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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401446 matches for " M. Lehtonen "
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A Novel Hybrid Approach to Estimate Customer Interruption Costs for Industry Sectors  [PDF]
Sinan Kufeoglu, Matti Lehtonen
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.510A006

The power system infrastructure, operations and market have gone through radical changes for the last couple of decades. The society has become more dependent to the continuous electric power supply and hence the concept of electric power reliability has become more significant. At this point, understanding the economic outcomes of power outages is vital and imperative for both utilities and the customers. There are certain methodologies to understand the costs of power interruptions. This paper suggests a novel hybrid method that comprises of customer surveys and direct analytical methods to reach customer specific, objective and reliable results for the industry sector customers. The paper also brings a statistical approach to censor the zero and extreme responses given via the surveys.

A High Aggression Strategy for Smaller Males
P. Andreas Svensson, Topi K. Lehtonen, Bob B. M. Wong
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043121
Abstract: Male-male conflict is common among animals, but questions remain as to when, how and by whom aggression should be initiated. Factors that affect agonistic strategies include residency, the value of the contested resource and the fighting ability of the two contestants. We quantified initiation of aggression in a fish, the desert goby, Chlamydogobius eremius, by exposing nest-holding males to a male intruder. The perceived value of the resource (the nest) was manipulated by exposing half of the residents to sexually receptive females for two days before the trial. Resident male aggression, however, was unaffected by perceived mating opportunities. It was also unaffected by the absolute and relative size of the intruder. Instead resident aggression was negatively related to resident male size. In particular, smaller residents attacked sooner and with greater intensity compared to larger residents. These results suggest that resident desert goby males used set, rather than conditional, strategies for initiating aggression. If intruders are more likely to flee than retaliate, small males may benefit from attacking intruders before these have had an opportunity to assess the resident and/or the resource.
A Framework for Implementation of Adaptive Autonomy for Intelligent Electronic Devices
A. Fereidunian,H. Lesani,C. Lucas,M. Lehtonen
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: This research letter introduces a novel framework for the implementation of Adaptive Autonomy for Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs). The study aims at achieving an optimum function allocation between IEDs and humans in automation systems. The function allocation should be adapted to the changes in environmental conditions, thus referring to as Adaptive Autonomy (AA). Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs) concept is utilized to represent the environmental conditions. Moreover, Experts Judgment method is used, to tackle the complex issue of human reliability assessment. The framework is implemented to the power distribution automation system of the Greater Tehran Electricity Distribution Company (GTEDC) and the obtained results are discussed then. Furthermore, the trends of the IED autonomy levels are investigated versus the situation criticality and the automation stages. Apart from introducing a novel implementation framework for IEDs AA, this letter discusses on the application-oriented issues, due to the context-based nature of the Human-Automation Interaction (HAI). The developmental relevance of this study is significant, as it is performed in a Metropolitan area of an Asian/Middle Eastern developing country, thus generalize-able to the similar applications to a reasonable extend.
Towards Resolving the Complete Fern Tree of Life
Samuli Lehtonen
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024851
Abstract: In the past two decades, molecular systematic studies have revolutionized our understanding of the evolutionary history of ferns. The availability of large molecular data sets together with efficient computer algorithms, now enables us to reconstruct evolutionary histories with previously unseen completeness. Here, the most comprehensive fern phylogeny to date, representing over one-fifth of the extant global fern diversity, is inferred based on four plastid genes. Parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses provided a mostly congruent results and in general supported the prevailing view on the higher-level fern systematics. At a deep phylogenetic level, the position of horsetails depended on the optimality criteria chosen, with horsetails positioned as the sister group either of Marattiopsida-Polypodiopsida clade or of the Polypodiopsida. The analyses demonstrate the power of using a ‘supermatrix’ approach to resolve large-scale phylogenies and reveal questionable taxonomies. These results provide a valuable background for future research on fern systematics, ecology, biogeography and other evolutionary studies.
