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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 543194 matches for " M. R. Sabzalian "
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The Effect of Drought Stress on Population Density and Damage of Safflower Fly (Acanthiophilus helianthi ), Aphid (Uroleucon carthami ) and Leafhopper Empoasca decipiens
B. Hatami,J. Khajehali,M. R. Sabzalian
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2008,
Abstract: Safflower having oil with high unsaturated fatty acids is a very valuable plant. However the sensitivity of safflower to some pests as safflower fly (Acanthiophilus helianthi), particularly in drought stress conditions has limited its production. In order to evaluate the effect of drought stress on population density and damage of important safflower pests, especially safflower fly, an experiment was conducted in the field using 5 irrigation treatments including 50, 70, 90, 110 and 130 mm evaporation from class A pan in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The local safflower variety used in this study was Isfahan land variety, Kooseh. In each irrigation regime, the half of one plot was locally sprayed by Chlorpyrifos in 2ml per liter of water to be compared with non-sprayed part. During 8 weeks of sampling, population of aphids, Uroleucon carthami, leafhopper, Empoasca decipiens and safflower fly, A. helianthi and also percentage of damaged heads by safflower fly were measured. The results showed that in non-sprayed conditions, the highest safflower fly (2.38 flies per net) and aphid population (165.57 aphids per plant) was observed at 130 mm evaporation regime. Drought stress also decreased (30.23 %) safflower seed yield. Severe drought stress together with non-spaying may increase safflower pests population particularly safflower fly and reduce seed yield. However low level of drought stress (70 mm evaporation from class A pan) may decrease relative number of insects and save irrigation water. Drought stress also decrease the population of leafhopper. In this study, 70 mm evaporation regime was the optimum irrigation treatment regarding lower aphid and fly damage (15.86% damaged heads in non-sprayed condition) and higher safflower seed yield (1687.5 kg/ha in sprayed condition).
Association of Endophytic Fungi with Earliness and Related Traits in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Meadow Fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.)
A. F. Mirlohi,M. R. Sabzalian,M. H. Ehtemam
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2007,
Abstract: In order to evaluate endophyte effect on plant earliness, compatible host-endophyte combinations including four genotypes of tall fescue and two genotypes of meadow fescue were selected and used in this study. One tiller-part of each genotype was treated using a fungicide mixture of Propiconazole and Folicur. New tillers of endophyte-infected and endophyte-free plants were planted in the field according to a complete block design with three replications. The traits including days to head emergence, days to 50% anthesis, days to maturity initiation, number of heads (as a weekly measurement), total seed weight, net seed weight and empty seed weigh were measured. Results showed that endophytes can enhance head emergence, maturity initiation and periodical seed yield. Days to 50% anthesis, and days to maturity initiation were also reduced. Head numbers in some genotypes increased up to 2 times. Increase in net seed yield may show some physiological alterations in plant such as hormonal balance alteration which may provide better seed setting in infected plants. Based on this study, we concluded that endophytic fungi can induce earliness in infected host plants.
