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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401378 matches for " M. Monnin "
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Radon concentrations in karstic aquifers
M. Monnin,J-L. Seidel
Geofísica internacional , 2002,
Abstract: Time variations of radon-222 concentrations in the water of the Lamalou, France, karst aquifer have been measured. The measurements have been performed at the spring outlet of the aquifer as well as in boreholes drilled from the surface. Radon concentrations variations recorded in the main outlet and in a well located next to it are compared. The response to rainfall depends strongly on the season when rainfall occurs. During summer, a rain episode is followed by a radon response in the well but not at the spring. Furthermore, the decay of the radon signal obeys strictly the radioactive decay law. Accordingly, during summer the water of the aquifer barely moves horizontaly. On the contrary, during the rainy season, every rainfall induces a signal both in the well and at the spring reflecting a different mechanism and a mixing process of the water in the main outlet.
Pressure response of radon detecting devices placed at depth in aquifers
M. Monnin,J.L. Seidel
Geofísica internacional , 2002,
Abstract: Real-time in situ Rn measurements under water at different depths are often required. Pressure effects on electronic equipment can play a role on the sensor and on the geometry of the device. We discuss the sensitivity of such systems depending on depth/pressure variation and provide a correction factor curve. We show that Rn solubility in water can be investigated as a function of pressure.
Radon in soil and chemical composition of spring water near Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico
N. Segovia,M. A. Armienta,J. L. Seidel,M. Monnin
Geofísica internacional , 2002,
Abstract: Soil radon was monitored at two permanent stations on the northern flank of Popocatépetl volcano. Water samples from three springs around the cone were also studied for radon and chemical composition. Radon in soil was recorded using track detectors, and sporadic short-term measurements were obtained with a Clipperton probe. Radon in water samples was measured using a liquid scintillation method. The chemical composition was obtained from conventional chemical methods and trace elements using an ICP-MS equipment. Soil radon levels obtained with track detectors at the two monitoring stations showed different patterns in 1999-2000. The chemical composition indicates differences in the origin of the springs.
The Gas-Migration-Simulator (GAMS) - A new device for the simulation of soil gas migration processes
M. Schubert,M. Monnin,K. Freyer,H.C. Treutler
Geofísica internacional , 2002,
Abstract: Since natural soil conditions are hardly ever homogeneous, soil gas migration processes are difficult to investigate. The power of model calculations for describing or predicting soil gas migration processes is often limited. The Gas-Migration-Simulator (GAMS) has been developed to cope with this problem. The GAMS takes the form of a cylindrical box which can be homogeneously filled with a soil volume of 1.7 m3. The design allows a solely diffusive input of a gas phase into the base of the soil column. At the same time it allows determination of the gas exhalation rate. By providing a gas-tight crawling space immediately above the soil column and by adjusting a certain air pressure in this space the GAMS also permits the simulation of atmospheric high or low pressure fields, enabling the investigation of their influence on soil gas exhalation rate and soil gas migration. Quantitative irrigation of the soil surface and simulation of an adjustable groundwater table are also possible. To record time series of the relevant parameters, the GAMS is equipped with six layers of exchangeable probes at different depths. Recent research focuses on the migration of radon through the ground and its dependence on meteorological parameters. Special “Clipperton” probes have been used to record continuous time series of radon concentration of soil gas together with the temperature and the soil moisture content.
Water chemistry and soil radon survey at the Poas volcano (Costa Rica)
J. Barquero,E. Fernandez,M. Monnin,J. L. Seidel
Annals of Geophysics , 2005, DOI: 10.4401/ag-3195
Abstract: Radon-in-soil monitoring at the Poas volcano (Costa Rica) has been performed together with water chemistry from the hot crater lake since 1981 and 1983 respectively. The results are discussed as a function of the eruptive evolution of the volcano over a 13 years period (1981-1994). It is shown that no definitely clear precursory radon signals have been recorded. On the contrary, ionic species concentrations are likely to be considered good precursors, together with the temperature variations of the crater lake water.
