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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 540198 matches for " M. L. Flaherty "
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What Does the Nurse Reinvestment Act Mean to You?
Donley, R; Flaherty, M.J.; Sarsfield, E; Taylor, L; Maloni, H; Flanagan, E
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2003,
Abstract: During 2002, the 107th Congress passed landmark legislation, the Nurse Reinvestment Act, P.L. 107-205. This article discusses the specific provisions of P.L. 107-205 within the context of the contemporary literature and the experience of the nursing shortage. The authors ask nurses to examine what the Nurse Reinvestment Act means for their career development. In laying out the anatomy of the Nurse Reinvestment Act, title by title, and section by section, the article presents the Congressional plan for addressing the two faces of the shortage: Nurse Recruitment, Title I, and Nurse Retention, Title II. Under Title I, Nurse Retention, Section 101 presents Definitions used in the public law. Section 102, promotes the development of Public Health Service Announcements about the nursing profession. In the last section of Title I, Section 103, Congress establishes a National Nurse Service Corps. Title II, Nurse Retention, Section 201, is directed toward Building Career Ladders and Retaining Quality Nurses. In Section 202, the development of Comprehensive Geriatric Education is encouraged. Section 203 establishes a Nurse Faculty Loan program, while the last section of Title II, Section 204, mandates reports from the General Accounting Office. The 107th Congress adjourned in November 2002 without acting on the appropriation bill that would have made the Nurse Reinvestment Act a reality. Before the new Congress meets in January 2003, nurses must join with their colleagues to assure adequate funding for P.L. 107-205. The websites of the American Nurses Association (www.nursingworld.org), the National League for Nursing (www.nln.org), The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (www.aacn.org), and the Specialty Nursing Organizations (www.aspanlorg/Spec) provide direction in approaching members of Congress. However, because of the importance of the Nurse Reinvestment Act, nurses must also align themselves with representatives from the many groups who supported the legislation. Readers of this Online Journal in Nursing article should be empowered to contact the American Hospital Association, the Catholic Hospital Association, the American Association of Retired Persons, the American Medical Association, the National Association for Home Care, and the Service Employees International Union for their assistance and the support of their membership in the passage of the FY 2002 Labor/HHS/Education Appropriations Bill.
Melanosomal Dynamics Assessed with a Live-Cell Fluorescent Melanosomal Marker
Jan M. Bruder, Zachary A. Pfeiffer, Jonathan M. Ciriello, Diana M. Horrigan, Nadine L. Wicks, Benjamin Flaherty, Elena Oancea
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043465
Abstract: Melanocytes present in skin and other organs synthesize and store melanin pigment within membrane-delimited organelles called melanosomes. Exposure of human skin to ultraviolet radiation (UV) stimulates melanin production in melanosomes, followed by transfer of melanosomes from melanocytes to neighboring keratinocytes. Melanosomal function is critical for protecting skin against UV radiation, but the mechanisms underlying melanosomal movement and transfer are not well understood. Here we report a novel fluorescent melanosomal marker, which we used to measure real-time melanosomal dynamics in live human epidermal melanocytes (HEMs) and transfer in melanocyte-keratinocyte co-cultures. A fluorescent fusion protein of Ocular Albinism 1 (OA1) localized to melanosomes in both B16-F1 cells and HEMs, and its expression did not significantly alter melanosomal distribution. Live-cell tracking of OA1-GFP-tagged melanosomes revealed a bimodal kinetic profile, with melanosomes exhibiting combinations of slow and fast movement. We also found that exposure to UV radiation increased the fraction of melanosomes exhibiting fast versus slow movement. In addition, using OA1-GFP in live co-cultures, we monitored melanosomal transfer using time-lapse microscopy. These results highlight OA1-GFP as a specific and effective melanosomal marker for live-cell studies, reveal new aspects of melanosomal dynamics and transfer, and are relevant to understanding the skin’s physiological response to UV radiation.
Chandra and Spitzer Imaging of the Infrared Cluster in NGC 2071
S. L. Skinner,K. R. Sokal,S. T. Megeath,M. Guedel,M. Audard,K. M. Flaherty,M. R. Meyer,A. Damineli
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/701/1/710
Abstract: We present results of a sensitive Chandra X-ray observation and Spitzer mid-IR observations of the infrared cluster lying north of the NGC 2071 reflection nebula in the Orion B molecular cloud. We focus on the dense cluster core known as NGC 2071-IR which contains at least nine IR sources within a 40 x 40 arcsecond region. This region shows clear signs of active star formation including powerful molecular outflows, Herbig-Haro objects, and both OH and H2O masers. We use Spitzer IRAC images to aid in X-ray source identification and to determine YSO classes using mid-IR colors. Spitzer IRAC colors show that the luminous source IRS 1 is a class I protostar. IRS 1 is believed to be driving a powerful bipolar molecular outflow and may be an embedded B-type star or its progenitor. Its X-ray spectrum reveals a fluorescent Fe emission line at 6.4 keV, arising in cold material near the protostar. The line is present even in the absence of large flares, raising questions about the nature of the ionizing mechanism responsible for producing the 6.4 keV fluorescent line. Chandra also detects X-ray sources at or near the positions of IRS 2, IRS 3, IRS 4, and IRS 6 and a variable X-ray source coincident with the radio source VLA 1, located just 2 arcsec north of IRS 1. No IR data are yet available to determine a YSO classification for VLA 1, but its high X-ray absorption shows that it is even more deeply-embedded than IRS 1, suggesting that it could be an even younger, less-evolved protostar.
