Abstract:
The destabilization and military occupation of Afghanistan by the United States over the past three decades has triggered the hasty production of a large corpus of writings about the political and socio-cultural dynamics of the country by Euro-American academics, travellers, journalists, and aid and development workers. Anthropologists who have contributed to these writings have become instant ‘authorities’, ‘experts’, ‘specialists’, and ‘old hands’ about the country. Thomas Barfield is one o...

Abstract:
In this paper, we have studied the accretion of phantom energy on a (2+1)-dimensional stationary Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole. It has already been shown by Babichev et al that for the accretion of phantom energy onto a Schwarzschild black hole, the mass of black hole would decrease and the rate of change of mass would be dependent on the mass of the black hole. However, in the case of (2+1)-dimensional BTZ black hole, the mass evolution due to phantom accretion is independent of the mass of the black hole and is dependent only on the pressure and density of the phantom energy. We also study the generalized second law of thermodynamics at the event horizon and construct a condition that puts an lower bound on the pressure of the phantom energy.

Abstract:
Considerable concerns exist over privacy on social networks, and huge debates persist about how to extend the artifacts users need to effectively protect their rights to privacy. While many interesting ideas have been proposed, no single approach appears to be comprehensive enough to be the front runner. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive and novel reference conceptual model for privacy in constantly evolving social networks and establish its novelty by briefly contrasting it with contemporary research. We also present the contours of a possible query language that we can develop with desirable features in light of the reference model, and refer to a new query language, {\em PiQL}, developed on the basis of this model that aims to support user driven privacy policy authoring and enforcement. The strength of our model is that such extensions are now possible by developing appropriate linguistic constructs as part of query languages such as SQL, as demonstrated in PiQL.

Abstract:
this paper contains locally rotationally symmetric kinematic self-similar perfect fluid and dust solutions. we consider three families of metrics which admit kinematic self-similar vectors of the first, second, zeroth and infinite kinds, not only for the tilted fluid case but also for the parallel and orthogonal cases. it is found that the orthogonal case gives contradiction both in perfect fluid and dust cases for all the three metrics while the tilted case reduces to the parallel case in both perfect fluid and dust cases for the second metric. the remaining cases give self-similar solutions of different kinds. we obtain a total of seventeen independent solutions out of which two are vacuum. the third metric yields contradiction in all the cases.

Abstract:
In this paper, we find the teleparallel version of the Levi-Civita metric and obtain tetrad and the torsion fields. The tensor, vector and the axial-vector parts of the torsion tensor are evaluated. It is found that the vector part lies along the radial direction only while the axial-vector vanishes everywhere because the metric is diagonal. Further, we use the teleparallel version of M$\ddot{o}$ller, Einstein, Landau-Lifshitz and Bergmann-Thomson prescriptions to find the energy-momentum distribution of this metric and compare the results with those already found in General Relativity. It is worth mentioning here that momentum is constant in both the theories for all the prescriptions. The energy in teleparallel theory is equal to the corresponding energy in GR only in M$\ddot{o}$ller prescription for the remaining prescriptions, the energy do not agree in both theories. We also conclude that M$\ddot{o}$ller's energy-momentum distribution is independent of the coupling constant $\lambda$ in the teleparallel theory.

Abstract:
This paper contains locally rotationally symmetric kinematic self-similar perfect fluid and dust solutions. We consider three families of metrics which admit kinematic self-similar vectors of the first, second, zeroth and infinite kinds, not only for the tilted fluid case but also for the parallel and orthogonal cases. It is found that the orthogonal case gives contradiction both in perfect fluid and dust cases for all the three metrics while the tilted case reduces to the parallel case in both perfect fluid and dust cases for the second metric. The remaining cases give self-similar solutions of different kinds. We obtain a total of seventeen independent solutions out of which two are vacuum. The third metric yields contradiction in all the cases.

Abstract:
The energy-momentum distribution of spatially homogeneous rotating spacetimes in the context of teleparallel theory of gravity is investigated. For this purpose, we use the teleparallel version of Moller prescription. It is found that the components of energy-momentum density are finite and well-defined but are different from General Relativity. However, the energy-momentum density components become the same in both theories under certain assumptions. We also analyse these quantities for some special solutions of the spatially homogeneous rotating spacetimes.

Abstract:
This paper is devoted to the evaluation of the energy-momentum density components for the Friedmann models. For this purpose, we have used M${\o}$ller's pseudotensor prescription in General Relativity and a certain energy-momentum density developed from his teleparallel formulation. It is shown that the energy density of the closed Friedmann universe vanishes on the spherical shell at the radius $\rho=2\sqrt{3}$. This coincides with the earlier results available in the literature. We also discuss the energy of the flat and open models. A comparison shows a partial consistency between the M${\o}$ller's pseudotensor for General Relativity and teleparallel theory. Further, it is shown that the results are independent of the free dimensionless coupling constant of the teleparallel gravity.

Abstract:
In this short paper we establish the definition of the Lie derivative of a second rank tensor in the context of teleparallel theory of gravity and also extend it for a general tensor of rank $p+q$. This definition is then used to find Killing vectors of the Einstein universe. It turns out that Killing vectors of the Einstein universe in the teleparallel theory are the same as in General Relativity.

Abstract:
This paper is devoted to investigate the teleparallel versions of the Friedmann models as well as the Lewis-Papapetrou solution. We obtain the tetrad and the torsion fields for both the spacetimes. It is shown that the axial-vector vanishes for the Friedmann models. We discuss the different possibilities of the axial-vector depending on the arbitrary functions $\omega$ and $\psi$ in the Lewis-Papapetrou metric. The vector related with spin has also been evaluated.