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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401229 matches for " M. Kamruddin "
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Evolution and defect analysis of vertical graphene nanosheets
Subrata Ghosh,K. Ganesan,Shyamal R. Polaki,T. R. Ravindran,Nanda Gopala Krishna,M. Kamruddin,A. K. Tyagi
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4530
Abstract: We report catalyst-free direct synthesis of vertical graphene nanosheets (VGNs) on SiO2/Si and quartz substrates using microwave electron cyclotron resonance - plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The evolution of VGNs is studied systematically at different growth stages. Raman analysis as a function of growth time reveals that two different disorder-induced competing mechanisms contributing to the defect band intensity. The VGNs grown on SiO2/Si substrates predominantly consists of both vacancy-like and hopping defects. On the other hand, the VGNs grown on quartz substrates contain mainly boundary-like defects. XPS studies also corroborate Raman analysis in terms of defect density and vacancy-like defects for the VGNs grown on SiO2/Si substrates. Moreover, the grown VGNs exhibit a high optical transmittance from 95 to 78 % at 550 nm and the sheet resistance varies from 30 to 2.17 kohms/square depending on growth time.
A geometric crescent model for black hole images
Ayman Bin Kamruddin,Jason Dexter
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1068
Abstract: The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a global very long baseline interferometry array operating at millimetre wavelengths, is spatially resolving the immediate environments of black holes for the first time. The current observations of the Galactic center black hole, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), and M87 have been interpreted in terms of either geometric models (e.g., a symmetric Gaussian) or detailed calculations of the appearance of black hole accretion flows. The former are not physically motivated, while the latter are subject to large systematic uncertainties. Motivated by the dominant relativistic effects of Doppler beaming and gravitational lensing in many calculations, we propose a geometric crescent model for black hole images. We show that this simple model provides an excellent statistical description of the existing EHT data of Sgr A* and M87, superior to other geometric models for Sgr A*. It also qualitatively matches physically predicted models, bridging accretion theory and observation. Based on our results, we make predictions for the detectability of the black hole shadow, a signature of strong gravity, in future observations.
Reactive Pulsed Laser Deposition of Titanium Nitride Thin Films: Effect of Reactive Gas Pressure on the Structure, Composition, and Properties
R. Krishnan,C. David,P. K. Ajikumar,R. Nithya,S. Tripura Sundari,S. Dash,B. K. Panigrahi,M. Kamruddin,A. K. Tyagi,Vikram Jayaram,Baldev Raj
Journal of Materials , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/128986
Abstract: Titanium nitride (TiN) thin films were deposited by reactive pulsed laser deposition (RPLD) technique. For the first time, the composition evaluated from proton elastic backscattering spectrometry, in a quantitative manner, revealed a dependence on the partial pressure of nitrogen from 1 to 10 Pa. Grazing incidence-XRD (GI-XRD) confirmed the formation of predominantly nanocrystalline TiN phase with a crystallite size of around 30?nm. The hardness showed maximum value of ~30 GPa when the composition is near stoichiometric and the friction coefficient was found to be as low as 0.3. In addition, a systematic optical response was observed as a function of deposition pressure from the surface of the TiN films using spectroscopic ellipsometry. 1. Introduction Titanium nitride (TiN), by virtue of its high hardness, high melting point, low density, chemical stability, corrosion resistance, low coefficient of friction, lower wear rate, and so forth, is the most extensively used protective coating material [1–4]. All these properties depend on the coating techniques and vary as a function of deposition conditions. Amongst the gamut of available techniques, reactive pulsed laser deposition (RPLD) has distinct advantages to deposit ceramic films using metallic targets. Despite large volume of published work on TiN synthesis using RPLD, none brings out a clear recipe for synthesizing high-quality TiN films with desired stoichiometry, structure and morphology. For many applications, quantitative evaluation of the composition is very essential as the properties of TiN are closely related to its stoichiometry [1]. Till date there is only one research article that attempted to study the systematic evolution of structure in RPLD grown TiN films and a review article which summarized those results was published in 2002 [5, 6]. Even that article did not report quantitative compositional variation with nitrogen pressure and proposed the deposition of nanocrystalline TiN films over a range of deposition pressures (0.7 to 7?Pa) without accounting for the finer variations in the given range. In fact, the ellipsometry was used in-situ by Heil et al. to monitor, in-situ, the thickness of the films rather than to characterize the optical properties [7]. Though qualitative, in a recent work, we presented a novel secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry (SIMS) based methodology for optimization of three important process parameters, namely, deposition pressure, substrate temperature and pulse energy [8]. As relative sensitivity of elemental factors arising from the matrix effects are little