Self-sacrifice in 'desperado' contests between relatives
Adam L Cronin, Thibaud Monnin
Frontiers in Zoology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1742-9994-7-27
Abstract: Intra-specific contests, primarily over resources and reproductive opportunities, are a ubiquitous aspect of animal behaviour. Such contests are highly significant as they can determine a large proportion (or indeed all) of an animal's lifetime fitness, and pose the risk of injury or death when they escalate to fights. Because of these risks, contest resolution is often achieved without fighting, through processes of mutual and/or self-assessment [1-3]. However, models of animal contest predict that escalated contests leading to fatal fighting become more likely when the outcome of a contest represents a greater proportion of lifetime fitness [1,4]. That is, when contestants have little chance of fitness gains outside of the contest in question, fights should occur regardless of the risks involved because there is much to gain and little or nothing to lose [1,5]. Furthermore, kinship between contestants will not prevent escalated contests as long as the ratio between the value of the future and the value of the contest is small [4,5]. Fatal fighting can arise when Vo/V < 1 - r, where Vo and V are respectively the value of the future and of the current contest in terms of lifetime fitness, and r is the coefficient of relatedness between contestants [4]. Grafen [5] termed this the 'desperado effect', to describe the point where respect for conventions and asymmetries between contestants breaks down.Escalated fighting occurs between relatives in a 'desperado' context in several circumstances: among male fig wasps and ants over mating opportunities [6-9], among nursery siblings over access to food resources in birds and mammals when young are overproduced [10,11], and among social insect queens over resource inheritance [3,12]. Contests are of utmost significance among queens of social insects as, in many species, colonies of potentially thousands of individuals are headed by one reproductive queen. Becoming queen thus represents a potentially huge fitness payoff, becau
Bourgeois queens and high stakes games in the ant Aphaenogaster senilis
Adam L Cronin, Thibaud Monnin
Frontiers in Zoology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1742-9994-6-24
Abstract: First emerged queens were heavier than second emerged queens, performed almost all aggression, were behaviourally dominant 92% of the time, and prevailed in 76% of groups after co-existing for 16 days on average. Mandibular ablation had no effect on queen behaviour or contest outcome.Aggression is probably ritualised and contests are decided by workers based on relative queen fertility. First-born queens thus have an inherent advantage over second-born queens as they have more time to develop ovaries. Subordinates never retaliated against aggression from dominants and this lack of retaliation can be interpreted as a form of bourgeois strategy as dominants were almost always first-born. However, the lack of alternative reproductive options makes not-fighting effectively a form of suicide. High relatedness between full-sister queens means that subordinates may be better off sacrificing themselves than risking injury to both queens by fighting.Conflict frequently arises in animal societies over reproduction. In many social insects, this conflict is centred on the queen because she is the sole reproductive in a colony of potentially thousands of individuals: workers cannot (or do not) reproduce themselves and only gain fitness indirectly. The identity of the queen is therefore of critical importance as the fitness of all individuals in the colony depends on her. In some species workers may have opportunities to select their queen, and might be expected to do so based on fecundity, relatedness, longevity, and minimising the delay to egg laying [1]. However, therein lies a conflict of interest at multiple levels: whereas colony level selection will favour rapid emplacement of a high quality queen, individual level selection acting on workers can select for behaviour that favours closely related queens (nepotism), while queens are presumably also under selection to fight among themselves [2,3].Queen selection occurs in three main contexts in social insect colonies: i) afte
Massively multiplayer online role-playing games: comparing characteristics of addict vs non-addict online recruited gamers in a French adult population
Sophia Achab, Magali Nicolier, Frédéric Mauny, Julie Monnin, Benoit Trojak, Pierre Vandel, Daniel Sechter, Philip Gorwood, Emmanuel Haffen
BMC Psychiatry , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-11-144
