we explore the underlying microscopic loss mechanisms by investigating the temperature-dependent damping of the fundamental and third harmonic transverse flexural mode of a doubly clamped silicon nitride string. It exhibits characteristic maxima reminiscent of two-level defects typical for amorphous materials. Coupling to those defects relaxes the momentum selection rules, allowing energy transfer from discrete long wavelength resonator modes to the high frequency phonon environment.
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