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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401655 matches for " M. Reynolds "
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The Complexity of Temporal Logic over the Reals
M. Reynolds
Computer Science , 1999,
Abstract: It is shown that the decision problem for the temporal logic with until and since connectives over real-numbers time is PSPACE-complete.
The Duhem-Quine thesis and the dark matter problem
M. A. Reynolds
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: There are few opportunities in introductory physics for a genuine discussion of the philosophy of science, especially in cases where the physical principles are straightforward and the mathematics is simple. Terrestrial classical mechanics satisfies these requirements, but students new to physics usually carry too many incorrect or misleading preconceptions about the subject for it to be analyzed epistemologically. The problem of dark matter, and especially the physics of spiral galaxy velocity rotation curves, is a straightforward application of Newton's laws of motion and gravitation, and is just enough removed from everyday experience to be analyzed from a fresh perspective. It is proposed to teach students about important issues in the philosophy of physics, including Bacon's induction, Popper's falsifiability, and the Duhem-Quine thesis, all in light of the dark matter problem. These issues can be discussed in an advanced classical mechanics course, or, with limited simplification, at the end of a first course in introductory mechanics. The goal is for students to understand at a deeper level how the physics community has arrived at the current state of knowledge.
Analysis for stress environment in the alveolar sac model  [PDF]
Ramana M. Pidaparti, Matthew Burnette, Rebecca L. Heise, Angela Reynolds
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.69110
Abstract: Better understanding of alveolar mechanics is very important in order to avoid lung injuries for patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for treatment of respiratory problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the alveolar mechanics for two different alveolar sac models, one based on actual geometry and the other an idealized spherical geometry using coupled fluid-solid computational analysis. Both the models were analyzed through coupled fluid-solid analysis to estimate the parameters such as pressures/ velocities and displacements/stresses under mechanical ventilation conditions. The results obtained from the fluid analysis indicate that both the alveolar geometries give similar results for pressures and velocities. However, the results obtained from coupled fluid-solid analysis indicate that the actual alveolar geometry results in smaller displacements in comparison to a spherical alveolar model. This trend is also true for stress/strain between the two models. The results presented indicate that alveolar geometry greatly affects the pressure/velocities as well as displacements and stresses/strains.
A photometric study of the field around the candidate recoiling/binary black hole SDSS J092712.65+294344.0
R. Decarli,M. T. Reynolds,M. Dotti
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14945.x
Abstract: We present a photometric FUV to Ks-band study of the field around quasar SDSS J092712.65+294344.0. The SDSS spectrum of this object shows various emission lines with two distinct redshifts, at z=0.699 and z=0.712. Because of this peculiar spectroscopic feature this source has been proposed as a candidate recoiling or binary black hole. A third alternative model involves two galaxies moving in the centre of a rich galaxy cluster. Here we present a study addressing the possible presence of such a rich cluster of galaxies in the SDSS J092712.65+294344.0 field. We observed the 3.6x2.6 square arcmin field in the Ks-band and matched the NIR data with the FUV and NUV images in the GALEX archive and the ugriz observations in the SDSS. From various colour-colour diagrams we were able to classify the nature of 32 sources, only 6-11 of which have colours consistent with galaxies at z~0.7. We compare these numbers with the surface density of galaxies, stars & quasars, and the expectations for typical galaxy clusters both at low and high redshift. Our study shows that the galaxy cluster scenario is in clear disagreement with the new observations.
Closed, spirograph-like orbits in power law central potentials
M. A. Reynolds,M. T. Shouppe
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: Bertrand's theorem proves that inverse square and Hooke's law-type central forces are the only ones for which all bounded orbits are closed. Similar analysis was used to show that for other central force laws there exist closed orbits for a discrete set of angular momentum and energy values. These orbits can in general be characterized as ``spirograph''-like, although specific orbits look more ``star''-like or ``triangular.'' We use the results of a perturbative version of Bertrand's theorem to predict which values of angular momentum and energy result in closed orbits, and what their shapes will be.
Free-Flight Odor Tracking in Drosophila Is Consistent with an Optimal Intermittent Scale-Free Search
Andy M. Reynolds, Mark A. Frye
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000354
Abstract: During their trajectories in still air, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) explore their landscape using a series of straight flight paths punctuated by rapid 90° body-saccades [1]. Some saccades are triggered by visual expansion associated with collision avoidance. Yet many saccades are not triggered by visual cues, but rather appear spontaneously. Our analysis reveals that the control of these visually independent saccades and the flight intervals between them constitute an optimal scale-free active searching strategy. Two characteristics of mathematical optimality that are apparent during free-flight in Drosophila are inter-saccade interval lengths distributed according to an inverse square law, which does not vary across landscape scale, and 90° saccade angles, which increase the likelihood that territory will be revisited and thereby reduce the likelihood that near-by targets will be missed. We also show that searching is intermittent, such that active searching phases randomly alternate with relocation phases. Behaviorally, this intermittency is reflected in frequently occurring short, slow speed inter-saccade intervals randomly alternating with rarer, longer, faster inter-saccade intervals. Searching patterns that scale similarly across orders of magnitude of length (i.e., scale-free) have been revealed in animals as diverse as microzooplankton, bumblebees, albatrosses, and spider monkeys, but these do not appear to be optimised with respect to turning angle, whereas Drosophila free-flight search does. Also, intermittent searching patterns, such as those reported here for Drosophila, have been observed in foragers such as planktivorous fish and ground foraging birds. Our results with freely flying Drosophila may constitute the first reported example of searching behaviour that is both scale-free and intermittent.