Abstract: In this exploratory study, we focused on characteristics, online habits and problematic overuse in adult MMORPG gamers. In addition to socio-demographical data and gamer behavioral patterns, 3 different instruments for screening addiction were used in French MMORPG gamers recruited online over 10 consecutive months: the substance dependence criteria for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth revised edition (DSM-IV-TR) that has been adapted for MMORPG (DAS), the qualitative Goldberg Internet Addiction Disorder scale (GIAD) and the quantitative Orman Internet Stress Scale (ISS). For all scales, a score above a specific threshold defined positivity.The 448 participating adult gamers were mainly young adult university graduates living alone in urban areas. Participants showed high rates of both Internet addiction (44.2% for GIAD, 32.6% for ISS) and DAS positivity (27.5%). Compared to the DAS negative group, DAS positive gamers reported significantly higher rates of tolerance phenomenon (increased amount of time in online gaming to obtain the desired effect) and declared significantly more social, financial (OR: 4.85), marital (OR: 4.61), family (OR: 4.69) and/or professional difficulties (OR: 4.42) since they started online gaming. Furthermore, these gamers self-reported significantly higher rates (3 times more) of irritability, daytime sleepiness, sleep deprivation due to play, low mood and emotional changes since online gaming onset.The DAS appeared to be a good first-line instrument to screen MMORPG addiction in online gamers. This study found high MMORPG addiction rates, and self-reported adverse symptoms in important aspects of life, including mood and sleep. This confirms the need to set up relevant prevention programs against online game overuse.Dependence involves a complex system of bio psychosocial factors affecting individuals, their actions and their culture, and has also been referred to as a syndrome with multiple expressions [1]
mRNA-based approach to monitor recombinant gamma-interferon restoration of LPS-induced endotoxin tolerance
Fanny Turrel-Davin, Fabienne Venet, Cécile Monnin, Véronique Barbalat, Elisabeth Cerrato, Alexandre Pachot, Alain Lepape, Christine Alberti-Segui, Guillaume Monneret
Critical Care , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/cc10513
Abstract: In this study, we evaluated the ex vivo effect of recombinant interferon gamma (rIFN-γ) in restoring monocyte functionality (endotoxin-induced Tumor Necrosis Factor-α production) in a two-hit model of endotoxin tolerance (ET) with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers and in whole blood of septic shock patients. Importantly, we used quantitative-reverse transcription polymerase-chain reaction to monitor the effect of rIFN-γ on the expression of seven genes known to participate in ET (TNF-α, IL-10, HLA-DRA, CIITA, IRAK-M, ABIN-3 and LY64).Expression analysis of those genes confirmed the presence of an immunosuppression state and the ex vivo restoration of immune functions by rIFN-γ. We show for the first time that rIFN-γ is able to bypass, at the mRNA level, the effect of negative regulators of the LPS signalling pathway such as IRAK-M, ABIN-3 and LY64.Overall, mRNA expressions of a panel of genes could represent promising candidates for the ex vivo evaluation of rIFN-γ effect on monocyte functionality. This ex vivo translational research study demonstrates the potential of a mRNA-based approach to successfully monitor drug efficacy.Despite advances in supportive care and a number of clinical trials, sepsis remains the leading cause of death in non-coronary ICUs [1].With a better understanding of the pathophysiology of sepsis, it is now evident that the early pro-inflammatory phase of the disease is immediately followed by an anti-inflammatory response that rapidly results in an immunosuppressive state. Immunosuppression is believed to be responsible for the increased risk of nosocomial infections and mortality [1-3] and represents an innovative target for future clinical trials. Current challenges consist of finding appropriate immunostimulant drugs, identifying patients that would benefit from immunomodulatory therapies (tailored immunotherapy) and monitoring successful response to treatment. As suggested by Carlet et al. [4], the development o
Quality Indicators for Colonoscopy Procedures: A Prospective Multicentre Method for Endoscopy Units
Romain Coriat, Augustin Lecler, Dominique Lamarque, Jacques Deyra, Hervé Roche, Catherine Nizou, Olivier Berretta, Bruno Mesnard, Martin Bouygues, Alain Soupison, Jean-Luc Monnin, Philippe Podevin, Carole Cassaz, Denis Sautereau, Frédéric Prat, Stanislas Chaussade
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033957
Abstract: Background and Aims Healthcare professionals are required to conduct quality control of endoscopy procedures, and yet there is no standardised method for assessing quality. The topic of the present study was to validate the applicability of the procedure in daily practice, giving physicians the ability to define areas for continuous quality improvement. Methods In ten endoscopy units in France, 200 patients per centre undergoing colonoscopy were enrolled in the study. An evaluation was carried out based on a prospectively developed checklist of 10 quality-control indicators including five dependent upon and five independent of the colonoscopy procedure. Results Of the 2000 procedures, 30% were done at general hospitals, 20% at university hospitals, and 50% in private practices. The colonoscopies were carried out for a valid indication for 95.9% (range 92.5–100). Colon preparation was insufficient in 3.7% (range 1–10.5). Colonoscopies were successful in 95.3% (range 81–99). Adenoma detection rate was 0.31 (range 0.17–0.45) in successful colonoscopies. Conclusion This tool for evaluating the quality of colonoscopy procedures in healthcare units is based on standard endoscopy and patient criteria. It is an easy and feasible procedure giving the ability to detect suboptimal practice and differences between endoscopy-units. It will enable individual units to assess the quality of their colonoscopy techniques.
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