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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401559 matches for " M. Kyle "
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Soil moisture, field-scale toposequential position, and slope effects on yields in irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields in Honduras  [PDF]
Kyle M. Earnshaw, Blair Orr
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.48A001
Abstract:

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important cash crop in Honduras. The availability of inexpensive irrigation in the study area (Flores, La Villa de San Antonio, Comayagua) encourages rice farmers to neglect prescribed methods of soil and water conservation, such land leveling, puddling, and soil bunds. This study looked at the effect of failure to mitigate water loss on sloping fields. Soil moisture (Volumetric Water Content) was measured using a soil moisture probe after the termination of the first irrigation within the tillering/vegetative, panicle emergence/flowering, post-flowering/pre-maturation and maturation stages. Yield data were obtained by harvesting on 1 m2 plots in each soil moisture testing site. Data analyses looked at the relationship between yield and slope, soil moisture, farmers, and toposequential position along transects. Toposequential position influenced yields more than slope and soil moisture was not a significant predictor of yields. Irrigation politics, high water inputs, and land tenure were proposed as the major reasons for this result.

Advances in understanding genome maintenance
Kyle M Miller
Genome Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2010-11-4-301
Abstract: 'Maintenance of Genome Stability' is a biennial meeting that brings together, in a fantastic venue, diverse researchers working on how the integrity of genomes is maintained. Topics included DNA repair pathways, replication and recombination, and common themes included how these processes are regulated during the cell cycle, in the context of their chromatin or genomic location, and their involvement in cancer. Here, I summarize some highlights of the meeting, which included large-scale genomic studies, work on post-translational modifications in genome maintenance, and insights into new mechanisms and proteins involved in DNA repair pathways, telomeres and cancer.Post-translational modifications in DNA damage signaling was a common theme throughout the meeting. Jiri Bartek (Centre for Genotoxic Stress Research, Copenhagen, Denmark) presented a genome-wide proteomics screen, using quantitative mass spectrometry (stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture, SILAC), for phosphorylations of nuclear proteins that change following DNA damage in human cells. Over 7,000 phosphorylation sites were detected, with 2,000 being novel and not described in other proteomic screens. The power of this screen was that it analyzed the temporal regulation of phosphorylations after DNA damage. To accomplish this, cells were analyzed at time zero (no damage) and then at 5 minutes, 20 minutes, 1 hour and 8 hours after DNA damage. Taking into account only those phosphorylations detected at all time points, almost 600 phosphorylations were found to change by over twofold. Induced phosphorylations and dephosphorylations were detected. Phosphorylations that increased at early time points after DNA damage were enriched in substrates for the kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). Looking at the amino acid sequences surrounding the phosphorylation sites, a new phosphorylation consensus sequence, SxxQ, was determined that does not seem to be mediated by any known kinase. This da
Motivic invariants of p-adic fields
Kyle M. Ormsby
Mathematics , 2010, DOI: 10.1017/is011004017jkt153
Abstract: We provide a complete analysis of the motivic Adams spectral sequences converging to the bigraded coefficients of the 2-complete algebraic Johnson-Wilson spectra BPGL over p-adic fields. These spectra interpolate between integral motivic cohomology (n=0), a connective version of algebraic K-theory (n=1), and the algebraic Brown-Peterson spectrum. We deduce that, over p-adic fields, the 2-complete BPGL split over 2-complete BPGL<0>, implying that the slice spectral sequence for BPGL collapses. This is the first in a series of two papers investigating motivic invariants of p-adic fields, and it lays the groundwork for an understanding of the motivic Adams-Novikov spectral sequence over such base fields.
Failure to prevent medication errors: We need smarter nearly error proof systems  [PDF]
Loren G. Yamamoto, Kyle M. Watanabe, Joan E. Kanemori
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2013.32013
Abstract: Purpose: To determine if nurses are able to identify medication errors that have the potential to bypass computer physician order entry (CPOE) and smart ordering systems. Background: Medical care systems employ computer “smart” systems to reduce medication errors by using artificial intelligence (preprogrammed methods of decision support and error reduction). However, these systems are not perfect and they can be bypassed. Nurses who carry out the order represent the last check point in error prevention prior to the administration of medication orders. Methods: A paper exercise was created with 513 physician orders. Nurses were asked to indicate whether they would carry out the order, refuse to carry out the order, consult a pharmacist for clarification, or carry out the order with special precautions. Nurses were given the option of using any nursing or medical reference. Results: The rate of correctly identifying 23 of the contraindicated orders was low. Both experienced and inexperienced nurses had high rates of not identifying the errors despite similar use of references and requests for assistance from pharmacists. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that if an error escapes a smart system, nurses were able to identify most of these errors, but not all of these. The current system features high stress, self-esteem issues, time pressure, high volume, and high risk. The system must change radically to meet the public’s expectations of being nearly error free which can only be achieved with smarter systems that are more resistant to human errors.
Environmental influences on egg and clutch sizes in lentic- and lotic-breeding salamanders
Jon M. Davenport,Kyle Summers
Phyllomedusa : Journal of Herpetology , 2010,
Abstract: Recent research indicates that social and environmental factors influence egg and clutch sizes in amphibians. However, most of this work is based on the reproductively diverse order Anura (frogs and toads), whereas less research has been conducted on Caudata (salamanders) and Gymnophiona (caecilians). Researchers have suggested that a relationship exists between social and environmental factors and egg and clutch sizes in salamanders, but studies controlling for phylogenetic context are lacking. We could not identify a sufficient number of comparisons for social influences on egg and clutch sizes; therefore, we focused on environmental influences for this study. Data on egg size, clutch size, environmental factors, and phylogenies for salamanders were assembled from the scientific literature. We used independent, pair-wise comparisons to investigate the association of larval salamander habitat and egg size and the association of larval salamander habitat with clutch sizes within a phylogenetic framework. There is a significant association between larval habitat and egg size; specifically, stream-breeding species produce larger eggs. There is no significant association between larval habitat and clutchsize. Our study confirms earlier reports that salamander egg size is associated with larval environments, but is the first to use phylogenetically independent contrasts to account for the lack of phylogenetic independence of the traits measured (egg size and clutch size) associated with many of the diverse lineages. Our study shows that environmental selection pressure can be quite strong on one aspect of salamander reproduction—egg size.