Zoonotic Poxviruses Associated with Companion Animals
Danielle M. Tack,Mary G. Reynolds
Animals , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ani1040377
Abstract: Understanding the zoonotic risk posed by poxviruses in companion animals is important for protecting both human and animal health. The outbreak of monkeypox in the United States, as well as current reports of cowpox in Europe, point to the fact that companion animals are increasingly serving as sources of poxvirus transmission to people. In addition, the trend among hobbyists to keep livestock (such as goats) in urban and semi-urban areas has contributed to increased parapoxvirus exposures among people not traditionally considered at high risk. Despite the historic notoriety of poxviruses and the diseases they cause, poxvirus infections are often missed. Delays in diagnosing poxvirus-associated infections in companion animals can lead to inadvertent human exposures. Delays in confirming human infections can result in inappropriate treatment or prolonged recovery. Early recognition of poxvirus-associated infections and application of appropriate preventive measures can reduce the spread of virus between companion animals and their owners. This review will discuss the epidemiology and clinical features associated with the zoonotic poxvirus infections most commonly associated with companion animals.
Predicting the response of localised oesophageal cancer to neo-adjuvant chemoradiation
Charles M Gillham, John Reynolds, Donal Hollywood
World Journal of Surgical Oncology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7819-5-97
Abstract: A systematic search of Pubmed and Google Scholar was performed using the following keywords; "neo-adjuvant", "oesophageal", "trimodality", "chemotherapy", "radiotherapy", "chemoradiation" and "predict". The original manuscripts were sourced for further articles of relevance.Conventional indices including tumour stage and grade seem unable to predict histological response. Immuno-histochemical markers have been extensively studied, but none has made its way into routine clinical practice. Global gene expression from fresh pre-treatment tissue using cDNA microarray has only recently been assessed, but shows considerable promise. Molecular imaging using FDG-PET seems to be able to predict response after neo-adjuvant chemoradiation has finished, but there is a paucity of data when such imaging is performed earlier.Currently there are no clinically useful predictors of response based on standard pathological assessment and immunohistochemistry. Genomics, proteomics and molecular imaging may hold promise.Cancer medicine is in the midst of a technological revolution and the way the disease is managed is undergoing enormous change. For the very first time it is becoming increasingly possible to individualise a patient's treatment by predicting those that will and those that will not respond to a chosen therapy. This is being achieved through rapid developments in both advanced diagnostic imaging and translational medicine. Clinical trials incorporating expression array data are already underway in some of the more common tumour sites, such as breast cancer [1]. As a result the foundations have been laid for some of the less frequent, but by no means less serious, pathological types.Oesophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide and more than 80% of cancers occur in less developed countries [2]. The incidence in Europe is 5.4 per 100,000 per year with approximately 4.9 deaths per 100,000 per year. Survival correlates with stage of disease. Five-year survival r
Measurement of the stochasticity of low-latitude geomagnetic temporal variations
J. A. Wanliss,M. A. Reynolds
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: Ground magnetometer measurements of total magnetic field strength from 6 stations at low latitudes were analyzed using power spectrum and Hurst range scaling techniques. The Hurst exponents for most of these time-series were near 0.5, which indicates stochasticity, with the highest latitude stations exhibiting some persistence with Hurst exponents greater than 0.6. Although no definite correlations are evident, the relative increase of the Hurst exponent with latitude suggests the possibility that the underlying dynamics of the magnetosphere change with latitude. This result may help quantify the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere itself without the direct presence of the solar wind driver. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; plasmasphere) – Space plasma physics (nonlinear phenomena)
Natural Variation for Lifespan and Stress Response in the Nematode Caenorhabditis remanei
Rose M. Reynolds, Patrick C. Phillips
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058212
Abstract: Genetic approaches (e.g. mutation, RNA interference) in model organisms, particularly the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, have yielded a wealth of information on cellular processes that can influence lifespan. Although longevity mutants discovered in the lab are instructive of cellular physiology, lab studies might miss important genes that influence health and longevity in the wild. C. elegans has relatively low natural genetic variation and high levels of linkage disequilibrium, and thus is not optimal for studying natural variation in longevity. In contrast, its close relative C. remanei possesses very high levels of molecular genetic variation and low levels of linkage disequilibrium. To determine whether C. remanei may be a good model system for the study of natural genetic variation in aging, we evaluated levels of quantitative genetic variation for longevity and resistance to oxidative, heat and UV stress. Heritability (and the coefficient of additive genetic variation) was high for oxidative and heat stress resistance, low (but significant) for longevity, and essentially zero for UV stress response. Our results suggest that C. remanei may be a powerful system for studying natural genetic variation for longevity and oxidative and heat stress response, as well as an informative model for the study of functional relationships between longevity and stress response.
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