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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 403283 matches for " M. Robinson "
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30 years of forest hydrology changes at Coalburn: water balance and extreme flows
M. Robinson
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 1998,
Abstract: The Coalburn experimental catchment, located in the Kielder Forest in northern Britain, was established in 1967 to study the hydrological impacts of upland coniferous plantation forestry. Results of 30 years' study (1967–96) are presented; they cover the transformation of the catchment from rough grazing through drainage and planting with conifers in 1972–73 and the subsequent forest development to canopy closure. In the early years of forest growth, the pre-planting forestry drainage dominated the hydrology and the observed changes were quite different from those normally associated with forestry; catchment evaporation was reduced, stream stormflow response times were shortened and dry weather baseflows were enhanced. These effects were sustained for an unexpectedly long period-up to one half of the forest plantation cropping cycle - before being reversed by the increasing influence of the growing forest. These results indicate that significant areas of young plantation forests may function hydrologically in ways very different from what is generally assumed from studies of mature forests. For large plantations, a mixed age forest structure may have hydrological as well as environmental advantages.
SCSBE: Secured Cluster and Sleep Based Energy-Efficient Sensory Data Collection with Mobile Sinks  [PDF]
S. Balaji, Y. Harold Robinson, M. Rajaram
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.78173
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks applications involve a position of inaccessible metropolitan vicinity en-closed by wireless sensor nodes (WSNs)-monitors environmental parameters like battle field surveillance, home applications like fire alarm, health monitoring, etc. Energy plays a vital role in Wireless sensor networks. So, we have to concentrate more on balanced energy consumption for maximizing the network lifetime. Minimizing the whole network overhead and vigor disbursement coupled with the multi-hop data reclamation process that ensuring balanced energy consumption among SNs which results in prolonged network lifetime. This can be achieved by forwarding the sensed data to their cluster heads and then filtering the data before sending it to their tryst nodes, which is located in proximity to MS’s trajectory. Sleep and awakening of nodes periodically helps to retain their energy for some more time. The events occurring in any part of the network should be identified by the nodes, while arrangements sleep and active among the nodes. (i.e.) the nodes should be scheduled to sleep, so that the outstanding nodes can take care of the whole network. The eXtensible Randomized Matrix Arithmetic Coding (XRMAC) Technique has been used to enhance the security among all the nodes in the network. Simulation results show that our Proposed Scheme can have better Lifetime, improved throughput, reduced delay compared to other existing methods.
ECBK: Enhanced Cluster Based Key Management Scheme for Achieving Quality of Service  [PDF]
Y. Harold Robinson, S. Balaji, M. Rajaram
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.78175
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks consist of many small nodes with distributing devices to monitor conditions at different locations. Usually wireless sensor nodes are sprinkled in a sensor field grouping limited areas. This paper highlights the Enhanced Cluster Based Key management (ECBK) protocol to achieve secure data delivery based on clustering mechanism. This protocol gives more importance to Cluster Coordinator node, which is used to coordinate the members and provide protective communication among the sensor nodes to enhance reliability. In Enhanced Cluster Based Key management two types of nodes are deployed. The high power nodes form clusters with surrounding nodes to enable the routing process without interference. This paper introduces ECBK protocol that balances the load among the clusters, achieves high throughput, end to end delay will be reduced, routing overhead also reduced and also it prolongs the network lifetime. Simulation results show that the presence of high transmission nodes reduces the delay, load balance, routing overhead, and enhances the throughput increased by 45% compared to other similar methods.
Impact of the Glucosinolate Sinigrin on Bacterial Communities in Pieris rapae  [PDF]
Leslie M. McKinnon, Courtney J. Robinson
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2016.68057
Abstract: Dynamics in animal-associated microbiota can be difficult to study due to community complexity. Previous work showed that microbial communities in the midguts of Pieris rapae larvae contain relatively few members. In this study, we used P. rapae to test hypotheses related to how diet impacts gastrointestinal microbiota. More specifically, we investigated how the concentration of sinigrin, a glucosinolate in the natural diet of this insect, alters microbial community structure. Larvae were fed either sterile wheat germ diet alone or amended with 3.0 mg/ml, 6.0 mg/ml, or 9.0 mg/ml of sinigrin. In order to determine shifts in the gut microbial community, 16S rRNA genes from midguts were subjected to pyrosequencing and analyzed. Sinigrin had a significant impact on microbial communities in fourth instar P. rapae larvae, but this was dependent on concentration. The predominant phyla in all treatment groups were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Significant difference in beta diversity was typically observed when sinigrin 6 mg/ml and the control treatment groups were compared. The impact of sinigrin on the structure of the midgut microbiota is dependent on concentration, but not in a linear fashion. This may indicate that types and concentrations of glucosinolates have varied impact on midgut microbial community.
Cost/Charges Appraisal and Clinical Evidence Considerations in Orthopaedic Literature  [PDF]
Joe Sam Robinson 3rd, M. Sami Walid, Waldo E. Floyd, Joe Sam Robinson Jr.