Circulating rotaviral RNA in children with rotavirus antigenemia
Ahmed Kamruddin,Bozdayi Gulendam,Mitui Marcelo T,Ahmed Selim
Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1477-5751-12-5
Abstract: Background Rotavirus antigenemia is a common phenomenon in children with rotavirus diarrhea, but information is scarce on aspects of this phenomenon, such as genotype specificity, presence of intact viruses and correlation between genomic RNA and antigen concentration. Such information may help in understanding rotavirus pathogenesis and eventually be useful for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Methods and findings Serum samples were collected from children who presented at hospitals with diarrhea. Antigenemia was present in 162/250 (64.8%) samples from children with rotavirus diarrhea. No specific rotavirus genotype was found to be associated with antigenemia. Rotavirus particles could not be found by electron microscopy in concentrated serum from children with high levels of antigenemia. In passaged rotavirus suspension a significant correlation (r = 0.9559; P = 0.0029) was found between antigen level and viral copy number, but no significant correlation (r = 0.001480; P = 0.9919) was found between antigenemia level and viral copy number in serum. When intact rotavirus was treated with benzonase endonuclease, genomic double-stranded (ds) RNA was not degraded, but when sera of patients with antigenemia were treated with benzonase endonuclease, genomic dsRNA was degraded, indicating genomic dsRNA was free in sera and not inside virus capsid protein. Conclusions Antigenemia is present in a significant number of patients with rotavirus diarrhea. Rotavirus viremia was absent in the children with rotavirus diarrhea who participated in our study, and was not indicated by the presence of antigenemia. The significance of circulating rotavirus antigen and genomic dsRNA in serum of patients with diarrhea deserves further study.
Twelve Years of Rabies Surveillance in Sri Lanka, 1999–2010
Dushantha Karunanayake,Takashi Matsumoto,Omala Wimalaratne,Susilakanthi Nanayakkara,Devika Perera,Akira Nishizono,Kamruddin Ahmed
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003205
Abstract: Background Rabies is endemic in Sri Lanka, but little is known about the temporal and spatial trends of rabies in this country. Knowing these trends may provide insight into past control efforts and serve as the basis for future control measures. In this study, we analyzed distribution of rabies in humans and animals over a period of 12 years in Sri Lanka. Methods Accumulated data from 1999 through 2010 compiled by the Department of Rabies Diagnosis and Research, Medical Research Institute (MRI), Colombo, were used in this study. Results The yearly mean percentage of rabies-positive sample was 62.4% (47.6–75.9%). Three-fourths of the rabies-positive samples were from the Colombo, Gampaha, and Kalutara districts in Western province, followed by Galle in Southern province. A high percentage of the rabies samples were from dogs (85.2%), followed by cats (7.9%), humans (3.8%), wild animals (2.0%), and livestock (1.1%). Among wild animals, mongooses were the main victims followed by civets. The number of suspect human rabies cases decreased gradually in Sri Lanka, although the number of human samples submitted for laboratory confirmation increased. Conclusions The number of rabid dogs has remained relatively unchanged, but the number of suspect human rabies is decreasing gradually in Sri Lanka. These findings indicate successful use of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) by animal bite victims and increased rabies awareness. PEP is free of charge and is supplied through government hospitals by the Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka. Our survey shows that most positive samples were received from Western and Southern provinces, possibly because of the ease of transporting samples to the laboratory. Submissions of wild animal and livestock samples should be increased by creating more awareness among the public. Better rabies surveillance will require introduction of molecular methods for detection and the establishment of more regional rabies diagnostic laboratories.