"If you thought this story sour, sweeten it with your own telling" - a feminist poetics of rewriting in Susan Price's Ghost dance
Sanna Lehtonen
Barnboken : Tidskrift f?r Barnlitteraturforskning , 2010,
Abstract: The attempts to challenge conventional gendered discourses in children's fantasy have often resulted in feminist rewritings of earlier stories. Ghost dance (1994) by the English author Susan Price is a novel that reflects a specific feminist poetics of rewriting: metafictional passages highlight the constructedness of the narrative and at the end readers are invited to tell their own versions of the story. Moreover, the rewriting freely combines and recontextualises elements from different source texts and reformulates them to create a narrative that challenges conventional discourses of gender. While this poetics has an appeal from a feminist perspective, the play with cross-cultural intertexts and gender becomes more complex when the novel is examined in a postcolonialist framework in relation to ethnicity and the issue of cultural appropriation. Ghost dance is situated in a setting that has a real-world equivalent (Russia), involves characters that are identified with names of real-world ethnic groups (Lapps (Sámi), Russian), and mixes elements from Russian wonder tales, Nordic mythology and an Ojibwe legend. The novel does not aim at historical accuracy in its representations nor is it a direct retelling of any of the pre-texts but combines motifs, themes, names, characters and settings freely from each source. In this textual melting pot, the protagonist Shingebiss is, on one level, a revision of the witch Baba Yaga, but also described as a Lappish shaman with an Ojibwe name. To rewrite gendered discourses, certain elements from the pretexts are chosen and others left out – the question is, then, what effects does this recontextualisation have on the representation of ethnicity? Or, are the feminist rewriting strategies actually a form of cultural appropriation?
Some Ideas About Music Therapy for the Elderly
Kimmo Lehtonen
Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy , 2002,
Abstract: *abstract
Spaces and Places of Cultural Studies
Mikko Lehtonen
Culture Unbound : Journal of Current Cultural Research , 2009,
Abstract: As cultural studies has sought for a foothold in universities, it has faced pressures of modern disciplinarity it aims at to challenge and alter. In the conjuncture of neo-liberal university policies new weight is given to multidisciplinarity as an instrument for reshaping universities in favour of cost-effectiveness and quick-fix applications. In this new situation cultural studies has to defend purposeful and enduring diversity in and of universities. In order to be able to do this it has to think of itself not only as a critical space but also as such place where universities could critically reflect themselves and their place in the world.
Rare earth element characteristics of pyrope garnets from the Kaavi-Kuopio kimberlites – implications for mantle metasomatism
Marjaleena Lehtonen
Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland , 2005,
Abstract: Peridotitic garnet xenocrysts from five kimberlite pipes in the Kaavi-Kuopio area of eastern Finland have been studied using major and trace element geochemistry to obtain information on the stratigraphy, compositional variability and evolutionary history of the underlyinglithospheric mantle. Ni thermometry on garnet xenocrysts gives 650–1350°C and, when extrapolated to the geotherm determined using mantle xenoliths, indicates a sampling interval of c. 80–230 km. Three distinct mantle layers are recognized based on the xenolith/xenocryst record: (1) A shallow, <110 km, garnet-spinel peridotite layer characterized by distinctive “CCGE” pyropes. (2) A variably depleted lherzolitic and harzburgitic horizon from 110 to 180 km. (3) A deep layer, >180 km, composed largely of fertile material. The chondrite-normalized REE profiles of subcalcic harzburgitic garnet xenocrysts originating from layer 2 bear evidence of an extensive ancient melt extraction event, similar to that observed in lithosphere underlying Archean cratons elsewhere. Memory of this eventhas possibly also been preserved in the REEN signatures of rare depleted garnets from layer 3 and in the CCGE pyropes from layer 1 despite their saturation in Ca. The lherzolitic and megacryst garnet varieties exhibit LREEN depletion relative to MREEN and HREEN, withthe steady enrichment from SmN to YbN typical of Ca-saturated mantle garnets. The enrichment of MREE and HREE probably derives from a metasomatic event caused by silicate melts close in composition to megacryst magma, which also imprinted a Ti-metasomatic overprint on many pyrope garnets. Harzburgitic and rare lherzolitic garnets, however, appear to have escaped this metasomatism.
On the reconstructibility of totally symmetric functions and of other functions with a unique identification minor
Erkko Lehtonen
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: We investigate the problem whether a function of several arguments can be reconstructed from its identification minors. We focus on functions with a unique identification minor, and we establish some positive and negative results on the reconstruction problem. In particular, we show that totally symmetric functions (of sufficiently large arity) are reconstructible and the class of functions weakly determined by the order of first occurrence (of sufficiently large arity) is weakly reconstructible.
A note on minors determined by clones of semilattices
Erkko Lehtonen
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: The C-minor partial orders determined by the clones generated by a semilattice operation (and possibly the constant operations corresponding to its identity or zero elements) are shown to satisfy the descending chain condition.
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