Effect of Temperature and Day Length on Vegetative Growth and Yield of Safflower Genotypes
P. Heydarizadeh,M. Sabzalian,M.R. Khajehpour
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2008,
Abstract: During recent years, several genotypes have been selected from Isfahan land race Kouseh. The performance of safflower selected genotypes was studied in the field conditions, at Agriculture Research Station, Isfahan University of Technology during 2003. The experiment was carried out using a split plot arrangement according to a randomized complete block design with three replications. Planting dates (March 11, April 20, May 22 and June 23) were considered as the main plots and subplots consisted of 20 genotypes of safflower including 19 selections from Kouseh and Arak-2811 genotype. Days from planting to emergence and emergence to stem elongation were reduced as planting was delayed until the fourth planting date. Days from stem elongation to head visible was reduced with delay from the first to the third planting date, and then increased. Days from head visible to 50% flowering was reduced with delay from the first date to the third planting date, but increased in the fourth planting date. Days from 50 percent flowering to physiological maturity was increased with delay in planting. Days from planting to emergence, emergence to stem elongation, stem elongation to head visible and 50 percent flowering to physiological maturity were not influenced by genotypes. Genotype DP7 had the highest and genotype C111 and genotype DP25 had the lowest days from head visible to 50% flowering. The interaction between planting date and genotype in regard to days from stem elongation to head visible was also significant. Seed weight per plant was reduced with delay in planting date. Genotype ISF66 had the highest and genotype Arak-2811 had lowest seed weight per plant. The number of days from emergence to head visible in ISF66, DP5, C128 and Arak-2811 was affected by maximum temperature (Tmax), in genotype DP7 by Tmax2, in genotypes DP17, DP1 and C41100 by Tmin2 and in genotypes DP9, DP25, ISF28, ISF22, and C111 was affected by day length. It seems that development period from emergence to head visible was affected by temperature in the most genotypes. On March 11 planting date, genotypes had the maximum response to temperature and day length and the minimum response was observed in the fourth planting date. The genotype ISF66 had the highest seed yield on March 11 planting date. The result of this study showed that safflower should be planted in late March under condition similar to this experiment for maximum yield production.
Study of Parameters Involved in Improved Performance of Rice Under Submerged Conditions Using Iranian Varieties
A. F. Mirlohi,M. H. Ehtemam,M. R. Sabzalian
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2004,
Abstract: A major limitation for higher yield of rice plant is water availability. Water use efficient varieties tolerant to upland conditions could help to relax this limitation. Three separate experiments were conducted to study the effects of water regimes on growth, aerenchyma formation, and nutrient absorption of Iranian rice varieties. In the first experiment, five varieties of rice were grown under three different irrigation levels. The second experiment involved the study of nutrient uptake by Sazandagee and Tarom varieties under four different water regimes, and in the third experiment, the effect of aeration on growth characteristics of Sazandagee rice was assessed in a hydroponics system. Results of the first experiment showed that submerged conditions continuously or after four weeks of initial growth had a significant effect on plant growth. Aerenchyma formation was affected by rice varieties and was less affected by irrigation status. In the second experiment, plant growth characteristics were affected similar to experiment one. Also it was shown that nutrients such as P, Mg, and Fe were absorbed with higher efficiency under submerged conditions. Results of the third experiment revealed that aeration had no significant effect on plant growth characteristics. Based on the results of these three experiments, it can be concluded that better performance of rice plant under continuous or partial flooding is mainly related to higher absorption of some macro - and micronutrients. Therefore, this parameter should be considered in water management programs for rice.
The Effect of Endophytic Fungi of Tall and Meadow Fescues on Biological Control of Mealybug (Phenococcus solani Ferris, Hom.:Pseudococcidae)
B. Hatami,A.F. Mirlohi,M.R. Sabzalian
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2006,
Abstract: Endophytic fungi, Neotyphodium spp. symbiotically infect host grasses, Fescue arundinacea Schreb. and F. pratensis Huds. and Mealybug, Phenococcus solani Ferris attacks some forage plants. To evaluate the role of these fungi to control this pest, four genotypes of F. arundinacea and two genotypes of F. pratensis were used. Plant tillers were split into two sections, one section of which was freed from endophyte using a fungicide mixture. The mixture contained 2 grams of active ingredients of Propiconazol and 1 ml of Folicur per liter of water. New tillers from endophyte-infected and endophyte-free plants were transferred into the field. The number of mealybugs was measured after the first visible sign of infestation on roots. To count mealybug, one plant hill of each plot was randomly selected. Hay yield of each plot was measured by clipping the plants 5 cm above ground level. Correlation of hay yield and other growth characteristics with the number of mealybugs on roots as an index for mealybug damage on infested plants was determined. The results indicated that endophyte-free plants were highly infested with mealybug, P. solani compared with endophyte-infected plants that were completely free of P. solani, correlation coefficients showed that there was significant negative correlation between forage yield and mealybug numbers, indicating mealybug damage on infested plants. It seems that endophytic fungi are effective biocontrol factors for some root feeding pest such as mealybug, P. solani.
