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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401209 matches for " M. Saifuddin "
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Microwave-Assisted Alkaline Pretreatment and Microwave Assisted Enzymatic Saccharification of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber for Enhanced Fermentable Sugar Yield  [PDF]
Saifuddin M. Nomanbhay, Refal Hussain, Kumaran Palanisamy
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2013.31002
Abstract:

Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates an efficient pretreatment pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars and maximizing the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. Microwave pretreatment may be a good alternative as it can reduce the pretreatment time and improve the enzymatic activity during hydrolysis. The overall goal of this paper is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and microwave assisted enzymatic reaction or Microwave Irradiation-Enzyme Coupling Catalysis (MIECC). In the present study, a comparison of microwave assisted alkali pretreatment was tried using Oil Palm empty fruit bunch. The microwave assisted alkali pretreatment of EFB using NaOH, significantly improved the enzymatic saccharification of EFB by removing more lignin and hemicellulose and increasing its accessibility to hydrolytic enzymes. The results showed that the optimum pretreatment condition was 3% (w/v) NaOH at 180 W for 12 minutes with the optimum component loss of lignin and holocellulose of about 74% and 24.5% respectively. The subsequent enzymatic saccharification of EFB pretreated by microwave assisted NaOH (3% w/v); resulted in 411 mg of reducing sugar per gram EFB at cellulose enzyme dosage of 20 FPU. The overall enhancement by the microwave treatment during the microwave assisted alkali pretreatment and microwave assisted enzymatic hydrolysis was 5.8 fold. The present study has highlighted the importance of well controlled microwave assisted enzymatic reaction to enhance the overall reaction rate of the process.

Removal of heavy metal from industrial wastewater using chitosan coated oil palm shell charcoal
Saifuddin M,Nomanbhay; Kumaran,Palanisamy;
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 2005,
Abstract: this research focuses on understanding biosorption process and developing a cost effective technology for treatment of heavy metals-contaminated industrial wastewater. a new composite biosorbent has been prepared by coating chitosan onto acid treated oil palm shell charcoal (aopsc). chitosan loading on the aopsc support is about 21% by weight. the shape of the adsorbent is nearly spherical with particle diameter ranging 100~150 μm. the adsorption capacity of the composite biosorbent was evaluated by measuring the extent of adsorption of chromium metal ions from water under equilibrium conditions at 25oc. using langmuir isotherm model, the equilibrium data yielded the following ultimate capacity values for the coated biosorbent on a per gram basis of chitosan: 154 mg cr/g. bioconversion of cr (vi) to cr (iii) by chitosan was also observed and had been shown previously in other studies using plant tissues and mineral surfaces. after the biosorbent was saturated with the metal ions, the adsorbent was regenerated with 0.1 m sodium hydroxide. maximum desorption of the metal takes place within 5 bed volumes while complete desorption occurs within 10 bed volumes. details of preparation of the biosorbent, characterization, and adsorption studies are presented. dominant sorption mechanisms are ionic interactions and complexation.
An Analysis on Position Estimation, Drifting and Accumulated Error Accuracy during 3D Tracking in Electronic Handheld Devices  [PDF]
Shanjidah Akhter, Pahlwan Rabiul Islam, Latifun Ahsin Bhuiyan, Mehedi Hasan, A. F. M. Saifuddin Saif
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2018.64006
Abstract: This work focuses on a brief discussion of new concepts of using smartphone sensors for 3D painting in virtual or augmented reality. Motivation of this research comes from the idea of using different types of sensors which exist in our smartphones such as accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer etc. to track the position for painting in virtual reality, like Google Tilt Brush, but cost effectively. Research studies till date on estimating position and localization and tracking have been thoroughly reviewed to find the appropriate algorithm which will provide accurate result with minimum drift error. Sensor fusion, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), MEMS inertial sensor, Kalman filter based global translational localization systems are studied. It is observed, prevailing approaches consist issues such as stability, random bias drift, noisy acceleration output, position estimation error, robustness or accuracy, cost effectiveness etc. Moreover, issues with motions that do not follow laws of physics, bandwidth, restrictive nature of assumptions, scale optimization for large space are noticed as well. Advantages of such smartphone sensor based position estimation approaches include, less memory demand, very fast operation, making them well suited for real time problems and embedded systems. Being independent of the size of the system, they can work effectively for high dimensional systems as well. Through study of these approaches it is observed, extended Kalman filter gives the highest accuracy with reduced requirement of excess hardware during tracking. It renders better and faster result when used in accelerometer sensor. With the aid of various software, error accuracy can be increased further as well.
