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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401295 matches for " M. Oberle "
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From Warfare to Welfare. Postwar Homelessness, Dislocation, and the Birth of the Welfare State in Europe: The Case of Berlin 1945–1949
Clara M. Oberle
Hygiea Internationalis : an Interdisciplinary Journal for the History of Public Health , 2010,
Abstract: This article examines the origins of what for years has been characterized as a European welfare consensus. It asks whether, indeed, there was a convergence of ideas, and if so, what led to it. Based on public health records from governmental, municipal, and international agencies in immediate postwar Europe, but also on sources reflecting public opinion, Allied military government discourses and policies, urban planners, medical professionals, and others, it argues that indeed there was a period in European history which generated something of a postwar convergence of ideas regarding public health and welfare. The postwar period witnessed a remarkable consensus about the importance of public planning, spending, and state involvement in the health and welfare sector. By examining the case of Berlin as one immediate postwar city and situating it in the larger European context of the time, one can point to common motivations and even actors involved. The root of this consensus was not any optimistic humanitarian ideology, nor even only a concern about public health or the spread of epidemics, though the latter was prominent. Equally important, it grew out of a shared setting marked by physical destruction and political instability. As a result, concerns about governability, social order, and political legitimacy came to the forefront, even of health and housing debates. In the case of Berlin, the public health debate was driven furthermore by a fear of the return of National Socialism.
Quasi-free photoproduction of pion-pairs off protons and neutrons
M. Oberle,B. Krusche
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1142/S2010194514601069
Abstract: Beam-helicity asymmetries and mass-differential cross sections have been measured at the MAMI accelerator in Mainz for the photoproduction of neutral and mixed-charge pion pairs in the reactions $\boldsymbol{\gamma}p\rightarrow n\pi^0\pi^+$ and $\boldsymbol{\gamma}p\rightarrow p\pi^0\pi^0$ off free protons and $\boldsymbol{\gamma}d \rightarrow (p)p\pi^0\pi^-$, $\boldsymbol{\gamma}d\rightarrow (n)p\pi^0\pi^0$ and $\boldsymbol{\gamma}d\rightarrow (n)n\pi^0\pi^+$, $\boldsymbol{\gamma}d\rightarrow (p)n \pi^0\pi^0$ off quasi-free nucleons bound in the deuteron for incident photon energies up to 1.4 GeV. Circularly polarized photons were produced in bremsstrahlung processes of longitudinally polarized electrons and tagged with the Glasgow-Mainz magnetic spectrometer. The decay products (photons, protons, neutrons, and charged pions) were detected in the $4\pi$ electromagnetic calorimeter composed of the Crystal Ball and TAPS detectors. Using a full kinematic reconstruction of the final state, excellent agreement was found between the results for free and quasi-free protons, indicating that the quasi-free neutron results are also a close approximation of the free-neutron results. Comparisons of the results to predictions from model calculations suggest that especially the reaction mechanisms in the production of the mixed-charge final states are still not well understood, in particular at low incident photon energies in the second nucleon resonance region.
Expressive Writing Effects on Body Image: Symptomatic versus Asymptomatic Women  [PDF]
Jondell Lafont, Crystal D. Oberle
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.55053
Abstract:

This study investigated the effects of expressive writing on body image of women varying in eating disorder symptomatology. Ninety-two female undergraduates were randomly assigned to the writing topic conditions: traumatic events, body image, and room description. At three times (before, immediately after, and one month after the two-week intervention), participants selected from among nine figures (a) the figure deemed closest to their current figure, (b) the figure deemed closest to the ideal figure, and (c) the figure deemed closest to the figure that men prefer. The current figure ratings decreased after the writing intervention for the high-symptom group but not the low-symptom group. The ideal and male-preferred figure ratings were not affected by the intervention and did not differ between the symptom level groups. Based on the first finding, writing may improve body image perceptions in women with an already distorted body image.

Beam-helicity asymmetry I⊙ in the photoproduction of π0–pairs off the deuteron
Oberle Markus
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20123709026
Abstract: Beam-helicity asymmetries have been measured at the MAMI accelerator in Mainz for the photoproduction of neutral pion pairs in the reactions γp → pπ0π0 and γd → (n)pπ0π0, γd → (p)nπ0π0 off free protons and off quasi-free nucleons bound in the deuteron for incident photon energies up to 1.4 GeV. A circularly polarized photon beam was produced off a longitudinally polarized electron beam using bremsstrahlung processes. The photons were tagged with the Glasgow magnetic spectrometer. Decay photons from the π0 mesons, recoil protons, and recoil neutrons were detected in the 4π covering detector system composed of the Crystal Ball and TAPS electromagnetic calorimeters. The free and quasi-free results are in almost perfect agreement. The measured asymmetries for reactions off protons and neutrons are very similar, in contrary to expectations. The results are compared to the predictions from the Two-Pion-MAID reaction model.