The Adverse Effect of Spasticity on 3-Month Poststroke Outcome Using a Population-Based Model
S. R. Belagaje,C. Lindsell,C. J. Moomaw,K. Alwell,M. L. Flaherty,D. Woo,K. Dunning,P. Khatri,O. Adeoye,D. Kleindorfer,J. Broderick,B. Kissela
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/696089
Abstract: Several devices and medications have been used to address poststroke spasticity. Yet, spasticity’s impact on outcomes remains controversial. Using data from a cohort of 460 ischemic stroke patients, we previously published a validated multivariable regression model for predicting 3-month modified Rankin Score (mRS) as an indicator of functional outcome. Here, we tested whether including spasticity improved model fit and estimated the effect spasticity had on the outcome. Spasticity was defined by a positive response to the question “Did you have spasticity following your stroke?” on direct interview at 3 months from stroke onset. Patients who had expired by 90 days or did not have spasticity data available were excluded. Spasticity affected the 3-month functional status ( , to 0.645) after accounting for age, diabetes, leukoaraiosis, and retrospective NIHSS. Using spasticity as a covariable, the model’s changed from 0.599 to 0.622. In our model, the presence of spasticity in the cohort was associated with a worsened 3-month mRS by an average of 0.4 after adjusting for known covariables. This significant adverse effect on functional outcomes adds predictive value beyond previously established factors. 1. Introduction Spasticity is defined as a motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with exaggerated tendon jerks, resulting from hyperexcitability of the stretch reflex. The definition, however, fails to describe the complex etiologies of spasticity, especially after a stroke. It can be due to a loss of upper motor neuron function, changes in the properties of the muscle membranes, augmentation of prior reflexes, or a combination of the above. Equally unclear is spasticity’s effect on poststroke recovery. There are some reports which suggest adverse effects on recovery. In a longitudinal study of 95 subjects, Sommerfeld et al. found that, at 3-month poststroke, patients without spasticity had statistically significant better motor and activity scores than patients with spasticity [1]. However, there are others who argue that spasticity’s effects are being overstated, specifically by mentioning the absence of evidence to suggest that treatment of spasticity improves stroke recovery [2]. In fact multiple medications and treatments of spasticity have been developed and are used routinely in the clinical setting for poststroke spasticity. The literature describes improvements in passive function only and reduction in disability after botulinum toxin administration to spastic muscles [3–5]. In their approval of
A method to fabricate small features on scaffolds for tissue engineering via selective laser sintering  [PDF]
S. Lohfeld, M. A. Tyndyk, S. Cahill, N. Flaherty, V. Barron, P. E. McHugh
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2010.32019
Abstract: Purpose: Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a rapid pro- totyping technique applied to produce tissue-engineer- ing scaffolds from powder materials. The standard scanning technique, however, often produces struts of extensive thickness, which means fabrication of high- ly porous scaffolds with small overall dimensions is quite difficult. Nevertheless, this study aims to overcome this shortfall. Design/methodology/approach: To this end, three scanning methods were evaluated in terms of minimum feature size and freedom of design, using a test polyamide (PA) material. Polycaprolactone (PCL) was then employed to create highly porous 3D scaffolds using the preferred scanning me- thod to produce thin struts. Findings: While in normal scanning mode some features were well above the laser spot diameter, strut thicknesses below the laser spot diameter were achieved when using the “outline scan” function for PA material. Those achieved for PCL were slightly higher and in the 500-800 ?m range, with an average pore size of 400 µm. Investigations on the properties of the scaffolds revealed an effective compression modulus of the PCL scaffold of 6.5 MPa. Furthermore, there was no change in physical or che- mical properties when the scaffolds were stored in a physiological environment for 7 weeks. Originality/ value: Though SLS is considered as a fabrication te- chnique for tissue engineering scaffolds, actually pro- duced scaffolds did not comply with porosity requirements and limitations of the SLS process in produ- cing features at the size of the laser beam spot have not been discussed. The present paper shows the capabilities of the SLS process based on two materials and presents a method to minimize feature size in scaffolds.