Effect of harvesting and storage conditions on the post harvest quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) cv. Roma VF
K.M. Moneruzzaman,A.B.M S. Hossain,W. Sani,M. Saifuddin
Australian Journal of Crop Science , 2009,
Abstract: The study was conducted to undertake the effect of harvesting stage and storage conditions on the post harvest quality of tomato cv. Roma VF (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) during the process of ripening in storage. Fruit of three maturity stages such as mature green (mature but green in color), half ripen (breaker stage when fruit turns to yellow) and full ripen (yellow and soft, edible stage) were kept under three different conditions; open condition (control), covering with white polythene and finally treatment by CaC2+ polythene. High and significant variation was observed in quality characteristics under different harvesting stages, storage conditions and their combinations. The highest value for rotting and total sugar content was distinguished in full ripens tomato. The highest weight loss and shelf life was measured in mature green. The half ripen tomato showed the highest value of vitamin C and titrable acidity. The percentage of decay (rotting) and weight loss, pH, titrable acidity and total sugar were increased with gradual increasing of storage time, irrespective to maturity stages while the percentage of vitamin C was decreased with progressing time of storage. The highest value of weight loss, shelf life and titrable acidity was recorded in control treatment. The high decay (rotting percent) and total sugar content was recorded under CaC2+ polythene covering treatment while the highest vitamin C content and pH was measured in simple polythene covering treatment at the final observation day (15th day). The values of all parameters except for vitamin C were increased gradually with the exceeding of storage time irrespective to storage condition. Tomato plants placed under CaC2+ treatment, covered with polythene have shown the highest decay, titrable acidity and total sugar content at the final observation day.
Impacts of Shading on Flower Formation and Longevity, Leaf Chlorophyll and Growth of Bougainvillea glabra
M. Saifuddin,A.M.B.S. Hossain,O. Normaniza
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Bougainvillea plants were exposed to artificially reduced light intensity to capture different Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD), 0% (direct sunlight), 30, 50 and 75% shading and to observe the effects of shading on flower formation and longevity, leaf chlorophyll and sugar content and quality of plants. Plant attained the greatest leaf size with maximum branching when seedlings were grown in 30 and 50% shading, whereas 0% shading showed the lowest value. Growth parameters related to the plant characteristics such as branch initiation, branch growth and potassium content increased under high shading treatments. Plants exposed to 0% shade showed the highest sugar content and the sugar content decreased by increasing shading. The low light intensity that results in decreased sugar and chlorophyll contents may be attributed to the reduction of flower initiation and in turn to the acceleration of flower abscission. In addition, more than 30% shading led to stop up flower initiation completely. Hence, it is suggested that 0% shading can be applied to maintain frequent flower initiation and flower longevity.