Agency and Relationship Dissatisfaction Associated with Orthorexia Symptomatology  [PDF]
Crystal D. Oberle, Shelby L. Lipschuetz
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2018.83027
Abstract: This study explored whether orthorexia symptomatology is linked to gender-related personality traits and to levels of satisfaction in one’s romantic relationships. Undergraduate students (418 women, 98 men) completed an online survey with measures to assess orthorexia symptomatology, agency, unmitigated agency, communion, unmitigated communion, and relationship satisfaction. Orthorexia symptomatology was positively correlated with levels of agency (r = 0.18; p < 0.001), but it was unrelated to unmitigated agency (p = 0.51), communion (p = 0.76), unmitigated communion (p = 0.17), and relationship status (p = 0.99). Among the participants who were in a committed relationship, symptomatology was negatively correlated with relationship satisfaction (p = 0.01), and this correlation was most pronounced for those with higher levels of unmitigated agency (p = 0.01). Orthorexia is associated with the agency personality trait, indicative of one’s need to be independent and to achieve personal accomplishments. However, particularly for those individuals whose agency becomes unmitigated, characterized by selfishness and avoidance of others, orthorexia symptomatology predicts significant dissatisfaction in romantic relationships.
PSSA-2, a Membrane-Spanning Phosphoprotein of Trypanosoma brucei, Is Required for Efficient Maturation of Infection
Cristina M. Fragoso, Gabriela Schumann Burkard, Michael Oberle, Christina Kunz Renggli, Karen Hilzinger, Isabel Roditi
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007074
Abstract: The coat of Trypanosoma brucei consists mainly of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins that are present in several million copies and are characteristic of defined stages of the life cycle. While these major components of the coats of bloodstream forms and procyclic (insect midgut) forms are well characterised, very little is known about less abundant stage-regulated surface proteins and their roles in infection and transmission. By creating epitope-tagged versions of procyclic-specific surface antigen 2 (PSSA-2) we demonstrated that it is a membrane-spanning protein that is expressed by several different life cycle stages in tsetse flies, but not by parasites in the mammalian bloodstream. In common with other membrane-spanning proteins in T. brucei, PSSA-2 requires its cytoplasmic domain in order to exit the endoplasmic reticulum. Correct localisation of PSSA-2 requires phosphorylation of a cytoplasmic threonine residue (T305), a modification that depends on the presence of TbMAPK4. Mutation of T305 to alanine (T305A) has no effect on the localisation of the protein in cells that express wild type PSSA-2. In contrast, this protein is largely intracellular when expressed in a null mutant background. A variant with a T305D mutation gives strong surface expression in both the wild type and null mutant, but slows growth of the cells, suggesting that it may function as a dominant negative mutant. The PSSA-2 null mutant exhibits no perceptible phenotype in culture and is fully competent at establishing midgut infections in tsetse, but is defective in colonising the salivary glands and the production of infectious metacyclic forms. Given the protein's structure and the effects of mutation of T305 on proliferation and localisation, we postulate that PSSA-2 might sense and transmit signals that contribute to the parasite's decision to divide, differentiate or migrate.
Basic Psychological Needs in Predicting Exercise Participation  [PDF]
Jennifer V. Martinez, Crystal D. Oberle, Alexander J. Nagurney
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2013.31004
Abstract: This study examined propositions stemming from self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), which contends that motivational consequences and positive outcomes are predicted by the needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy. Participants completed the Psychological Need Satisfaction in Exercise (Wilson, Rogers, Rodgers, & Wild, 2006) scale and had their gym access activity monitored for six weeks. Regression analyses revealed that only competence emerged as a statistically significant predictor of exercise participation, and that this prediction was true for women only (p = .04). These findings suggest that exercise and health professionals must take care to ensure that this need is met, particularly in their female clients who may be impacted by traditional gender roles in sport contexts.
