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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401202 matches for " M. Ramlan "
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Production of Natural Coagulant from Moringa Oleifera Seed for Application in Treatment of Low Turbidity Water  [PDF]
Eman N. Ali, Suleyman A. Muyibi, Hamzah M. Salleh, Md Zahangir Alam, Mohd Ramlan M. Salleh
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.23030
Abstract: This study focused on developing an efficient and cost effective processing technique for Moringa oleifera seeds to produce natural coagulant for use in drinking water treatment. The produced natural coagulant can be used as an alternative to aluminum sulphate and other coagulants and used worldwide for water treatment. This study investigates processing Moringa oleifera seeds to concentrate the bio-active constituents which have coagulation activity. Moringa oleifera seeds were processed for oil extraction using electro thermal soxhlet. Isolation and purification of bio-active constituents using chromatography technique were used to determine the molecular weight of the bio-active constituents. The molecular weight of bio-active constitu-ents found to be in a low molecular weight range of between 1000 – 6500 Dalton. The proposed method to isolate and purify the bio-active constituents was the cross flow filtration method, which produced the natu-ral coagulant with very simple technique (oil extraction; salt extraction; and microfiltration through 0.45 µm). The turbidity removal was up to 96.23 % using 0.4 mg/L of processed Moringa oleifera seeds to treat low initial turbidity river water between 34-36 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) without any additives. The microfiltration method is considered to be a practical method which needs no chemicals to be added com-pared to other researchers proposed methods. The natural coagulant produced was used with low dosages to get high turbidity removal which considered to be a breakthrough in this study and recommended to be scaled up for industry level. The product is commercially valuable at the same time it is minimizing the cost of water treatment.
Screening of Aspergillus for Citric Acid Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent
Parveen Jamal,Md. Zahangir Alam,M. Ramlan,M. Salleh
Biotechnology , 2005,
Abstract: In this study, screening of potential microbes, especially Aspergillus, for citric acid production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is carried out to improve the product yield. The fermentation of the raw material POME for the production of citric acid was conducted by the liquid state fermentation process. A total of ten strains of Aspergillus were selected for the screening test of which six strains were isolated from Sewage Treatment Plant Sludge (STP Sludge), purified and identified up to genus level and four strains of Aspergillus were from lab stock. All strains were screened under controlled fermentation conditions such as pH range of 2-3, temperature 30 C and agitation 150 rpm, using 1% (w/w) of substrate (POME), 2% (w/w) co-substrate (wheat flour) with inoculum size of 2% (106 spore mL 1). These strains were examined in terms of maximum citric acid production, biosolid production (TSS%) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal. The strain Aspergillus (A103) produced the highest concentration of citric acid (0.28 g L 1), TSS (12.7 g L 1) and COD removal (72%) followed by A1020, A-SS106 and others on 2-4 days of fermentation.
N2 Fixation, Nutrient Accumulation and Plant Growth Promotion by Rhizobacteria in Association with Oil Palm Seedlings
H.G. Amir,Z.H. Shamsuddin,M.S. Halimi,M.F. Ramlan
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: An experiment was conducted in undrained poly bags under glasshouse conditions to quantify the N2 fixing capacity (15N isotope dilution method) of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (Azospirillum and Bacillus spp.) in association with oil palm seedlings. Effects of inoculation on nutrient uptake and plant growth promotion will also be observed. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with five replications and harvested at 390 days after planting. The treatments involved were: 1) killed Azospirillum brasilense (Sp 7), 2) killed Sp 7; + inorganic-Ni, 3) Sp 7, 4) A. lipoferum (CCM 3863), 5) locally isolated rhizobacteria UPMB 10, and 6) UPMB 13 inoculation. Results showed that inoculation of the rhizobacteria could contribute up to 20-50% of the total nitrogen requirement of the host plant through N2 fixation process. Besides that, the inoculation process had also stimulated accumulation of nutrient and plant growth (tops and roots) comparable to the control with full inorganic nitrogen (Ni) fertilization after 390 days of growth.