Path Coefficient Analysis of Fescue Seed Yield and its Components Affected by Fungal Endophyte
M. M. Majidi,A.F. Mirlohi,M.R. Sabzalian
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2007,
Abstract: Fescues (Festuca spp) are widely distributed in the temperate regions and are used for turf, forage and soil conservation. Though seed traits are important measures of the effects of endophytic fungi on their host, little information is available in this respect for Festuca. In this study, endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) clones of the six fescue genotypes were used to investigate the effects of endophyte on seed production. The relationships between seed traits plus direct and indirect effects of components on seed yield were also studied. Endophyte infection resulted in 38.1% to 249% more seed yields in some genotypes, though some were not affected by this symbiotic relationship. Correlations between traits and also results of stepwise regression were influenced by the presence of the symbiotic fungi. Path analysis showed that endophytic fungi changed direct and indirect effects of components on seed yield. In endophyte containing clones, panicle fertility had the most direct effects and number of panicle per plant and seed per panicle the most indirect effects on seed yield. In E- clones, panicle fertility had the highest indirect effects and other components had direct effects on seed yield. The results suggested that breeding strategies for increasing seed yield in fescue should consider the presence or absence of endophyte in germplasm.
Minima Domain Intervals and the S-Convexity, as well as the Convexity, Phenomenon  [PDF]
I. M. R. Pinheiro
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2012.26069
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a refinement in the analytical definition of the s2-convex classes of functions aiming to progress further in the direction of including s2-convexity properly in the body of Real Analysis.
Temple as the Site of Struggle: Social Reform, Religious Symbols and the Politics of Nationalism in Kerala  [PDF]
M. R. Manmathan
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2013.22010
Abstract: The temple entry movement of the 1920s and ’30s in Kerala, South India, has become a landmark in the history of social reform and nationalist movements for its uniqueness and sweeping success. Popular history has presented the episode as an integral part of the Nationalist Movement and the Gandhian Constructive Programme mainly because the temple-entry issue was endorsed by the Kerala State Congress Committee and the agitation was concluded under its auspices. But this popular and idealist impression of the movement has been challenged from various quarters. It is pointed out that there have been very little attempts at linking the event with the advancing civic rights movement led by the lower caste people for freedom of worship and social equality which was gaining a radical turn by the 20s and 30s; the pressure exerted by the untouchables to achieve civic freedom even at the cost of renouncing Hinduism had created an alarming situation which no caste-Hindu could ignore. Even more surprising is the absence of academic attempts to link the agitation with the Malabar Rebellion of 1921; in fact the Rebellion had challenged the very survival of the Congress organization in Kerala; this factor forced them to retreat from the earlier secular plane to a religious idiom of politics for which the question of temple-entry served their purpose. The Temple entry movement, therefore, has to be studied in the light of the antipathy shown by the Congress towards popular and radical agitations and in the context of its growing tendency to incline towards Hindu symbols in politics as a means to escape addressing vital and burning social issues.
First Note on the Definition of s1-Convexity  [PDF]
I. M. R. Pinheiro
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2014.412076
Abstract:

In this note, we analyze a few major claims about . As a consequence, we rewrite a major theorem, nullify its proof and one remark of importance, and offer a valid proof for it. The most important gift of this paper is probably the reasoning involved in all: We observe that a constant, namely t, has been changed into a variable, and we then tell why such a move could not have been made, we observe the discrepancy between the claimed domain and the actual domain of a supposed function that is created and we then explain why such a function could not, or should not, have been created, along with others.

Second Note on the Definition of S1-Convexity  [PDF]
I. M. R. Pinheiro
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2015.53015
Abstract: In this note, we discuss the definition of the S1-convexity Phenomenon. We first make use of some results we have attained for??\"\" in the past, such as those contained in [1], to refine the definition of the phenomenon. We then observe that easy counter-examples to the claim \"\" extends K0 are found. Finally, we make use of one theorem from [2] and a new theorem that appears to be a supplement to that one to infer that?\"\" does not properly extend K0 in both its original and its revised version.
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