Bract Size Enlargement and Longevity of Bougainvillea spectabilis as Affected by GA3 and Phloemic Stress
Mohammed Saifuddin,A.B.M. Sharif Hossain,Normaniza Osman,K.M. Moneruzzaman
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3 100 and 150 ppm), phloemic stress and combination of 100 ppm GA3 and phloemic stress on Bougainvillea bract blooming, expansion, development and bract longevity under exposed sun light condition (400-700 μEm-2 sec-1). A seven-years-old Bougainvillea plant was used in this experiment. Fifteen selected brunches were applied with 100, 150 ppm GA3, phloemic stress, 100 ppm GA3+phloemic stress and water control. The results showed that 100 ppm GA3 increased the length of petiole, bract size and shape by 40%. Bract blooming was three days earlier in 100 ppm GA3 treated branches and 4 days earlier in 150 ppm GA3 than in water control. Bract longevity (required days from bract initiation to abscission) was higher for 4 in phloemic stress and for 2 days in 100 ppm GA3+phloemic stress than in water control. However, bract longevity was shorter in 100 and 150 ppm GA3 than in control. The number of bracts per branch was higher in 100 ppm GA3+phloemic stress and phloemic stress than the other treatments. Petal size and petiole length were the highest in 100 ppm GA3. But there were no significant changes in bract size and color development in phloemic stress. Maximum chlorophyll fluorescence was observed in phloemic stress. Quantum yield (Fv/Fm) was higher in phloemic stress and 100 ppm GA3+phloemic stress than in other treatments. The findings suggested that gibberellic acid played an important role to induce rapid bract blooming and expansion whereas, phloemic stress increased total number of bract and longevity.
The Effects of Naphthaleneacetic Acid and Gibberellic Acid in Prolonging Bract Longevity and Delaying Discoloration of Bougainvillea spectabilis
Mohammed Saifuddin,A.B.M.S. Hossain,O. Normaniza,A. Nasrulhaq Boyce
Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of NAA and GA3 on bract longevity under exposed sunlight conditions and six months of observation. Bougainvillea bracts at four different stages of bract development were sprayed with gibberellic acid (100 ppm GA3), naphthaleneacetic acid (50, 100 and 150 ppm NAA) and mixed GA3 (100 ppm) and NAA concentrations (50,100 and 150 ppm). Bract longevity was found to be almost 10 days longer in NAA (50, 100 and 150 ppm) than in the water control and in GA3 (100 ppm) treatment. In the case of GA3 and NAA (50, 100 and 150 ppm) treatment on alternative days, bract longevity was 30 days longer when compared with the water control. It was also observed that a delay in discoloration and stomata conductance were increased in the presence of GA3 with low a concentration of NAA. The results indicated that the prolonging effect of low concentrations of NAA at the initial budding stages was more effective compared with its application at other stages of development and at higher concentrations. Maximum bract weight and shoot length were observed in the GA3 and GA3 plus NAA treated flowers.
Maternal mortality estimation at the subnational level: a model-based method with an application to Bangladesh
Ahmed,Saifuddin; Hill,Kenneth;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2011, DOI: 10.2471/BLT.10.076851
Abstract: objective: to provide a model-based method of estimating maternal mortality at the subnational level and illustrate its use in estimating maternal mortality rates (mmrates) and maternal mortality ratios (mmrs) in all 64 districts of bangladesh. methods: knowing that mortality is more pronounced among the poorer segments of a population, in rural areas and in areas with poor availability and utilization of maternal care, we used an empirical bayesian prediction method to estimate maternal mortality at the subnational level from the spatial distribution of such factors. findings: mmrs varied significantly by district in bangladesh, from 158 maternal deaths per 100 000 live births at dhaka district to 782 in the northern coastal regions. maternal mortality was consistently higher in the eastern and northern regions, which are known to be culturally conservative and to have poor transportation systems. conclusion: bangladesh has made noteworthy strides in reducing maternal mortality since 1990, even though the utilization of skilled birth attendants has increased very little. however, several areas still show alarmingly high maternal mortality figures and need to be prioritized and targeted by health administrators and policy-makers.
Scleral changes due to mitomycin C after Pterygium excision: A report of two cases
Saifuddin Shabbir,Zawawi Alaa
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1995,
Abstract:
Recurrent pterygia--laser therapy : A preliminary report
Saifuddin Shabbir,Baum Klaus
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1993,
Abstract: We report our experience with the use of Argon laser photocoagulation for the treatment of recurrent pterygia. In this study, 36 patients and 42 eyes with recurrent pterygia having undergone previous surgery one or more times, were subjected to laser therapy. The patients were followed up for a period of 9-12 months. The success rate was 92.8% when laser therapy was employed in recurrent pterygia which were excised once, while it was 64.2% in cases where excisions were done two or more times. Argon laser treatment is a safe and effective method of therapy for recurrent pterygia.
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