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2012.22008
Abstract: Introduction: Health care expenditures in the United States have rapidly risen in the last decade, including orthopaedic induced expenses. This paper addresses the methodology by which clinical evidence is obtained to better direct orthopaedic practice and encourage cost-efficiency. Questions: We conducted this inquiry to answer these questions: 1) Have orthopaedic expenses increased in the United States? 2) Does high grade clinical evidence prevail in orthopaedic literature? 3) Does clinical orthopaedic research include cost in outcome analysis? 4) Does the increase in orthopaedic expenses correlate with cost awareness in orthopaedic literature? Methods: The aggregate hospital charges (national bill) associated with three major orthopaedic procedures were extracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) website (data available from 1997 to 2008). Using the biomedical search engine PubMed (launched 1996), different types of literature pertaining to general orthopaedic and three major orthopaedic procedures—hip replacement, knee replacement, and spine fusion, were probed regarding level of evidence and cost inclusion. Results: From 1997 to 2008, the national hospital charges for spine fusion increased by 10.4 times while for total knee replacement it increased by 4.9 times and for total/partial hip replacement by 3.4 times. From 1996 to 2010, PubMed indexed 1113 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) related to hip replacement, 942 related to knee replacement and 357 related to spine fusion. During the same period, RCTs related to total/partial hip replacement, total knee replacement and spine fusion procedures have increased by 3 times, 6 times, and 3.4 times, respectively. The percentage of blinded RCTS with cost analysis among all RCTs related to each procedure were 0%, 0.001% and 0.003% for total/partial hip replacement, total knee replacement and spine fusion procedures respectively. The correlation in the national hospital charges of all three procedures individually and their level I literature with cost element was not significant except for spine fusion. Conclusion: To improve literature shortfalls, substantial attention needs to be focused toward more rigorous studies which consider cost efficiency.
The long-term water balance (1972–2004) of upland forestry and grassland at Plynlimon, mid-Wales
V. Marc ,M. Robinson
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2007,
Abstract: This paper reviews research into the hydrological impacts of UK upland forestry and updates the water balance of the Plynlimon research catchments for the period 1972–2004. Comparison of this network of densely instrumented coniferous forest and grassland catchments builds upon previously reported differences in annual evaporation of the two land uses and, most crucially, provides evidence of systematic, age-related, variations in forest evaporation losses over a managed plantation forest cycle. In comparison with the grassland catchment, the additional water use of the 70% forested catchment fell from 250 to 150 mm yr 1 because of increasing forest age; this is equivalent to a decline from 370 mm to 210 mm extra evaporation from a complete forest cover. At present, with up to half of the forest area felled or only recently replanted, the difference in evaporation between the forest and grass catchments is negligible. Knowledge of the period of maximum tree water use may be critically important for the future management of multi-use forests. This is also being investigated by micro-meteorological measurements at the scale of the forest stand using eddy covariance, in conjunction with the long-term catchment monitoring.
Die taak van die bibliotekaris in ons verwarde tyd
H. M. Robinson
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 1958, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v26i5&6.1653
Abstract: Ek staan vandag voor u in diepe erkentlikheid. Sover ek weet is dit die eerste keer dat een van ons universiteite hierdie ho eer aan ’n lid van die biblioteekprofessie laat toekom om by ’n geleentheid soos hierdie op te tree. Namens daardie professie aanvaar ek hierdie eer met ons innige dank teenoor u, meneer die Rektor, en teenoor u Senaat. In my persoonlike hoedanigheid wil ek u van harte bedank vir hierdie ho eer my aangedoen veral terwyl ek my tekortkominge om hier voor u te verskyn ten voile besef.
M. H. Robinson
Sarcoma , 2000, DOI: 10.1155/s1357714x00000013
What Scholarly Editors Need to Help us Make Sense Together in the Digital Age
Peter M. Robinson
Journal of the Chicago Colloquium on Digital Humanities and Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: This paper will argue that the single greatest effect of the digital revolution on scholarship is not that it is giving us near-instant access to resources through multiple digital libraries, or that it offers multiple new publication possibilities, or that it supplies many new tools – databases, analytic programs, and more. Rather, the single greatest effect of the digital revolution is that it is is empowering a new model of collaboration, and hence new modes of readership and study, among scholars, and between scholars and readers. This is particularly true of scholarly editing.
Equality statements for entropy change in open systems
John M. Robinson
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: The entropy change of a (non-equilibrium) Markovian ensemble is calculated from (1) the ensemble phase density $p(t)$ evolved as iterative map, $p(t) = \mathbb{M}(t) p(t- \Delta t)$ under detail balanced transition matrix $\mathbb{M}(t)$, and (2) the invariant phase density $\pi(t) = \mathbb{M}(t)^{\infty} \pi(t) $. A virtual measurement protocol is employed, where variational entropy is zero, generating exact expressions for irreversible entropy change in terms of the Jeffreys measure, $\mathcal{J}(t) = \sum_{\Gamma} [p(t) - \pi(t)] \ln \bfrac{p(t)}{\pi(t)}$, and for reversible entropy change in terms of the Kullbach-Leibler measure, $\mathcal{D}_{KL}(t) = \sum_{\Gamma} \pi(0) \ln \bfrac{\pi(0)}{\pi(t)}$. Five properties of $\mathcal{J}$ are discussed, and Clausius' theorem is derived.
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