The Use of Flagella and Motility for Plant Colonization and Fitness by Different Strains of the Foodborne Pathogen Listeria monocytogenes
Lisa Gorski, Jessica M. Duhé, Denise Flaherty
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005142
Abstract: The role of flagella and motility in the attachment of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to various surfaces is mixed with some systems requiring flagella for an interaction and others needing only motility for cells to get to the surface. In nature this bacterium is a saprophyte and contaminated produce is an avenue for infection. Previous studies have documented the ability of this organism to attach to and colonize plant tissue. Motility mutants were generated in three wild type strains of L. monocytogenes by deleting either flaA, the gene encoding flagellin, or motAB, genes encoding part of the flagellar motor, and tested for both the ability to colonize sprouts and for the fitness of that colonization. The motAB mutants were not affected in the colonization of alfalfa, radish, and broccoli sprouts; however, some of the flaA mutants showed reduced colonization ability. The best colonizing wild type strain was reduced in colonization on all three sprout types as a result of a flaA deletion. A mutant in another background was only affected on alfalfa. The third, a poor alfalfa colonizer was not affected in colonization ability by any of the deletions. Fitness of colonization was measured in experiments of competition between mixtures of mutant and parent strains on sprouts. Here the flaA and motAB mutants of the three strain backgrounds were impaired in fitness of colonization of alfalfa and radish sprouts, and one strain background showed reduced fitness of both mutant types on broccoli sprouts. Together these data indicate a role for flagella for some strains to physically colonize some plants, while the fitness of that colonization is positively affected by motility in almost all cases.
Issues Affecting the Health of Older Citizens: Meeting the Challenge
Bennett, J., Flaherty-Robb, M
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2003,
Abstract: The health of older Americans will become a critical national policy issue during this century. As the population of older adults increases dramatically, there are few signs that adequate resources are available to meet the challenge of providing health care and good quality of life for older adults and their families. A fundamental change in the values emphasized in the American culture, and in other cultures, will be required to change the present health care system from one which focuses on diagnosis and treatment of disease to a system that attends to the major issues that affect quality of life of older adults and their families. This article discusses four critical areas influencing the quality of life of older Americans: providing resources to individuals to help manage chronic medical conditions, assuring a sufficient number of primary health care providers educated in geriatrics and gerontology, removing financial barriers to accessing health care and medications, and changing the American cultural value system that emphasizes disease treatment over providing emotional, educational, and support resources. To make these profound changes in the formal health care system, health care providers, health care organizations, and policy makers must commit to embracing the importance of quality of life as an integral component of health care for older citizens.
Revisiting the American Nurses Association’s First Position on Education for Nurses
Donley. R.; Flaherty, M.J
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2002,
Abstract: This article presents arguments in support of the ANA's first position on education for nurses written in 1965 and discusses the effect of this statement on nursing education and practice over the past four decades. The similarity of the issues discussed at policy tables in 1965 and 2002 are addressed. The article ends with a challenge for nurses to advocate for better educated nurses with stakeholders, their patients and clients, in public and private sectors.
Expression of Drug Targets in Patients Treated with Sorafenib, Carboplatin and Paclitaxel
Lucia B. Jilaveanu, Fengmin Zhao, Christopher R. Zito, John M. Kirkwood, Katherine L. Nathanson, Kurt D'Andrea, Melissa Wilson, David L. Rimm, Keith T. Flaherty, Sandra J. Lee, Harriet M. Kluger
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069748
Abstract: Introduction Sorafenib, a multitarget kinase inhibitor, targets members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and VEGFR kinases. Here we assessed the association between expression of sorafenib targets and biomarkers of taxane sensitivity and response to therapy in pre-treatment tumors from patients enrolled in ECOG 2603, a phase III comparing sorafenib, carboplatin and paclitaxel (SCP) to carboplatin, paclitaxel and placebo (CP). Methods Using a method of automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) of in situ protein expression, we quantified expression of VEGF-R2, VEGF-R1, VEGF-R3, FGF-R1, PDGF-Rβ, c-Kit, B-Raf, C-Raf, MEK1, ERK1/2, STMN1, MAP2, EB1 and Bcl-2 in pretreatment specimens from 263 patients. Results An association was found between high FGF-R1 and VEGF-R1 and increased progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in our combined cohort (SCP and CP arms). Expression of FGF-R1 and VEGF-R1 was higher in patients who responded to therapy ((CR+PR) vs. (SD+PD+ un-evaluable)). Conclusions In light of the absence of treatment effect associated with sorafenib, the association found between FGF-R1 and VEGF-R1 expression and OS, PFS and response might reflect a predictive biomarker signature for carboplatin/paclitaxel-based therapy. Seeing that carboplatin and pacitaxel are now widely used for this disease, corroboration in another cohort might enable us to improve the therapeutic ratio of this regimen.
Time-monitoring Observations of the Ro-Vibrational Overtone CO bands in Young Stars
J. A. Eisner,G. H. Rieke,M. J. Rieke,K. M. Flaherty,T. J. Arnold,J. M. Stone,S. R. Cortes,E. Cox,C. Hawkins,A. Cole,S. Zajac,A. L. Rudolph
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1029
Abstract: We present near-IR spectra of a sample of T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be, and FU Ori objects. Using the FSPEC instrument on the Bok 90-inch telescope, we obtained K-band spectra with a resolution of ~3500. Here we present spectra of the v=2->0 and v=3->1 bandheads of ro-vibrational transitions of carbon monoxide. We observed these spectra over multiple epochs spaced by a few days and approximately one month. Several of our targets show CO emission or absorption features. However we see little evidence of variability in these features across multiple epochs. We compare our results with previous observations, and discuss the physical implications of non-variable CO emission across the sampled timescales.
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