Josiah Parsons Cooke Jr.: Epistemology in the Service of Science, Pedagogy, and Natural Theology
Stephen M. Contakes,Christopher Kyle
Hyle : International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry , 2011,
Abstract: Josiah Parsons Cooke established chemistry education at Harvard University, initiated an atomic weight research program, and broadly impacted American chemical education through his students, the introduction of laboratory instruction, textbooks, and influence on Harvard's admissions requirements. The devoutly Unitarian Cooke also articulated and defended a biogeochemical natural theology, which he defended by arguing for commonalities between the epistemologies of science and religion. Cooke's pre-Mendeleev classification scheme for the elements and atomic weight research were motivated by his interest in numerical order in nature, which reflected his belief in a divine lawgiver.
Positive Knots and Lagrangian Fillability
Kyle Hayden,Joshua M. Sabloff
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between the existence of an exact embedded Lagrangian filling for a Legendrian knot in the standard contact $\rr^3$ and the hierarchy of positive, strongly quasi-positive, and quasi-positive knots. On one hand, results of Eliashberg and especially Boileau and Orevkov show that every Legendrian knot with an exact, embedded Lagrangian filling is quasi-positive. On the other hand, we show that if a knot type is positive, then it has a Legendrian representative with an exact embedded Lagrangian filling. Further, we produce examples that show that strong quasi-positivity and fillability are independent conditions.
Surgical Resection of Mitral Valve Papillary Fibroelastoma: A Robot-Assisted, Minimally Invasive Approach with Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography Imaging  [PDF]
Crystal R. Bonnichsen, Harold M. Burkhart, Kyle W. Klarich, Rakesh M. Suri
World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery (WJCS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjcs.2012.22004
Abstract: Papillary fibroelastomas (PFEs) are benign tumors of the endocardium that most frequently affect cardiac valves and typically present with embolic symptoms such as stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Surgical excision is usually recommended for left-sided tumors and is associated with excellent long-term outcomes. The use of a robot-assisted, minimally invasive surgical approach for management of mitral valve disease is growing, and has been associated with shorter hospital stays and improved early quality of life. Three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) offers several advantages in the assessment of mitral valve disease and cardiac tumors, including the ability to precisely locate the site of attachment of the mass and the spatial relationships to surrounding structures. These factors are particularly important when planning a surgical approach. We report two cases of mitral valve PFEs which were successfully removed using a robot-assisted, minimally invasive surgical approach with 3D TEE imaging. This approach to treatment of PFEs is an attractive alternative to the traditional approach involving median sternotomy.
Long-Term Climate Forcing in Loggerhead Sea Turtle Nesting
Kyle S. Van Houtan,John M. Halley
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019043
Abstract: The long-term variability of marine turtle populations remains poorly understood, limiting science and management. Here we use basin-scale climate indices and regional surface temperatures to estimate loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nesting at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Borrowing from fisheries research, our models investigate how oceanographic processes influence juvenile recruitment and regulate population dynamics. This novel approach finds local populations in the North Pacific and Northwest Atlantic are regionally synchronized and strongly correlated to ocean conditions—such that climate models alone explain up to 88% of the observed changes over the past several decades. In addition to its performance, climate-based modeling also provides mechanistic forecasts of historical and future population changes. Hindcasts in both regions indicate climatic conditions may have been a factor in recent declines, but future forecasts are mixed. Available climatic data suggests the Pacific population will be significantly reduced by 2040, but indicates the Atlantic population may increase substantially. These results do not exonerate anthropogenic impacts, but highlight the significance of bottom-up oceanographic processes to marine organisms. Future studies should consider environmental baselines in assessments of marine turtle population variability and persistence.
Studying the potential impact of automated document classification on scheduling a systematic review update
Aaron M Cohen, Kyle Ambert, Marian McDonagh
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6947-12-33
Abstract: In this work we study the potential impact of a machine learning-based automated system for providing alerts when new publications become available within an SR topic. Some of these new publications are especially important, as they report findings that are more likely to initiate a review update. To this end, we have designed a classification algorithm to identify articles that are likely to be included in an SR update, along with an annotation scheme designed to identify the most important publications in a topic area. Using an SR database containing over 70,000 articles, we annotated articles from 9 topics that had received an update during the study period. The algorithm was then evaluated in terms of the overall correct and incorrect alert rate for publications meeting the topic inclusion criteria, as well as in terms of its ability to identify important, update-motivating publications in a topic area.Our initial approach, based on our previous work in topic-specific SR publication classification, identifies over 70% of the most important new publications, while maintaining a low overall alert rate.We performed an initial analysis of the opportunities and challenges in aiding the SR update planning process with an informatics-based machine learning approach. Alerts could be a useful tool in the planning, scheduling, and allocation of resources for SR updates, providing an improvement in timeliness and coverage for the large number of medical topics needing SRs. While the performance of this initial method is not perfect, it could be a useful supplement to current approaches to scheduling an SR update. Approaches specifically targeting the types of important publications identified by this work are likely to improve results.
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