Abstract:
We present a theory of spin, electronic and transport properties of a few-electron lateral triangular triple quantum dot molecule in a magnetic field. Our theory is based on a generalization of a Hubbard model and the Linear Combination of Harmonic Orbitals combined with Configuration Interaction method (LCHO-CI) for arbitrary magnetic fields. The few-particle spectra obtained as a function of the magnetic field exhibit Aharonov-Bohm oscillations. As a result, by changing the magnetic field it is possible to engineer the degeneracies of single-particle levels, and thus control the total spin of the many-electron system. For the triple dot with two and four electrons we find oscillations of total spin due to the singlet-triplet transitions occurring periodically in the magnetic field. In the three-electron system we find a transition from a magnetically frustrated to the spin-polarized state. We discuss the impact of these phase transitions on the addition spectrum and the spin blockade of the lateral triple quantum dot molecule.

Abstract:
We present a microscopic theory of the optical properties of self-assembled quantum dots doped with a single magnetic manganese (Mn) impurity and containing a controlled number of electrons. The single-particle electron and heavy-hole electronic shells are described by two-dimensional harmonic oscillators. The electron-electron, electron-hole Coulomb as well as the short-range electron spin-Mn spin and hole spin-Mn spin contact exchange interactions are included. The electronic states of the photo-excited electron-hole-Mn complex and of the final electron-Mn complex are expanded in a finite number of configurations and the full interacting Hamiltonian is diagonalized numerically. The emission spectrum is predicted as a function of photon energy for a given number of electrons and different number of confined electronic quantum dot shells. We show how emission spectra allow to identify the number of electronic shells, the number of electrons populating these shells and, most importantly, their spin. We show that electrons not interacting directly with the spin of Mn ion do so via electron-electron interactions. This indirect interaction is a strong effect even when Mn impurity is away from the quantum dot center.

Abstract:
Controlling electron spins strongly coupled to magnetic and nuclear spins in solid state systems is an important challenege in the field of spintronics and quantum computation. We show here that electron droplets with no net spin in semiconductor quantum dots strongly coupled with magnetic ion/nuclear spin systems break down at low temperature and form a non-trivial anti-ferromagnetic spatially ordered spin-texture of magneto-polarons. The spatially ordered combined electron-magnetic ion spin-texture, associated with spontaneous symmetry-breaking in the parity of electronic charge density and magnetization of magnetic ions, emerge from both ab-initio density functional approach to the electronic system coupled with mean-field approximation for the magnetic/nuclear spin system and fully mircoscopic exact diagonalization of small systems. The predicted phase diagram determines the critical temperature as a function of coupling strength and identifies possible phases of the strongly coupled spin system. This prediction may arrest fluctuations in spin system and open the way to control, manipulate and prepare magnetic and nuclear spin ensembles in semiconductor nanostructures.

Abstract:
We present a theory and experiment demonstrating optical readout of charge and spin in a single InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dot. By applying a magnetic field we create the filling factor 2 quantum Hall singlet phase of the charged exciton. Increasing or decreasing the magnetic field leads to electronic spin-flip transitions and increasing spin polarization. The increasing total spin of electrons appears as a manifold of closely spaced emission lines, while spin flips appear as discontinuities of emission lines. The number of multiplets and discontinuities measures the number of carriers and their spin. We present a complete analysis of the emission spectrum of a single quantum dot with N=4 electrons and a single hole, calculated and measured in magnetic fields up to 23 Tesla.

Abstract:
When an electron is confined to a triangular atomic thick layer of graphene [1-5] with zig-zag edges, its energy spectrum collapses to a shell of degenerate states at the Fermi level (Dirac point) [6-9]. The degeneracy is proportional to the edge size and can be made macroscopic. This opens up the possibility to design a strongly correlated electronic system as a function of fractional filling of the zero-energy shell, in analogy to the fractional quantum Hall effect in a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas[10], but without the need for a high magnetic field. In this work we show that electronic correlations, beyond the Hubbard model[6,7] and mean-field density functional theory (DFT) [7,8] play a crucial role in determining the nature of the ground state and the excitation spectrum of triangular graphene quantum dots as a function of dot size and filling fraction of the shell of zero-energy states. The interactions are treated by a combination of DFT, tight-binding, Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction methods (TB-HF-CI) and include all scattering and exchange terms within second nearest neighbors as well as interaction with metallic gate. We show that a half filled charge neutral shell leads to full spin polarization of the island but this magnetic moment is completely destroyed by the addition of a single electron, in analogy to the effect of skyrmions on the quantum Hall ferromagnet [11-14] and spin depolarization in electrostatically defined semiconductor quantum dots[15-18]. The depolarization of the ground state is predicted to result in blocking of current through a graphene quantum dot due to spin blockade (SB) [18].

Abstract:
We design and analyze a solid state qubit based on electron spin and controlled by electrical means. The coded qubit is composed of a three-electron complex in three tunable gated quantum dots. The two logical states of a qubit, |0L> and |1L>, reside in a degenerate subspace of total spin S=1/2 states. We demonstrate how applying voltages to specific gates changes the one-electron properties of the structure, and show how electron-electron interaction translates these changes into the manipulation of the two lowest energy states of the three-electron complex.

Abstract:
We present a theory of electronic properties of HgTe quantum dot and propose a strain sensor based on a strain-driven transition from a HgTe quantum dot with inverted bandstructure and robust topologically protected quantum edge states to a normal state without edge states in the energy gap. The presence or absence of edge states leads to large on/off ratio of conductivity across the quantum dot, tunable by adjusting the number of conduction channels in the source-drain voltage window. The electronic properties of a HgTe quantum dot as a function of size and applied strain are described using eight-band kp Luttinger and Bir-Pikus Hamiltonians, with surface states identified with chirality of Luttinger spinors and obtained through extensive numerical diagonalization of the Hamiltonian.

Abstract:
The spin-orbit interaction is a crucial element of many semiconductor spintronic technologies. Here we report the first experimental observation, by magneto-optical spectroscopy, of a remarkable consequence of the spin-orbit interaction for holes confined in the molecular states of coupled quantum dots. As the thickness of the barrier separating two coupled quantum dots is increased, the molecular ground state changes character from a bonding orbital to an antibonding orbital. This result is counterintuitive, and antibonding molecular ground states are never observed in natural diatomic molecules. We explain the origin of the reversal using a four band k.p model that has been validated by numerical calculations that account for strain. The discovery of antibonding molecular ground states provides new opportunities for the design of artificially structured materials with complex molecular properties that cannot be achieved in natural systems.

Abstract:
Coulomb and spin blockade spectroscopy investigations have been performed on an electrostatically defined ``artificial molecule'' connected to spin polarized leads. The molecule is first effectively reduced to a two-level system by placing both constituent atoms at a specific location of the level spectrum. The spin sensitivity of the conductance enables us to identify the electronic spin-states of the two-level molecule. We find in addition that the magnetic field induces variations in the tunnel coupling between the two atoms. The lateral nature of the device is evoked to explain this behavior.

Abstract:
We present experimental and theoretical results on a new regime in quantum dots in which the filling factor 2 singlet state is replaced by new spin polarized phases. We make use of spin blockade spectroscopy to identify the transition to this new regime as a function of the number of electrons. The key experimental observation is a reversal of the phase in the systematic oscillation of the amplitude of Coulomb blockade peaks as the number of electrons is increased above a critical number. It is found theoretically that correlations are crucial to the existence of the new phases.