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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401218 matches for " M. Rother "
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Placebo controlled, crossover validation study of oral ibuprofen and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate for a model of ultraviolet B radiation (UVR)-induced pain and inflammation
Rother M, Rother I
Journal of Pain Research , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S24821
Abstract: cebo controlled, crossover validation study of oral ibuprofen and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate for a model of ultraviolet B radiation (UVR)-induced pain and inflammation Original Research (1905) Total Article Views Authors: Rother M, Rother I Published Date October 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 357 - 363 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S24821 Matthias Rother, Ilka Rother Department of Clinical Operations, X-pert Med GmbH, Graefelfing, Germany Background: Pain related to ultraviolet B radiation (UVR) induced sunburn is an established, simple, acute pain model. One of the major criticisms is related to the potential dermal adverse events caused by the UVR exposure. This study tried to validate the model for oral and topical drugs and to define the minimum required UVR exposure. Methods: This subject- and observer-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluated 600 mg oral ibuprofen (IB) and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate (HC) twice daily (bid) in 24 healthy volunteers. Treatment started immediately after irradiation and again at 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours post-UVR. Assessment of hyperalgesia to heat and signs of inflammation (erythema, skin temperature) for all areas was performed after UVR and again at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours. Subjects returned within 4–11 days to the study site for the second period of the study. As in the first period, subjects received HC at one side and topical placebo on the other side, but oral treatment was crossed-over. Results: The primary analysis failed to show the expected superiority of the IB-group vs the placebo group in period 1 of the study. Evaluating period 2 alone clearly showed the expected treatment effects of IB for erythema and heat pain threshold. The results were less pronounced for skin temperature. In contrast to IB vs oral placebo, there were no differences in treatment response between HC and topical placebo. UVR at all dosages induced profound erythema and reduction of heat pain threshold without causing blisters or other unexpected discomfort to the subjects. The changes were almost linear between 1 and 2 minimal erythema doses (MED), whereas the change from 2 to 3 MED was less pronounced. Conclusion: Use of 2 MED in upcoming studies seems to be reasonable to limit subjects' UVB exposure. The following procedural changes are suggested: Intensified training sessions before randomization to treatment Increase in sample size if they are crossover studies Simplification in design (either oral or topical treatment)
Placebo controlled, crossover validation study of oral ibuprofen and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate for a model of ultraviolet B radiation (UVR)-induced pain and inflammation
Rother M,Rother I
Journal of Pain Research , 2011,
Abstract: Matthias Rother, Ilka RotherDepartment of Clinical Operations, X-pert Med GmbH, Graefelfing, GermanyBackground: Pain related to ultraviolet B radiation (UVR) induced sunburn is an established, simple, acute pain model. One of the major criticisms is related to the potential dermal adverse events caused by the UVR exposure. This study tried to validate the model for oral and topical drugs and to define the minimum required UVR exposure.Methods: This subject- and observer-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluated 600 mg oral ibuprofen (IB) and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate (HC) twice daily (bid) in 24 healthy volunteers. Treatment started immediately after irradiation and again at 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours post-UVR. Assessment of hyperalgesia to heat and signs of inflammation (erythema, skin temperature) for all areas was performed after UVR and again at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours. Subjects returned within 4–11 days to the study site for the second period of the study. As in the first period, subjects received HC at one side and topical placebo on the other side, but oral treatment was crossed-over.Results: The primary analysis failed to show the expected superiority of the IB-group vs the placebo group in period 1 of the study. Evaluating period 2 alone clearly showed the expected treatment effects of IB for erythema and heat pain threshold. The results were less pronounced for skin temperature. In contrast to IB vs oral placebo, there were no differences in treatment response between HC and topical placebo. UVR at all dosages induced profound erythema and reduction of heat pain threshold without causing blisters or other unexpected discomfort to the subjects. The changes were almost linear between 1 and 2 minimal erythema doses (MED), whereas the change from 2 to 3 MED was less pronounced.Conclusion: Use of 2 MED in upcoming studies seems to be reasonable to limit subjects' UVB exposure. The following procedural changes are suggested: Intensified training sessions before randomization to treatment Increase in sample size if they are crossover studies Simplification in design (either oral or topical treatment)Keywords: ibuprofen, hydrocortisone-21-acetate, pain, inflammation, UV radiation, validation
A T-matrix approach for particles with small-scale surface roughness
M. Kahnert,T. Rother
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti : Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali , 2011, DOI: 10.1478/c1v89s1p045
Abstract: We combine group theory with a perturbation approach to perform T-matrix computations for particles with small-scale surface roughness up to size parameters of 70. The optical properties of high-order 3D-Chebyshev particles differ substantially from those of spheres. CPU times are reduced by more than 4-5 orders of magnitude by the use of group theory, while the perturbation approach circumvents the notorious ill-conditioning problems of the null-field method, thus allowing the treatment of large size parameters.