Normal Incidence of Sound Transmission Loss of a Double-Leaf Partition Inserted with a Microperforated Panel
A. Putra,A. Y. Ismail,R. Ramlan,Md. R. Ayob,M. S. Py
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/216493
Abstract: A double-leaf partition in engineering structures has been widely applied for its advantages, that is, in terms of its mechanical strength as well as its lightweight property. In noise control, the double-leaf also serves as an effective noise barrier. Unfortunately at low frequency, the sound transmission loss reduces significantly due to the coupling between the panels and the air between them. This paper studies the effect of a microperforated panel (MPP) inserted inside a double-leaf partition on the sound transmission loss performance of the system. The MPP insertion is proposed to provide a hygienic double-leaf noise insulator replacing the classical abrasive porous materials between the panels. It is found that the transmission loss improves at the troublesome mass-air-mass resonant frequency if the MPP is located closer to the solid panel. The mathematical model is derived for normal incidence of acoustic loading. 1. Introduction A double-leaf structure is a common structural design for many engineering applications. The vehicle body, such as in cars, trains and airplanes, and the walls of a building are some examples of double-leaf partition in practice. From the acoustical engineering point of view, the double leaf is proposed to be a better noise barrier compared to the single-leaf. However, there remains a problem on the double-panel which is the weak sound transmission loss (STL) performance at low frequency due to the “mass-air-mass” resonance. This causes the double leaf to lose its superiority over the single-leaf [1]. Several works have been established to solve this problem. This includes employing absorptive materials inside the gap of a double-leaf, for example, fiberglass [2] and rockwool [3] which can effectively increase the STL due to additional damping to the air layer provided by the absorbent. Mao and Pietrzko [4] proposed a technique by installing the Helmholtz resonators at the air gap. The resonator acts like single degree of freedom system of which its natural frequency depends on its geometry. In order to increase the STL at mass-air-mass resonance, the Hemholtz resonator is tuned to the same resonant frequency. Li and Cheng [5] used an active control system to control the acoustic modes in the gap by using a sound source and an actuator. The sound source reduces the transmission energy by suppressing certain acoustic modes in the air gap while the actuator reduces energy from the structural path by creating counter forces on the two panels to suppress the vibration. Similarly, Li et al. [6] used long T-shaped resonators
Efficient Production Process for Food Grade Acetic Acid by Acetobacter aceti in Shake Flask and in Bioreactor Cultures
Hassan M. Awad,Richard Diaz,Roslinda A. Malek,Nor Zalina Othman,Ramlan A. Aziz,Hesham A. El Enshasy
Journal of Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/965432
Abstract: Acetic acid is one of the important weak acids which had long history in chemical industries. This weak organic acid has been widely used as one of the key intermediate for many chemical, detergent, wood and food industries. The production of this acid is mainly carried out using submerged fermentation system and the standard strain Acetobacter aceti. In the present work, six different media were chosen from the literatures and tested for acetic acid production. The highest acetic acid production was produced in medium composed of glucose, yeast extract and peptone. The composition of this medium was optimized by changing the concentration of medium components. The optimized medium was composed of (g/L): glucose, 100; yeast extract, 12 and peptone 5 and yielded 53 g/L acetic acid in shake flask after 144 h fermentation. Further optimization in the production process was achieved by transferring the process to semi-industrial scale 16-L stirred tank bioreactor and cultivation under controlled pH condition. Under fully aerobic conditions, the production of acetic acid reached maximal concentration of about 76 g/L and 51 g/L for uncontrolled and controlled pH cultures, respectively.
Cellular transcripts regulated during infections with Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza virus in 3 host systems
Vinod RMT Balasubramaniam, Sharifah S Hassan, Abdul R Omar, Maizan Mohamed, Suriani M Noor, Ramlan Mohamed, Iekhsan Othman
Virology Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-8-196
Abstract: Differentially expressed transcripts regulated in a H5N1 infections of whole lung organ of chicken, in-vitro chick embryo lung primary cell culture (CeLu) and a continuous Madin Darby Canine Kidney cell line was undertaken. An improved mRNA differential display technique (Gene Fishing?) using annealing control primers that generates reproducible, authentic and long PCR products that are detectable on agarose gels was used for the identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Seven of the genes have been selected for validation using a TaqMan? based real time quantitative PCR assay.Thirty seven known and unique differentially expressed genes from lungs of chickens, CeLu and MDCK cells were isolated. Among the genes isolated and identified include heat shock proteins, Cyclin D2, Prenyl (decaprenyl) diphosphate synthase, IL-8 and many other unknown genes. The quantitative real time RT-PCR assay data showed that the transcription kinetics of the selected genes were clearly altered during infection by the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus.The Gene Fishing? technique has allowed for the first time, the isolation and identification of sequences of host cellular genes regulated during H5N1 virus infection. In this limited study, the differentially expressed genes in the three host systems were not identical, thus suggesting that their responses to the H5N1 infection may not share similar mechanisms and pathways.Avian Influenza virus (AIV) is a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family of negative-stranded, segmented RNA viruses and represents a particularly attractive model system as viral replication strategies are closely intertwined with normal cellular processes including the host defense and stress pathways [1]. Over the course of evolution, Influenza virus has developed translational control strategies that utilize cap-dependent translation initiation mechanisms. This causes the host-cell proteins to preferentially synthesize viral proteins and prevent th
Efficient Production Process for Food Grade Acetic Acid by Acetobacter aceti in Shake Flask and in Bioreactor Cultures
Hassan M. Awad,Richard Diaz,Roslinda A. Malek,Nor Zalina Othman,Ramlan A. Aziz,Hesham A. El Enshasy
Journal of Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/965432
Abstract: Acetic acid is one of the important weak acids which had long history in chemical industries. This weak organic acid has been widely used as one of the key intermediate for many chemical, detergent, wood and food industries. The production of this acid is mainly carried out using submerged fermentation system and the standard strain Acetobacter aceti. In the present work, six different media were chosen from the literatures and tested for acetic acid production. The highest acetic acid production was produced in medium composed of glucose, yeast extract and peptone. The composition of this medium was optimized by changing the concentration of medium components. The optimized medium was composed of (g/L): glucose, 100; yeast extract, 12 and peptone 5 and yielded 53 g/L acetic acid in shake flask after 144 h fermentation. Further optimization in the production process was achieved by transferring the process to semi-industrial scale 16-L stirred tank bioreactor and cultivation under controlled pH condition. Under fully aerobic conditions, the production of acetic acid reached maximal concentration of about 76 g/L and 51 g/L for uncontrolled and controlled pH cultures, respectively.