Detection of Off-Flavor in Catfish Using a Conducting Polymer Electronic-Nose Technology
Alphus D. Wilson,Charisse S. Oberle,Daniel F. Oberle
Sensors , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/s131215968
Abstract: The Aromascan A32S conducting polymer electronic nose was evaluated for the capability of detecting the presence of off-flavor malodorous compounds in catfish meat fillets to assess meat quality for potential merchantability. Sensor array outputs indicated that the aroma profiles of good-flavor (on-flavor) and off-flavor fillets were strongly different as confirmed by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Quality Factor value (QF > 7.9) indicating a significant difference at (P < 0.05). The A32S e-nose effectively discriminated between good-flavor and off-flavor catfish at high levels of accuracy (>90%) and with relatively low rates (≤5%) of unknown or indecisive determinations in three trials. This A32S e-nose instrument also was capable of detecting the incidence of mild off-flavor in fillets at levels lower than the threshold of human olfactory detection. Potential applications of e-nose technologies for pre- and post-harvest management of production and meat-quality downgrade problems associated with catfish off-flavor are discussed.
Bottlenecks and the Maintenance of Minor Genotypes during the Life Cycle of Trypanosoma brucei
Michael Oberle,Oliver Balmer,Reto Brun,Isabel Roditi
PLOS Pathogens , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001023
Abstract: African trypanosomes are digenetic parasites that undergo part of their developmental cycle in mammals and part in tsetse flies. We established a novel technique to monitor the population dynamics of Trypanosoma brucei throughout its life cycle while minimising the confounding factors of strain differences or variation in fitness. Clones derived from a single trypanosome were tagged with short synthetic DNA sequences in a non-transcribed region of the genome. Infections were initiated with mixtures of tagged parasites and a combination of polymerase chain reaction and deep sequencing were used to monitor the composition of populations throughout the life cycle. This revealed that a minimum of several hundred parasites survived transmission from a tsetse fly to a mouse, or vice versa, and contributed to the infection in the new host. In contrast, the parasites experienced a pronounced bottleneck during differentiation and migration from the midgut to the salivary glands of tsetse. In two cases a single tag accounted for ≥99% of the population in the glands, although minor tags could be also detected. Minor tags were transmitted to mice together with the dominant tag(s), persisted during a chronic infection, and survived transmission to a new insect host. An important outcome of the bottleneck within the tsetse is that rare variants can be amplified in individual flies and disseminated by them. This is compatible with the epidemic population structure of T. brucei, in which clonal expansion of a few genotypes in a region occurs against a background of frequent recombination between strains.
LiCl induces TNF-α and FasL production, thereby stimulating apoptosis in cancer cells
Larissa Kaufmann, Gabriela Marinescu, Irina Nazarenko, Wilko Thiele, Carolin Oberle, Jonathan Sleeman, Christine Blattner
Cell Communication and Signaling , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1478-811x-9-15
Abstract: Here we show that LiCl induces apoptosis of tumour cells both in vitro and in vivo. Cell death was accompanied by cleavage of PARP and Caspases-3, -8 and -10. LiCl-induced cell death was not dependent on p53, but was augmented by its presence. Treatment of tumour cells with LiCl strongly increased TNF-α and FasL expression. Inhibition of TNF-α induction using siRNA or inhibition of FasL binding to its receptor by the Nok-1 antibody potently reduced LiCl-dependent cleavage of Caspase-3 and increased cell survival. Treatment of xenografted rats with LiCl strongly reduced tumour growth.Induction of cell death by LiCl supports the notion that GSK-3 may represent a promising target for cancer therapy. LiCl-induced cell death is largely independent of p53 and mediated by the release of TNF-α and FasL.Key words: LiCl, TNF-α, FasL, apoptosis, GSK-3, FasLTumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine that is mainly secreted by activated macrophages, although other cell types can also produce this protein in response to certain stimuli [1]. After binding to its corresponding transmembrane receptor, tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R), TNF-α exerts cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against a wide range of human and murine cell lines [2,3]. Binding of TNF-α to its receptor induces receptor trimerisation on the cell surface and formation of a death-inducing signalling complex (DISC) at the cytoplasmic tail of TNF-R, leading to activation of Caspase-8 and induction of apoptosis [4]. Similar to TNF-α, FasL stimulates the formation of a DISC upon binding to its receptor (reviewed in: [5]) and induces cell death.LiCl (lithium chloride), the lithium salt of hydrochloric acid is an important therapeutic agent for the treatment of patients suffering from bipolar disorder and depression [6]. Its main cellular target is Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). At least at physiological doses, LiCl has no effect on other protein kinases [7]. GSK-3 is a serine/threonine kinase that was
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