Databases and Bioinformatics Tools for the Study of DNA Repair
Kaja Milanowska,Kristian Rother,Janusz M. Bujnicki
Molecular Biology International , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/475718
Abstract: DNA is continuously exposed to many different damaging agents such as environmental chemicals, UV light, ionizing radiation, and reactive cellular metabolites. DNA lesions can result in different phenotypical consequences ranging from a number of diseases, including cancer, to cellular malfunction, cell death, or aging. To counteract the deleterious effects of DNA damage, cells have developed various repair systems, including biochemical pathways responsible for the removal of single-strand lesions such as base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) or specialized polymerases temporarily taking over lesion-arrested DNA polymerases during the S phase in translesion synthesis (TLS). There are also other mechanisms of DNA repair such as homologous recombination repair (HRR), nonhomologous end-joining repair (NHEJ), or DNA damage response system (DDR). This paper reviews bioinformatics resources specialized in disseminating information about DNA repair pathways, proteins involved in repair mechanisms, damaging agents, and DNA lesions. 1. Introduction DNA repair processes are indispensable for maintaining the integrity of genetic information in all organisms. Environmental agents such as chemicals, UV light, and ionizing radiation, as well as endogenous metabolic processes involving DNA constantly challenge the chemical structure and stability of the genome. DNA lesions can interfere with processes such as DNA replication or transcription and may lead to mutations and cancer [1, 2]. To prevent the erosion of the chemical structure of DNA, living systems have evolved various different biochemical systems for DNA repair [3–7]. DNA damage from endogenous sources gives rise to 20,000 lesions per mammalian cell per day. Amongst these lesions, the most common are base deamination, spontaneous hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond, alkylation, and damage by reactive oxygen or nitrogen species and lipid peroxidation products [8–12]. Other lesions such as the formation of single- and double-strand breaks, the collapse of replication forks, and the introduction of modified nucleic acid bases during DNA replication are caused by errors in DNA metabolic processes. In total, there are 1016–1018 DNA repair events that occur daily in a healthy adult man (1012 cells) [13]. Lesions that are not repaired often lead to mutations, aging and various diseases, including carcinogenesis and neurodegeneration [14–18]. Some pathological disorders directly related to defects in the DNA repair machinery are Xeroderma pigmentosum, different types of cancer (breast
CHAMP observation of intense kilometer-scale field-aligned currents, evidence for an ionospheric Alfvén resonator
M. Rother, K. Schlegel,H. Lühr
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2007,
Abstract: Bursts of very intense kilometer-scale field-aligned currents (KSFACs) are observed quite frequently by the CHAMP satellite when passing through the auroral region. In extreme cases estimated current densities exceed 3 mA/m2. Typical scale sizes of these KSFACs are 1 km. The low-Earth, polar orbiting satellite CHAMP allows one to assess KSFACs down to scales of a couple of 100 m based on its high-precision magnetic field vector data sampled at 50 Hz. Using data from 5 years (2001–2005) details of these currents can be investigated. In our statistical study we find that most of the KSFAC bursts and the strongest events are encountered in the cusp/cleft region. Significantly fewer events are found on the nightside. The affected region is typically 15°–20° wide in latitude. There seems to be some dependence of the current intensity on the level of magnetic activity, Kp. On the other hand, no dependence has been found on sunspot number, the solar flux level, F10.7 or the solar zenith angle. The latitude, at which KSFAC bursts are encountered, expands equatorward with increasing Kp. This trend follows well the auroral oval expansion during enhanced magnetic activity. These KSFACs are generally accompanying large-scale FAC sheets, and they are predominantly associated with Region 1 currents. We propose an explanation of the KSFACs in terms of Alfvén waves trapped in a ionospheric resonator, which is initiated when the convection electric field or current strength surpasses a critical value. Many properties of such a resonator are in agreement with our KSFAC results.