Some Trachyleberididae (Ostracoda) from Offshore Sediment Around Pulau Sibu, Johor
N.F. Noraswana, O. Ramlan
Journal of Sustainability Science and Management , 2009,
Abstract: Study was conducted on ostracods from offshore sediment around Pulau Sibu, Johor. A total of 10 sediment samples were taken from 10 sampling stations. The sampling was carried out in July 2006. The preparation of ostracoda samples was conducted by the method of wet-filtration washings. As a result, a total of409 specimens were collected and identified as Trachyleberididae family. A total of 14 species and 9 genera belonging to Trachyleberididae family were identified. Thegenera were Actinocythereis, Stigmatocythere, Pistocythereis, Borneocythere, Trachyleberis, Venericythere, Keijella, Lankacythere and Bradleya. Station ST8 showed the highest abundance of ostracods with 136 specimens. The dominant species for this family was Pistocythereis euplectella with 95 specimens.
Diffusion Analysis of Message Expansion in STITCH-256  [PDF]
Norziana Jamil, Ramlan Mahmod, Muhammad Reza Z’aba, Nur Izura Udzir, Zuriati Ahmad Zukarnain
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2013.43015
Abstract:

Cryptographic hash functions are built up from individual components, namely pre-processing, step transformation, and final processing. Some of the hash functions, such as SHA-256 and STITCH-256, employ non-linear message expansion in their pre-processing stage. However, STITCH-256 was claimed to produce high diffusion in its message expansion. In a cryptographic algorithm, high diffusion is desirable as it helps prevent an attacker finding collision-producing differences, which would allow one to find collisions of the whole function without resorting to a brute force search. In this paper, we analyzed the diffusion property of message expansion of STITCH-256 by observing the effect of a single bit difference over the output bits, and compare the result with that of SHA-256. We repeated the same procedure in 3 experiments of different round. The results from the experiments showed that the minimal weight in the message expansion of STITCH-256 is very much lower than that in the message expansion of SHA-256, i.e. message expansion of STITCH-256 produce high diffusion. Significantly, we showed that the probability to construct differential characteristic in the message expansion of STITCH-256 is reduced.

Physicochemical and radical scavenging activities of honey samples from Malaysia  [PDF]
Norul Liza A-Rahaman, Lee Suan Chua, Mohamad Roji Sarmidi, Ramlan Aziz
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.45B009
Abstract:

The physical properties, total phenols, total flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activities of honey samples from Malaysia were investigated. The physical properties of Tualang, Gelam and Acacia honey samples, in terms of pH, color, moisture, electrical conductivity and total soluble solid were significantly different (p = 0.000). Gelam honey was reported to have the highest total phenols (606.17 mg GAE/kg honey) and flavonoid content (183.43 mg RE/kg honey). Tualang honey was reported to have the highest free radical scavenging activity with the IC50, 72.75 g/L compared to Gelam (77.41 g/L) and Acacia (90.83 g/L). There is no significant difference has been revealed among honey samples for radical scavenging activity (p = 0.827). Nevertheless, strong correlation was obtained between pH, color, electrical conductivity and total soluble solid with the scavenging activity of all honey samples with the correlative coefficient, r = 0.979, 0.902, 0.917 and 0.957, respectively. The establishment of the statistical correlation could be useful for honey related industry.

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