Abstract:
Studying expressions of the form $(f(x)D)^p$, where $D={\displaystyle \frac{d}{dx}}$ is the derivative operator, goes back to Scherk's Ph.D. thesis in 1823. We show that this can be extended as ${\displaystyle\sum \gamma_{p;a} (f^{(0)})^{a(0)+1} (f^{(1)})^{a(1)}...(f^{(p-1)})^{a(p-1)}D^{p-\sum_i i a(i)}}$}, where the summation is taken over the $p$-tuples $(a_0, a_1,..., a_{p-1})$, satisfying $\sum_{i}a(i)=p-1,\, \sum_{i}i a(i)

Abstract:
In this paper we prove that any distance-balanced graph $G$ with $\Delta(G)\geq |V(G)|-3$ is regular. Also we define notion of distance-balanced closure of a graph and we find distance-balanced closures of trees $T$ with $\Delta(T)\geq |V(T)|-3$.

Abstract:
Several intersection matrices of $s$-subsets vs. $k$-subsets of a $v$-set are introduced in the literature. We study these matrices systematically through counting arguments and generating function techniques. A number of new or known identities appear as natural consequences of this viewpoint; especially, appearance of the derivative operator $d/dz$ and some related operators reveals some connections between intersection matrices and the "combinatorics of creation-annihilation". As application, the eigenvalues of several intersection matrices including some generalizations of the adjacency matrices of the Johnson scheme are derived; two new bases for the Bose--Mesner algebra of the Johnson scheme are introduced and the associated intersection numbers are obtained as well. Finally, we determine the rank of some intersection matrices.

Abstract:
Given integers $t$, $k$, and $v$ such that $0\leq t\leq k\leq v$, let $W_{tk}(v)$ be the inclusion matrix of $t$-subsets vs. $k$-subsets of a $v$-set. We modify slightly the concept of standard tableau to study the notion of rank of a finite set of positive integers which was introduced by Frankl. Utilizing this, a decomposition of the poset $2^{[v]}$ into symmetric skipless chains is given. Based on this decomposition, we construct an inclusion matrix, denoted by $W_{\bar{t}k}(v)$, which is row-equivalent to $W_{tk}(v)$. Its Smith normal form is determined. As applications, Wilson's diagonal form of $W_{tk}(v)$ is obtained as well as a new proof of the well known theorem on the necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of integral solutions of the system $W_{tk}\bf{x}=\bf{b}$ due to Wilson. Finally we present anotherinclusion matrix with similar properties to those of $W_{\bar{t}k}(v)$ which is in some way equivalent to $W_{tk}(v)$.

Abstract:
We study the area distribution of closed walks of length $n$, beginning and ending at the origin. The concept of area of a walk in the square lattice is generalized and the usefulness of the new concept is demonstrated through a simple argument. It is concluded that the number of walks of length $n$ and area $s$ equals to the coefficient of $z^s$ in the expression $(x+x^{-1}+y+y^{-1})^n$, where the calculations are performed in a special group ring $R[x,y,z]$. A polynomial time algorithm for calculating these values, is then concluded. Finally, the provided algorithm and the results of implementation are compared with previous works.

Abstract:
Oligomers of length k, or k-mers, are convenient and widely used features for modeling the properties and functions of DNA and protein sequences. However, k-mers suffer from the inherent limitation that if the parameter k is increased to resolve longer features, the probability of observing any specific k-mer becomes very small, and k-mer counts approach a binary variable, with most k-mers absent and a few present once. Thus, any statistical learning approach using k-mers as features becomes susceptible to noisy training set k-mer frequencies once k becomes large. To address this problem, we introduce alternative feature sets using gapped k-mers, a new classifier, gkm-SVM, and a general method for robust estimation of k-mer frequencies. To make the method applicable to large-scale genome wide applications, we develop an efficient tree data structure for computing the kernel matrix. We show that compared to our original kmer-SVM and alternative approaches, our gkm-SVM predicts functional genomic regulatory elements and tissue specific enhancers with significantly improved accuracy, increasing the precision by up to a factor of two. We then show that gkm-SVM consistently outperforms kmer-SVM on human ENCODE ChIP-seq datasets, and further demonstrate the general utility of our method using a Na？ve-Bayes classifier. Although developed for regulatory sequence analysis, these methods can be applied to any sequence classification problem.

Abstract:
In this paper, a new approach using linear combination property of intervals and discretization is proposed to solve a class of nonlinear optimal control problems, containing a nonlinear system and linear functional, in three phases. In the first phase, using linear combination property of intervals, changes nonlinear system to an equivalent linear system, in the second phase, using discretization method, the attained problem is converted to a linear programming problem, and in the third phase, the latter problem will be solved by linear programming methods. In addition, efficiency of our approach is confirmed by some numerical examples.

Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a new approach for a class of optimal control problems governed by Volterra integral equations which is based on linear combination property of intervals. We convert the nonlinear terms in constraints of problem to the corresponding linear terms. Discretization method is also applied to convert the new problems to the discrete-time problem. In addition, some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Abstract:
In this paper, we define a functional optimization problem corresponding to smooth functions which its optimal solution is first derivative of these functions in a domain. These functional optimization problems are applied for non-smooth functions which by solving these problems we obtain a kind of generalized first derivatives. For this purpose, a linear programming problem corresponding functional optimization problem is obtained which their optimal solutions give the approximate generalized first derivative. We show the efficiency of our approach by obtaining derivative and generalized derivative of some smooth and nonsmooth functions respectively in some illustrative examples.

Abstract:
Dowlat Abad-Tang e Hana area is a part of Neyriz ophiolite zone, parallel
to the Zagros thrust, SW of Iran. It is also a part of obduction thrusting belt
over the edge of the Arabian continent during the late Cretaceous. Petrographic
investigation indicates the main host rocks are harzburgite, dunite, pyroxenite,
basalt, gabbro and pelagic marine sediments. The main magma type of this
ophiolite complex is sub-alkaline. The geochemical data of analysed samples
show depletion of Na and K, and enrichment in Ca. Copper mineralization in
Dowlat Abad-Tang e Hana is hosted mainly in peridotite rocks. The
mineralizations are vein type and are associated as copper carbonate (malachite
and less azurite). The average of Cu grade is 2.3 wt%. The geochemical and
mineralogical data show that the primary source of copper is ortho-magmatic
(from ultra-basic rocks and ferro magnesium minerals), which later influenced
by hydrothermal processes.