Comprehensive study of ULF upstream waves observed in the topside ionosphere by CHAMP and on the ground
B. Heilig, H. Lühr,M. Rother
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2007,
Abstract: Based on magnetic field measurements from the satellite CHAMP, a detailed picture could be obtained of the upstream wave (UW) distribution in the topside ionosphere. The low, near-polar orbit of CHAMP, covering all local times, allows the global distribution of this type of pulsation to be revealed. The observations from space are compared to recordings of the ground-based MM100 meridional array covering the latitude range 66° to 42° in magnetic coordinates. UWs show up very clearly in the compressional component of the satellite magnetic field data, whereas on the ground, their signature is found in the H component, but it is mixed with oscillations from field line resonant pulsations. Here we first introduce a procedure for an automated detection of UW signatures, both in ground and space data. Then a statistical analysis is presented of UW pulsations recorded during a 132-day period, centred on the autumn 2001 equinox. Observations in the top-side ionosphere reveal a clear latitudinal distribution of the amplitudes. Largest signals are observed at the equator. Minima show up at about 40° latitude. The coherence between ground and satellite wave signatures is high over wide latitude and longitude ranges. We make suggestions about the entry mechanism of UWs from the foreshock region into the magnetosphere. The clear UW signature in satellite recordings between 60° and 60° latitude allows for detailed investigations of the dependence on solar wind conditions. We test the control of solar wind speed, interplanetary magnetic field strength and cone angle on UWs. For the first time, it is possible to derive details of the Doppler-shift effect by modifying the UW frequency from direct observations. The results reconcile foreshock wave generation predictions with near-Earth observations.
Post-processing scheme for modeling the lithospheric magnetic field
V. Lesur,M. Rother,F. Vervelidou,M. Hamoudi
Solid Earth Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/sed-4-1345-2012
Abstract: We investigated how the noise in satellite magnetic data affects magnetic lithospheric field models derived from these data in the special case where this noise is correlated along satellite orbit tracks. For this we describe the satellite data noise as a perturbation magnetic field scaled independently for each orbit, where the scaling factor has a specified variance. Under this assumption, we have been able to derive a model for errors in lithospheric models generated by the correlated satellite data noise. Unless the perturbation field is known, estimating the noise in the lithospheric field model is a non-linear inverse problem. We therefore proposed an iterative post-processing technique to estimate both the lithospheric field model and its associated noise model. The technique has been successfully applied to derive a lithospheric field model from CHAMP satellite data up to spherical harmonic 120. The model is in agreement with other existing models. The technique can be in principal extended for all kind of potential field data with "along track" correlated errors.
Mid-latitude solar eclipses and their influence on ionospheric current systems
A. T. Tomás, H. Lühr,M. Rother
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2009,
Abstract: Using CHAMP magnetic field data we study the behaviour of the geomagnetic field during two mid latitude eclipses on 21 June 2001 and 22 September 2006. The possible influence of the eclipses on different ionospheric current systems, as seen in the magnetic field measured by CHAMP, is discussed. It is expected that the blocking of solar radiation during an eclipse causes a reduction of the ionospheric conductivity and therefore has an effect on the different current systems. We address in particular the effects of the eclipses on the inter-hemispheric field-aligned currents and on the Sq current system. The two events studied occur under different seasonal conditions, e.g. June solstice and September equinox, therefore quite different aspects can be investigated. We find that the eclipses might affect the direction and intensity of the inter-hemispheric currents and possibly influence the direction of zonal winds, therefore changing the direction of the prevailing F-region dynamo currents. The eclipse in the Southern Hemisphere during September equinox caused inter-hemispheric currents similar to those observed in northern summer. Reverse inter-hemispheric currents were recorded after the end of the eclipse. A large variety of atypical currents was observed during the June event. Most of them might be related to a reversed F-region dynamo in the morning sector and an enhanced conductivity difference between the hemispheres. The eclipse in the south seems to enhance the June solstice conditions considerably.