Study of Duct Characteristics Deduced from Low Latitude Ground Observations of Day-Time Whistler at Jammu  [PDF]
M. Altaf, M. M. Ahmad
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33032

Propagation characteristics of low latitude whistler duct characteristics have been investigated based on day-time measurements at Jammu. The morphogical characteristics of low latitude whistlers are discussed and compared with characteristics of middle and high latitude whistlers. The Max. electron density (Nm) at the height of the ionosphere obtained from whistler dispersion comes out to be higher than that of the background which is in accordance with the characteristics of whistler duct. The equivalent width is found to be close to the satellite observations and the characteristics of whistler duct in low latitude ionosphere are similar to those in middle and high latitude ionosphere. The width of ducts estimated from the diffuseness of the whistler track observed during magnetic storm is found to lie in the range of 50 - 200 Km.

Review Article: Immobilized Molecules Using Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology  [PDF]
Magdy M. M. Elnashar
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2010.11008
Abstract: Immobilized molecules using biomaterials and nanobiotechnology is a very interesting topic that touching almost all aspects of our life. It uses the sciences of biology, chemistry, physics, materials engineering and computer science to develop instruments and products that are at the cutting edge of some of today’s most promising scientific frontiers. In this review article, the author based on his experience in this arena has tried to focus on some of the supports for im-mobilization; the most important molecules to be immobilized such as DNA, cells, enzymes, metals, polysaccharides, etc and their applications in medicine, food, drug, water treatment, energy and even in aerospace. He specified a special section on what is new in the arena of supports and technologies used in enzyme immobilization and finally a recommendation by the author for future work with a special attention to up-to-date references.
Using of the generalized special relativity (GSR) in estimating the neutrino masses to explain the conversion of electron neutrinos  [PDF]
M. H. M. Hilo
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.34044
Abstract: In this work the Generalized Special Relativity (GSR) is utilized to estimate masses of some elementary particles such as, neutrinos. These results are found to be in conformity with experimental and theoretical data. The results obtained may explain some physical phenomena, such as, conversion of neutrinos from type to type when solar neutrino reaches the Earth.
Postischemic Lower Extremity Wounds Treated with and without Negative Pressure Dressing  [PDF]
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.37075
Abstract: Background: Vacuum-assisted dressing is a noninvasive closure system of the wound, which makes localized and controlled negative pressure. Its mechanical tension reduces edema, stimulates granulation tissue formation and angiogenesis, and prepares the wound bed for closure. In this study, a patient has been presented, who suffered from serious lower extremity wounds due to arterial emboli, one of her wounds has been treated with vacuum-assisted dressing and the other with conventional dressing to evaluate the efficacy of vacuum-assisted dressing in acute ischemic wounds. Methods: A 65-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency clinic, due to complaint of severe pain in her right lower extremity which suggested an acute arterial occlusion. She immediately underwent an embolectomy operation; however, a few days later, severe ischemia on the leg and foot became appearant. All of the necrosis was sharply debrided under sterile conditions in the operating room, and then lower leg wound was covered with vacuum-assisted dressing, also calcaneal wound was dressed with silver sulphadiazine. Results: Eighteen days after the first dressing with negative pressure, distal leg wound became ready for closure, whereas, enough granulation tissue over the calcaneal area developed merely thirty-four days later. Calcaneal wound closed spontaneously within fifty-three days. Conclusions: When dealing with this experience, using the negative pressure dressing in patient with severe lower limb wounds following arterial emboli, accelerates wound healing by means of developing the granulation tissue, and rapidly prepares the wound for closure, so it may reduce the risk of amputation.
Laplace Transform Method for Unsteady Thin Film Flow of a Second Grade Fluid through a Porous Medium  [PDF]
M. Ali, M. Awais
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.53017

In this article, we have effectively used the Numerical Inversion of Laplace transform to study the time-dependent thin film flow of a second grade fluid flowing down an inclined plane through a porous medium. The solution to the governing equation is obtained by using the standard Laplace transform. However, to transform the obtained solutions from Laplace space back to the original space, we have used the Numerical Inversion of Laplace transform. Graphical results have been presented to show the effects of different parameters involved and to show how the fluid flow evolves with time.

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