Superposed epoch analysis applied to large-amplitude travelling convection vortices
H. Lühr,M. Rother,T. Iyemori,T. L. Hansen
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: For the six months from 1 October 1993 to 1 April 1994 the recordings of the IMAGE magnetometer network have been surveyed in a search for large-amplitude travelling convection vortices (TCVs). The restriction to large amplitudes (>100 nT) was chosen to ensure a proper detection of evens also during times of high activity. Readings of all stations of the northern half of the IMAGE network were employed to check the consistency of the ground signature with the notation of a dual-vortex structure moving in an azimuthal direction. Applying these stringent selection criteria we detected a total of 19 clear TCV events. The statistical properties of our selection resemble the expected characteristics of large-amplitude TCVs. New and unexpected results emerged from the superposed epoch analysis. TCVs tend to form during quiet intervals embedded in moderately active periods. The occurrence of events is not randomly distributed but rather shows a clustering around a few days. These clusters recur once or twice every 27 days. Within a storm cycle they show up five to seven days after the commencement. With regard to solar wind conditions, we see the events occurring in the middle of the IMF sector structure. Large-amplitude TCVs seem to require certain conditions to make solar wind transients 'geoeffective', which have the tendency to recur with the solar rotation period. Key words. Ionosphere (Aural ionosphere; Ionosphere- magnetosphere interactions) · Magnetospheric Physics (current system)
Efficacy of epicutaneous Diractin® (ketoprofen in Transfersome® gel) for the treatment of pain related to eccentric muscle contractions
Matthias Rother,Egbert J Seidel,Priscilla M Clarkson,Stefan Mazgareanu
Drug Design, Development and Therapy , 2009,
Abstract: Matthias Rother1,2, Egbert J Seidel3, Priscilla M Clarkson4, Stefan Mazgareanu1, Ulrich Vierl1, ilka Rother21IDEA AG, Muenchen, Germany; 2X-pert Med GmbH, Graefelfing, Germany; 3Department Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Sophien- and Hufeland-Clinic Centre, Weimar, Germany; 4Department of Kinesiology, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USAObjective: To investigate the effect of epicutaneously applied Diractin (ketoprofen in Transfersome gel) on pain induced by eccentric muscle contractions. Methods: Three pilot studies which were subsequently pooled for a meta-analysis compared the efficacy of a single application of 25 mg ketoprofen in Diractin to 25 mg oral ketoprofen and placebo for the treatment of pain induced by 50 eccentric contractions of the elbow flexor muscles. In addition, the effect of multiple usage of up to 100 mg ketoprofen in Diractin bid over seven days on pain induced by walking down stairs with a total altitude of 200 meters was investigated.Results: A single dose of 25 mg ketoprofen in Diractin after the elbow flexion exercise was significantly superior to placebo from 5 to 12 hours after treatment and also to oral ketoprofen at some time points after treatment. In contrast, oral ketoprofen was not different to placebo at any time after treatment. Multiple doses of up to 100 mg ketoprofen Diractin provided significant more pain relief than placebo on muscle pain induced by walking down stairs. Conclusions: Eccentric exercise-induced muscle soreness was shown to be an appropriate acute pain model to evaluate the efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs applied epicutaneously with Transfersome carriers. Diractin proved to be efficacious in relieving pain from eccentric muscle contractions and muscle overexercise, respectively. The effect needs to be confirmed in a larger prospective clinical trial.Keywords: ketoprofen, Transfersome , epicutaneous application, eccentric muscle contraction, delayed onset muscle soreness
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